Nuclear Submarines
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  • 1. Eric Spengler and Kayvon Mirdamadi
  • 2. U.S. and Soviet Union during Cold War  USS Nautilus  Launched January 17, 1955   320 feet long  Cost about $55 million.  Planned and personally supervised by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover  First vessel to complete a submerged transit across the North Pole.  World's first high-temperature nuclear reactor.  Shattered all submerged speed and distance records
  • 3. Soviet response  Began in the early 1950s at the Institute of Physics  and Power Engineering  Work was done under Anatoliy P. Alexandrov  First reactor underwent operational testing in 1956  First nuclear submarine entered the Soviet Navy in 1958.  Between the late 1950s through 1997, the Soviet Union, built at least 245 nuclear submarines, more than all other nations combined
  • 4. By eliminating the need for atmospheric oxygen, the length  of time that a nuclear submarine can remain submerged is limited only by food stores, as breathing air is recycled and fresh water distilled from seawater. Nuclear power is now used in all large submarines  Today, United States, Russia, France, United Kingdom, and  China use some form of nuclear submarines The US Navy and the Royal Navy operate only nuclear  submarines Nuclear submarines are expected to remain a vital part of  naval defense systems for many years to come New Attack Submarine program  Devised in the 1990s, with the goal of replacing large and  expensive Seawolf attack submarines with smaller, less expensive, yet equally effective nuclear submarines.
  • 5. Byproducts/Waste  A nuclear submarine is heavily radioactive at the end of  its lifetime  Reactor must be shut down for a period to allow the immediate radioisotopes to decay  Iodine-131, half-life 8.04 days, and Xenon-133, half-life 32.50 days Spent fuel is sent to a storage facility where it is either  reprocessed or listed as radioactive waste.  Defueling removes over 99 percent of the radioactivity  The remaining radioactive elements remain toxic for thousands of years.  Ex: radium-226 (half-life 1599 years), carbon-14 (half-life 5715 years), and iodine-129 (half-life 17,000,000 years)
  • 6. Reactors aboard nuclear powered submarines  are far more enriched than the civilian reactors used in power plants 20-45 percent Uranium 235 has been used as fuel in  submarine reactors  as opposed to four percent in civilian reactors Most nuclear submarines are equipped with  pressurized water reactors Can operate for up to 25 years before  refueling
  • 7. K-19  K-219  USS Thresher (SSN-593) 
  • 8. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Nuclear-Submarine.html  http://www.shima.demon.co.uk/sublist.htm/asboat.htm  http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/astute/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_marine_propulsion  http://americanhistory.si.edu/subs/history/subsbeforenuc/revo  lution/nautilus.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_submarine  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/systems  /nuclear-history.htm http://visual.merriam-  webster.com/images/society/weapons/nuclear- submarine/nuclear-submarine_2.jpg http://www.world-nuclear.org/images/info/sub.gif  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3d06wQQAUI 