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Final technical report on the project on good governance and the transformation of the security sector in africa
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  • 2. IntroductionThis is the final technical report for the project on Good Governance and theTransformation of the Security Sector (Centre File: 100692). The report provides a fullaccount of the project from inception to completion, with a careful assessment of theproject outcomes measured against the original objectives outlined, drawing on lessonslearned.Synthesis The project team set out to facilitate the creation of an enabling environment forgood governance in African security sectors, and to initiate a comprehensive approach tosecurity sector transformation in which local ownership is central. In addition to thiscentral objective, the general objectives of the project focussed on the evolution andconsolidation of stable, secure and accountable governments through the building of thecapacity in the security sector. In addition to the above, and towards the accomplishment of the project outputswhich included the production of a handbook on security sector transformation in Africaand a series of workshops in Africa to field test the handbook, other specific objectivespursued included 1) the establishment of procedures and processes for greater democraticaccountability, transparency and control over the armed forces and security bureaucracies– government, parliament, political society, and civil society – through the developmentof an operational tool; 2) Assistance to the defence and security sector review process inAfrican countries on the basis of national consensus developed from the bottom up; 3)Development of strategies to guide the activities of external actors, particularly thebilateral and multilateral development cooperation agencies, in transforming the security 2
  • 3. sector; 4) Encouragement of a dialogue between African civil society, governments andthe security forces on security sector reform. At its completion, the project had not only helped to register security sectorreform permanently on the agenda of African governments and inter-governmentalorganisations, it had firmly placed it on the OECD-DAC agenda and also successfullyensured that the dialogue process among civil society, governments and the securitysector had commenced through the various workshops that brought together practitioners,civil society workers and academics who worked on producing the Handbook. Bringingall the relevant stakeholders together enhances the efforts to strengthen security sectorgovernance and a Handbook with inputs from the diverse stakeholders is a critical outputof the exercise. Although it was not anticipated at commencement of project that the Handbookwill provide definitive guidance on how best to approach security sector transformationin sub-Saharan Africa, it is our expectation that by documenting critical processes andinstitutional relationships such as we have done, the Handbook can become a tool fordialogue promotion and a text in training institutions and academies focusing on concreteways for security sector governance – nationally, regionally and cross regionally – aswell as among external actors, African governments and civil society. Research Problem: The departure point of the research and Handbookproduction was that unreformed security sectors have a direct and negative impact ondevelopment. Excessive or inefficient spending on security pre-empts resources thatcould be used for development purposes and weakens the capacity of the security forcesto undertake assigned tasks. The above called for a development of both a 3
  • 4. comprehensive security sector transformation framework for Africa and the toolsnecessary to implement this framework. Doing this created additional scope for linkingthe work with on-going efforts to incorporate security sector reform into broaderprograms of governance and public sector management. The basic research problemsremained the same in the course of research, but the growing interest in the area in thecourse of completing the study underscored the need for a path-breaking work throughrigorous research.Research findings: From a policy and scientific perspective, this research productrepresents the first study of its kind anywhere in the world on security sectortransformation and governance. Although it has since become more mainstream that itwas when we started the research, a lot of its rising profile in development andgovernment circles can be traced to the work done mostly by the researchers involved inthis primary product. The main work provides for the first time a comprehensiveframework for security sector governance in Africa. Since the work finished, the mainresearchers have since gone ahead to help the United Nations Development Programmewith its work on security sector governance and also led the OECD-DAC study onsecurity sector in 2004. The work of the institutions and individuals involved in theproduction of the Handbook is largely recognised world wide as the critical to knowledgeproduction on issues of security sector governance. This contribution to knowledge isexemplified by their involvement in the establishment of the Global Facilitation Networkfor Security Sector Reform and now, the establishment of the Africa wide Security SectorNetwork of academics, civil society actors and government officials. 4
  • 5. Fulfilment of Objectives: The project team set out to facilitate the creation of anenabling environment for good governance in African security sectors, and to initiate acomprehensive approach to security sector transformation in which local ownership iscentral. In addition to this central objective, the general objectives of the project focussedon the evolution and consolidation of stable, secure and accountable governmentsthrough the building of the capacity in the security sector. On these central and general objectives, we succeeded in initiating and facilitatingan enabling environment for security sector governance in Africa, and the dialogues thatwe started in Southern Africa and West Africa, have since become a permanent featureamong the security actors, civil society actors, government officials and the academicswe engaged in the production of the Handbook. Additionally, we have gone ahead tochampion and help establish the African Network for Security Sector dedicated topromoting the values of good governance in the security sector, and linked to the GlobalNetwork on Security Sector Governance, thus increasing the commitment to accountableand secure governments through capacity building in the sector. On the Specific objectives pursued, our assessment is as follows:1) the establishment of procedures and processes for greater democratic accountability,transparency and control over the armed forces and security bureaucracies – government,parliament, political society, and civil society – through the development of anoperational tool - (framework paper produced, operational handbook developed andseries of review workshops organised and lessons learned identified)2) Assistance to the defence and security sector review process in African countries onthe basis of national consensus developed from the bottom up (Through collaboration 5
  • 6. with existing initiatives, the operational tool has been utilised to help the defenceand security sector review processes specifically in Nigeria, Ghana, Mozambique,Uganda, and Rwanda as well as at the sub-regional levels)3) Development of strategies to guide the activities of external actors, particularly thebilateral and multilateral development cooperation agencies, in transforming the securitysector (Through the original research conducted by the researchers, OECD-DAChad commissioned the project leader(Kayode Fayemi – to develop a survey on goodand bad practice in the African security sector and the Technical Leader(NicoleBall) to develop best practise for bi-lateral and multilateral development agencies.These studies have now been incorporated into the work of OECD on security sectorgovernance);4) Encouragement of a dialogue between African civil society, governments and thesecurity forces on security sector reform.(In addition to the Nigeria-South AfricaRoundtables and the Ghana, Nigeria-South Africa Roundtables, the main granteeinstitution – CDD and its partner – ISS – had been active in the promotion ofdialogue amongst the participants who attended the five workshops subsequentlyand also at the regional levels by promoting the establishment of civil society for afor the security sector and at the continental level where we have now established anAfrican Security Network)Project Design & Implementation: Two key activities were supported under thisproject. The first was the production of the Handbook by core authors (identified in theoriginal proposal) and contributors with expert knowledge in diverse areas. The second 6
  • 7. was the series of review workshops – five of which took place in Senegal, South Africa,Nigeria, Seychelles and Mozambique, who reviewed the draft of the Handbook asprospective users and ultimate beneficiaries of the Handbook. The research project did not have any partnership with a Canadian institution.Although, we had a Northern partner – the Centre for International Policy in USA (whereNicole Ball is based), the project had a primary focus that is locally owned and locallydirected, and the role of IDRC in ensuring this is commendable. The research methods utilised were inter-disciplinary, and it combined desk-basedresearch with empirical and interview based surveys with security sector practitioners,civil society actors, and representatives of inter-governmental agencies. The productsincluded the Framework paper, and the initial draft of the handbook which was reviewedat the workshops and then subjected to further reviews by renowned experts in securitysector issues. The project had incorporated gender issues both into the methodology as well asthe contents of the framework document and the Handbook. The Handbook outlined thebarriers to equal participation for women in the security sector and identified potentialremedies. It will also demonstrate the advantages of more equal participation for womenin civilian bureaucracy and in decision making positions in the executive and legislativebranches.Project outputs and Dissemination:Information sharing & dissemination: Dissemination is treated as an on-going issue andthe framework paper has already been published and put on the CDD website. Copies ofthe operational tool, the Handbook, will be available to each country’s Ministries of 7
  • 8. Defence, Interior, and Justice, leading defence and security related institutions in Africa.Additionally, copies will also be sent to Universities on the continent, developmentagencies and research organisations. In addition to the above, the Handbook will be available under a separate sectionon the CDD website. As well, our partner institutions – ISS in South Africa and theCentre for International Policy in the USA will be encouraged to give the Handbookprominent display on their websites as well.Knowledge creation: This is the first initiative, not just in Africa but in the world that hasproduced knowledge that has impacted governments, inter-governmental institutions,security practitioners and civil society actors in security sector governance. It has givenrise to the rethinking of curricula in military academies and security institutions as well asgenerated further interest in the development cooperation community on ideas for bestpractices in linking security to development.Training: The Handbook’s ultimate aim in this respect is for it to become a standard textin training institutions dealing with the security sector, especially CDD’s new RegionalInstitute for Peace & Security Studies. Towards this end, we have sought and received thefeedback of leaders of training institutions and the endorsement of the African Union.The foreword to the Handbook has been written by the African Union President and aformal launch at the Summit of Heads of State is planned for July 2004.Capacity Building The project had a range of capacity building impact for CDD and its partnerinstitutions. The original interest shown by IDRC in the work enabled us to convinceother funders to look at complementary aspect of the research project – especially with 8
  • 9. respect to training and institutional development. It also assisted in strengthening theadministrative capacity of the lead researchers in managing a multiple authored, highlyspecialised and complex research project. With a mixed team of women and men in thecore project team, we were able to ensure sensitivity to marginalised social groups, andthere has been an increase within the institution and amongst the beneficiary groups ofCDD, in women’s involvement in security sector training and work.Project Management:Administration by the research organisation: The research organisation focused on thetwo critical outputs of the project – Handbook production and review workshops. Therewere however delays in adhering to the timeline due to a number of reasons. The lessonhere is that multiple authored research project with authors scattered across the continentcould be tricky, and required the full time of the project leader, which was not the casehere. Nonetheless, the delay has not affected, in our view, the quality of the project norits capacity to impact on the target audience.Scientific Management of project: This went according to the outlined plan, except forthe delays referred to above. The substantive work on the hypothesis, the writing and thereview workshops were effectively handled.Technical and other support /administration of IDRC: Generally appropriate. IDRChowever ought to be more sensitive to problems that might not have been envisaged, butwhich might constitute hiccups on the way.ImpactReferences have been made in various sections of the report to the impact of the researchproject, both in terms of reach and the influence of the new knowledge that we have 9
  • 10. produced. In terms of influence, the initiative has captured the interest of policy makersin several African countries, inter-governmental agencies – especially African Union,ECOWAS and SADC, civil society actors and international development agencies. Interms of reach, the dissemination strategy is focusing on institutions that can ensure amultiplier effect and ensure that traditionally marginalised groups received additionalattention through the training at CDD’s Regional Institute for Peace and Security Studies.Overall assessmentProject is bound to have a greater impact on the nature and function of the security sectorin Africa, and in the understanding of the security sector by international actors relativeto the investment of time, effort and funding involved. Already, the impact is being feltby the increasing attention paid to these issues in governmental and non-governmentalcircles.RecommendationsGiven IDRC’s pioneering role in this project, our main recommendation to IDRC is toensure that the impact of the initiative is not lost, by assisting the institutions responsiblein their training and policy influencing work with potential beneficiaries in governmentand civil society, as well as within the international community. Specifically, we haveheld discussions with IDRC on support to the Regional Institute for Peace and SecurityStudies, which is dedicated to utilising the operational tool for the purpose of spreadingthe word about security sector governance and through support to the Africa Network onthe Security Sector. 10