Knowledge Sharing in the Sciences


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Given at the Symposium on Common Use Licensing of Publicly Funded Scientific Data and Publications on 27 March 2009 at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan

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Knowledge Sharing in the Sciences

  1. 1. knowledge sharing in the sciences kaitlin thaney program manager, science commons “symposium on common use licensing of publicly funded scientific data and publications” taipei, taiwan - 27 march 2009 This presentation is licensed under the CreativeCommons-Attribution-3.0 license.
  2. 2. the “research web” making the web work better for science integrating disparate knowledge sources make better use of existing information in the digital form
  3. 3. the research web Open Access Content Open Access Research Open Source Knowledge Materials Management
  4. 4. the research web Open Access Content
  5. 5. scientific revolutions occur when a sufficient body of data accumulates to overthrow the dominant theories we use to frame reality a so-called paradigm shift - from thomas kuhn
  6. 6. step one ... it all starts with access to the scientific content and data ...
  7. 7. scholarship entrenched in idea of transmitting knowledge via paper mentality reflected even in the way we describe “papers” static, one-dimensional documents
  8. 8. in the digital world, “papers” can become living, breathing works no longer static PDF documents linking to data sets, other relevant papers, information, plasmids, genes
  9. 9. need to change the way we think of scholarly publishing paradigm shift begin thinking of “papers” as containers of knowledge
  10. 10. content needs to be legally and technically accessible
  11. 11. thinking of “papers” more as containers of knowledge copyright locks that container
  12. 12. Open Access (OA)
  13. 13. Budapest Open Access Declaration “ By open access to the literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting users to read, download, copy, distribute. print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.” Image from the Public Library of Science, licensed to the public, under CC-BY-3.0 <>
  14. 14. “The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to properly acknowledged and cited.”
  15. 15.
  16. 16. legal implementation
  17. 17. provide tools and resources for those to go Open Access: (1) publishers (2) academics (3) institutions
  18. 18. (1) publishers: ... of scientific data ... of scientific journals and publications
  19. 19. Open Access journals >1000 journals under CC-BY >3600 journals OA journals in DOAJ image from the public library of science licensed to the public under CC-BY 3.0
  20. 20. early adopters: Public Library of Science (PLoS) BioMedCentral (BMC) Hindawi also ... Nature Publishing Group: CC-BY for Nature Precedings seeing the benefit of openness, transparency, access
  21. 21. (2) academics: via addenda and policy to help retain rights to self-archive their works
  22. 22. traditional transfer of copyright agreement
  23. 23. promote author’s rights web tool MIT, Carnegie Mellon, ARL
  24. 24. (3) institutions looking to implement OA policies OA policy guides, white papers << in collaboration with the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) >>
  25. 25. • Open Doors and Open Minds: What faculty authors can do to ensure access to their work at their institutions • Complying with the NIH Public Access Policy - Copyright Considerations and Options can be found at:
  26. 26. open access to scientific literature is key ... open data work facilitating data sharing
  27. 27. legal issues: “it’s complicated” makes Open Access to literature look easy
  28. 28. copyright and databases what’s protected? is it legal? facts are free to what extent is there creative expression?
  29. 29. database protections based on jurisdiction sui generis, “sweat of the brow” Crown copyright the list goes on ....
  30. 30. social issues: protection instinct / culture of control public domain relinquishes much of this control, even control in the service of freedom “my data”, interpretation issues
  31. 31. issue of license propagation whatever you do to the least of the databases, you do to the integrated system (the most restrictive wins)
  32. 32. need for a legally accurate and simple solution reducing or eliminating the need to make the distinction of what’s protected requires modular, standards based approach to licensing
  33. 33. our solution : reconstruction of the public domain create legal zones of certainty for data attribution through accompanying norms
  34. 34. 3.1 The protocol must promote legal predictability and certainty. 3.2 The protocol must be easy to use and understand. 3.3 The protocol must impose the lowest possible transaction costs on users. For the full text:
  35. 35. CC Zero waiver + SC norms waive rights public domain attribution / citation through community norms, not a contract
  36. 36. a protocol, not a license
  37. 37. calls for data providers to waive all rights necessary for data extraction and re-use requires provider place no additional obligations (like share-alike) to limit downstream use request behavior (like attribution) through norms and terms of use
  38. 38. public domain is the natural state of data examples: human genome, geographic data, NASA photographs
  39. 39. early adopters, committing to make their data open using CC0 (1) Tranche - free, open source (2) Personal Genome Project
  40. 40. public domain = license, cannot be made “more free” - only less free PD = the original commons no “one size fits all” solution at least make metadata open, if can’t make data itself open
  41. 41. design for maximum reuse ensure the freedom to integrate all built on a commons allows for snap together integration of the tools, data, research literature
  42. 42. thank you