Electronic Health Record Jessica Austin - Slides 3-13 Shaun Baker - Slides 18-33 Kayla Boro - Slides 14–17, 34-38, 39, 41 Victoria Blankenship - Slides 1-2, 40, 42-44
Introduction Some of us have been nurses for several years and others are just getting their career started. One thing we have in common is we will all be working with computer systems to put in and retrieve data. The following slides are a framework of information to help nurses understand and evaluate the Electronic Health Record (EHR).
What is a Clinical Information System (CIS)? “A CIS is a collection of various information technology applications that provides a centralized repository of information related to patient care across distributed locations. This repository represents the patient’s history of illnesses and interactions with providers by encoding knowledge capable of helping clinicians decide about the patient’s condition, treatment options, and wellness activities (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009).
What is a Clinical Information System (CIS)? The repository also encodes the status of decisions, actions underway for those decisions, and relevant information that could help in performing those actions. The database could also hold other information about the patient including genetic, environmental, and social contexts (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009) .”
Key players involved in choosing, implementing, and revising a CIS Implementation should involve those who work with patients (end users) to improve the interface, accuracy, and security. Medical Staff/Clinicians Performance improvement analysts Executive leadership/CEO Key stakeholders System administrators Tech support Education team (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009)
Key players involved in choosing, implementing, and revising a CIS Implementation of such systems requires that they be designed to interface with legacy systems, privacy and security, and clinician resistance to learning new technology (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009).
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR Health Information and Data The patient data required to make sound clinical decisions. The patient and all healthcare providers should have access to be able to make clinical decisions. Results Management The ability to manage results of all types electronically, including lab and radiology procedure reports, both current and historical. The patient and all health care providers should have access to tie patient results together.
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued…. Order Entry Management The ability of a clinician to enter medication and other care orders, including lab, micro, pathology, radiology, nursing, supply orders, ancillary services, and consultations directly into a computer. Physicians and licensed personnel should have access to input orders and patients may view orders
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued…. Decision Support The computer reminders and alerts to improve the diagnosis and care of a patient including screening for correct drug selection and dosing, medication interactions with other medications, preventative health, reminders in areas such as vaccinations, health risk screening and detection, and clinical guidelines for patient disease treatment. The patient and all healthcare providers should have access to help make decisions and protect the patient.
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued…. Electronic Communication and Connectivity The online communication among healthcare team members, their care partners, and patients including e-mail, web messaging, and integrated health record within and across settings, institutions, and telemedicine. The patient and healthcare providers should have access to allow communication among the members.
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued…. Patient Support The patient education and self-monitoring tools, including interactive computer-based patient education, home telemonitoring, and telehealth systems. The patient and healthcare providers should have access to patient support.
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued…. Administrative Processes The electronic scheduling, billing, and claims management systems including electronic scheduling for inpatient and outpatient visits and procedures, electronic insurance eligibility validation, claim authorization and prior approval, identification of possible research study participants, and drug recall support. The patient and healthcare providers should have access to allow information to be organized and used for analysis/research.
The 8 ESSENTIAL components of the EHR continued… Reporting and Population Health Management The data collection tools to support public and private reporting requirements including data represented in a standardized terminology and machine readable format. The patient and healthcare providers should have access to share patient information and compare data (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009).
Clinical Decision Making System in a CIS What is the clinical decision making system? “Tools that provide the clinicians, staff, patient, or other individuals with knowledge and person-specific information, intelligently filtered or presented at appropriate times to enhance health and healthcare (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009).”
Clinical Decision Making System in a CIS What it needs: Easy access Needs to be user-friendly Keep system up-to-date Follows latest research Evidence-Based practice Update with all new EBP guidelines (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009)
Clinical Decision Making System in a CIS Company examples that design CIS systems: Visual Dx Dxplain Diagnosis Pro TheraDoc, Inc. Epic (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009)
Safety and Security Health information and communication technologies (EHR)applications are set up with volatile degree of knowledge and achievement with the objective of improving health care/ nursing operation, management, patient care, and information management.
Safety and Security Utilities most widely supported include clinical and administrative email/texting; financial, and human resource procedure and administration; logistical management of health division tasks and patient information and health education.
Safety and Security Much of past information in healthcare was kept on paper files and stored in cabinets or managers desks, patient information was just a sheet away from being lost or thrown in regular trash, but now technology has our paper locked behind multiple firewalls of electronic data encryption.
Safety and Security Multiple bits of private personnel data stored in mass computer banks awaiting a hackers fun stop to destroy a company or a persons life. Cyber security thus was developed due to the increasing threats to security of patient data from multiple sources that tend on stealing or corrupting data.
Safety and Security Cyber security consist of several forms of security from secondary companies that monitor the internet and intranet for malicious threats such as viruses/worms / and trojans that are developed by outside sources made to steal or corrupt data.
HIPAA Considerations “Assess and plan communication awareness requirements Develop and plan a HIPAA awareness communication plan Conduct an awareness program to promote organizational involvement Monitor communication efforts for effectiveness Review brochures and promotion items as to how HIPM is mentioned in literature (DHHS, 2003).”
Safety and Security “Assess and plan communication awareness requirements Develop and plan a HIPAA awareness communication plan Conduct an awareness program to promote organizational involvement Monitor communication efforts for effectiveness Review brochures and promotion items as to how HIPM is mentioned in literature (DHHS, 2003).”
Safety and Security Individuals, as fitting to their professional roles, should be aware of the relevant security risks, required preventive measures, and assume responsibility and take steps to enhance the security of information systems and networks they deal with.
Safety and Security “How individuals gain access to such a secure network makes the network more secure by simply adding the password activated accounts to access patient information and thus adding more security allowing only certain access to certain levels of discipline determined by entrusted individuals to decide who has what access (U.S. Government, 2003).”
Safety and Security Having access to secured cyber space for patient information brings another question of ethics, people who have access should respect the privacy and potential of “not to do any harm” when given special access to information that is not yours.
Safety and Security When a medical facility chooses a security network to protect their patients its good to consider both a internal team and external team to watch the network and setup security development tools. The network should have rules and regulations built on integrity policies written by the operating facility and enforced by the network team.
Safety and Security Data from the network should be backed up by separate computing networks with internal saving devices setup to save data materials every five minutes to ensure data will not be lost and then backed up onto a CD drive or digital media as hard copies of the data daily. This ensures data is captured and contained in the system so that it can be accounted for on a timed basis once again ensuring integrity.
Costs/ Finance EMR in the health care world are far from cheap systems range from hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars, depending on size, information bank, productivity, security, ease of use, and individual training on product use and software.
Costs/ Finance Compatibility issues also raise cost depending on other equipment and software providers that may have to alter their products to fit or run with the new EHR. Purchasing of EMR’s should be relied upon credibility of the company and a track record along with several studies and test runs of the actual product.
Costs/ Finance Selecting a product that fits the system needs along with the capability to upgrade or improve in the future along with ongoing education to the staff with each upgrade should be considered.
Costs/ Finance IT support personnel should also be considered: What if problems arise? Who will do the upgrades? When will the upgrades occur? Will they affect my staff’s productivity? Who can my staff call when the problem occurs and will they be available 24 hours a day? Many questions should be reasoned with before a purchase of any EHR.
Education “The success or failure of an informatics solution can be directly related to the education that was provided (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009).” Originally, nurses teaching Informatics had no formal education Acquired Skills by: On-the-job training Attending classes to learn about the system
Education There are formal ways to become an educator. Graduate classes offered at various universities
Education Two certifications that are available American Nurses Credentialing Center Exam Must be an RN/BSN w/ 2 years of experience. CPHIMS(Certified professional in healthcare information and management systems) Open to anyone who is involved in healthcare informatics.
Education Many ways education can be implemented Important: Remember everyone learns differently. It is the Educator’s job to: Develop education materials Implement a plan to teach the materials Provide education about the system New employees System Launch Upgrades
Education Initial education requirements for staff include A basic computer class This helps with staff who are unfamiliar with computers 20 hours of education upon implementation of EHR “Super users” are often used to help with the class Show the information as the instructor is talking
Education Updates can be implemented by: Handouts Additional class time Educational computer simulation Many have certificates that print when you complete the cours
Education Technology is always changing It is important that everyone stays up-to-date Additional re-education is determined by each institution Refresher courses may be needed if the individual has not been familiar with the system for long periods of time.
Conclusion Despite the challenges, the future of EHR’s is an exciting one for patient and clinician alike. Benefits may be realized by stand-alone EHR’s as described here, but the most significant transformation will come as interoperability is realized between systems (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2009
References Department of Health and Human Services-HIPAA AdministrativeSimplification informationhttp://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/admnsimp http://cisevaluation.com/uploads/CISESArticle.pdf McGonigle, D. &Mastrian, K. (2009). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.
References U. S. Government (2003) .The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.The White House, February 2003. Available online at:http://www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/cyberspace_strategy.pdf