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Grammar book sem 2


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  • 1. Camila White
    Español 3 Honores
    9 Diciembre 2010
    Grammar Book
  • 2. Tabla de Contenidos:Semester 2
    Conditional Tense and Irregulars
    Perfect Tenses
    Present Perfect
    Past Perfect
    Present Perfect Irregulars
    Subjunctive Perfect
    Tan y Tanto
    Impersonal “Se”
    Saber vs. Conocer
    Los Mandatos
    Informal Commands
    12. Formal Commands
    Irregular Commands
    DOP and IOP Placement
    Nosotros Commands
    Nosotros Commands with MONO verbs
    Subjunctive and Irregulars
    Subjunctive Trigger Phrases
    Impersonal Expressions
    Expressions of Emotions
    Conjunctions of Time
    Demonstrative Adjectives
    Demonstrative Pronouns
  • 3. The Conditional
    Used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture
    Translated as would, could, must have or probably
    To conjugate regular –ar, -er, -ir verbs:
  • Perfect Tenses…
  • 15. Present Perfect
    The present perfect is formed by using the present tense of the verb “haber” with the present participle
    Conjugating “HABER”
    -He Comido (I have eaten).
    -Has comido (You have eaten).
    -Ha comido (He/She has eaten).
    -Hemoscomido (We have eaten).
    • Habéiscomido (You-all have eaten).
    • 16. Han comido (They have eaten).
  • Past Perfect
    • The pastperfect is formed by using the past tense of the verb “haber” (had) with the present participle
    • Habíavivido (I had lived.)
    • 17. Habíasvivido (You had lived.)
    • 18. Habíavivido (He/She/Formal you had lived.)
    • 19. Habíamosvivido (We had lived.)
    • 20. Habíaisvivido (You-all had lived.)
    • 21. Habíanvivido (They had lived)
    Conjugating “HABER”
  • Present Perfect Irregulars
    Abrir (Open): Abierto
    Cubrir (Cover): Cubierto
    Escribir (Write): Escrito
    Morir (Die): Muerto
    Poner (Put): Puesto
    Solver (Solve): Suelto
    Romper (Break): Roto
    Volver (Return): Vuelto
    Satisfacer (Satisfy): Satisfecho
    Decir (Say/Tell): Dicho
    Hacer (Do/Make): Hecho
    Ver (See): Visto
  • 26. Subjunctive Perfect
    • The subjunctive perfect is formed by using the present subjunctive of the verb “haber” (had) with the present participle
    Conjugating “HABER”
  • 27. Tan y Tanto
    Used to form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs
    TAN + adjective/adverb + como= Comparison of Equality with adjectives or adverbs
    Used to form comparisons of equality using nouns
    TANTO(-a, -os, -as) + noun + como=
    Comparison of Equality with nouns
  • 28. Impersonal “Se”
    • The impersonal “se” is the English equivalent of “one”/ “people”.
    • 29. The Impersonal “se” refers to an unidentified person.
    • 30. It only uses “objectless” verbs.
    • Se entraporaquí (One goes this way).
    • 31. Se estámejoraquí (One is better off here).
  • Saber vs. Conocer
    • Used to express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something.
    • Juan sabedondeestáMaría. (Juan knows where Maria is.)
    • 32. Yo no sétunúmero de teléfono. (I don’t know your telephone number.)
    • Used to say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object
    • Yo no conozco a María. (I don’t know Maria.)
    • 33. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid. (Alberto and Alfredo know Madrid.)
  • Los Mandatos…
  • 34. Informal Affirmative Commands
    The affirmative informal commands are formed the same way as the present indicative usted form
    Irregular Verbs= TVDISHES
    -decir= Di
    -hacer= Ha
    -ir= Ve
    -poner= Pon
    -salir= Sal
    -ser= Sé
    -tener= Ten
    -venir= Ven
    -hablar— ar + a = habla
    -comer – er + e = come
    -escribir – ir + e = escribe
  • 35. Informal Negative Commands
    The negative informal commands use the tu form of the present subjunctive.
    -No cuentestusbeneficios (Don’t count your blessings).
    -No hablesmás lentamente (Don’t speak more slowly).
  • 36. Informal Irregular Commands
    -decir= Di
    -hacer= Ha
    -ir= Ve
    -poner= Pon
    -salir= Sal
    -ser= Sé
    -tener= Ten
    -venir= Ven
  • 37. Formal Affirmative Commands
    To form the formal affirmative command:
    Start with the YO form of the present indicative.
    Drop the –O ending.
    Add the opposite ending
    -Usted: HableUd. Más lentamente (Speak more slowly).
    -Usted: Coma Ud. La cena (Eat the dinner).
    -Ustedes: EscribanUds. La carta (Write the letter).
  • 38. Formal Negative Commands
    • To form the formal negative command:
    • 39. Start with the YO form of the present indicative.
    • 40. Drop the –O ending.
    • 41. Add the opposite ending
    • 42. This is the same as the affirmative, except add “no” at the beginning.
    • No hableusted. (Don’t speak.)
    • 43. No coma usted. (Don’t eat.)
    • 44. No hablenustedes. ([They] Don’t Speak.)
  • Formal Irregular Commands
    Usted: Dé
    Ustedes: Den
    Usted: Esté
    Ustedes: Estén
    Usted: Vaya
    Ustedes: Vayan
    Usted: Sea
    Ustedes: Sean
    Usted: Sepa
    Ustedes: Sepan
  • 45. DOP and IOP Placement
    • Place the DOP or IOP directly in front of the conjugated verb when you only have one verb
    • 46. Ex: Yolo robo.
    • 47. When there are compound verbs, you put the DOP or IOP in front of the conjugated verb
    • 48. Ex: Yolo voya robar.
    • 49. You can also attach the DOP or IOP to the end of an infinitive or present participle
    • 50. Ex: Yovoy a robarlo. (infinitive)
    • 51. Ex: Yoestoyrobándolo. (present partciple)
    • 52. DOPs and IOPs can also be attached to affirmative commands
    • 53. Ex: Róbalo
  • “Nosotros” Commands
    Regular Verbs
    Irregular Verbs/ “MONO” Verbs
    To form: use nosotros form of the present tense
    -Comamosallí (Let’s eat here).
    -Contemos el dinero (Let’s count the money).
    *Negative command is formed by placing the word no before the same verb form
    -No comamosallí (Let’s not eat here).
    Ir(se) and Nosotros Commands:
    -Vamosahora (Let’s go now).
    -No vayamos a la tienda (Let’s not go to the store).
    A written accent is often needed when pronouns are added. With affirmative commands, the final “s” of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronouns “nos” or “se”
    -Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos.
    -Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela
  • 54. Subjunctive
    main clause
    subordinate clause
    The Subjunctive Expresses….
    How to Define the Subjunctive
  • 55. Subjunctive Irregulars
  • 56. Impersonal Expressions for the Subjunctive
  • 57. Expressions of Emotion for the Subjunctive
    • Indicate fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, or other sentiments or biases.
    Examples of Expressions of Emotion:
    • Alegrarse de que: to be happy that
    • 58. Es buenoque: it’s good that
    • 59. Es convenienteque: it’s convenient that
    • 60. Es difícilque: It’s hard
    • 61. Es extrañoque: It’s strange that
    • 62. Es tristeque: It’s sad that
    • 63. Estartristeque: to be sad that
    • 64. Sentirque: to regret, be sorry that
    • 65. Sorprenderseque: to be surprised that
  • Conjunctions of Time for the Subjunctive
    • To form the conjunctions of time, take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future.
    Examples of Conjunctions of Time:
    • Asíque: as soon as
    • 66. Cuando: when
    • 67. Despues de que: after
    • 68. En cuanto: as soon as
    • 69. Hastaque: until
    • 70. Luegoque: as soon as
    • 71. Tan pronto como: as soon as
  • Demonstrative Adjectives
    Adjectives that are meant to point something out
    Examples in english: this, that, these, those
    Singular demonstrative adjectives (masculine):
    Este (this)
    Ese (that)
    Aquel (that)
    Plural demonstrative adjectives (masculine):
    Estos (these)
    Esos (those)
    Aquellos (those)
    Singular demonstrative adjectives (feminine):
    Esta (this)
    Esa (that)
    Aquella (that)
    Plural demonstrative adjectives (feminine):
    Estas (these)
    Esas (those)
    Aquellas (those)
  • 72. Demonstrative Pronouns
    Words that replace nouns in a sentence.
    Examples of demonstrative pronouns in english: this, that, those, these
    Singular demonstrative pronouns (masculine):
    Éste (this)
    Ése (that)
    Aquél (that)
    Plural demonstrative pronouns (masculine):
    Éstos (these)
    Ésos (those)
    Aquéllos (those)
    Singular demonstrative pronouns (feminine):
    Ésta (this)
    Ésa (that)
    Aquélla (that)
    Plural demonstrative pronouns (feminine):
    Éstas (these)
    Ésas (those)
    Aquéllas (those)
    Gender Neutral demonstrative pronouns: