*The endocrine function of the pancreas is localized in the islet cells
Kayla & tierra bio project
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BY: TIERRA SANFORD & KAYLA MCCRAY
WHAT IS THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM? • A system of glands that release vital hormones into the bloodstream • A hormone is a specific messenger made and secreted by an endocrine gland. • Helps regulate the body’s growth, metabolism, function, and sexual development
THE MAJOR ORGANS• Hypothalamus• Pituitary• Thyroid• Parathyroid• Adrenal glands• Pancreas• Gonads• Thymus• Pineal Body
HYPOTHALAMUS• Location: the brain• Target: sends hormones to the interior pituitary• Function: regulates secretion of the pituitary gland, heartbeat, temperature, and water balance
PITUITARY GLANDS• Location: the brain, connected to the hypothalamus• Target: sends hormones to the liver, kidney, gonads, and the thyroid and adrenal glands• Function: it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, • functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion
THYROID• Location: the throat area• Target: sends hormones to all tissues• Function: increases metabolism, helps control health and development, and helps lower blood calcium levels
PARATHYROID GLANDS• Location: on the posterior surface of the thyroid• Target: sends hormones to the bones, kidneys, and intestines• Function: Raises blood calcium level
ADRENAL GLANDS• Location: on top of the kidney• Target: • Adrenal cortex: all tissues • Adrenal medulla: cardiac and other muscles• Function: Secrete hormones that regulate chemical balance and metabolism• Has two portions, the cortex and the medulla that produce: • Estrogen • Progesterone • Adrenaline • Norepinephrine
PANCREAS• Location: across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach• Target: small intestines• Function: The pancreas has 2 parts. • the exocrine pancreas, which secretes digestive enzymes • the endocrine pancreas that secretes hormones called insulin and glucagon. • These hormones regulate the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
GONADS• Location: testicles in the men and ovaries in the women• Target:• Function:• The Gonads consist of the testes and the ovaries.• The testes produce androgens. (e.g., testosterone)• The ovaries produce estrogens. (e.g., progesterone)
DISEASES• When glands produce more or less hormones needed by the body, diseases may occur.• These diseases include: • Adrenal deficiency • Types one and two diabetes • Precocious puberty • Hyperthyroidism
ADRENAL DEFICIENCY• Adrenal deficiency can be primary or secondary.• Primary adrenal insufficiency, Addisons disease, occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and cannot produce enough of the hormone cortisol and often the hormone aldosterone.• Secondary adrenal deficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is much more common than Addisons disease.