patronage- support, benefaction, investment, backing, sponsorship and aid
Factors to consider in menu planning
LESSON 35 FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MENU PLANNING
A menu is a list of specific foods offered byfood establishments to its consumers for a specificperiod. Planning the menu is the process of listingdown these foods which can be served forbreakfast, lunch, dinner, or snacks. Menu plansmay be for one day, for a week, three weeks, oreven a month. Planning the menu is important forthe following reasons:» it enables the planner to think ahead and assures what to prepare in advance.» It maximizes the use of available resources like food supplies, fuel, tools, equipment, and food in season.» It enables one to predict the expected cost/budget for food.
» It helps anticipate possible problems that may come up based on the menu planned.» It assures varied and interesting meal that would meet the needs and desires of costumers.Goals in Menu Planning• Nutritive Goal- the meals must not only satisfy the palates of costumers but they must be nutritious as well.• Economic Goal- the meals must be planned to meet the meal budget of costumers. It must consider the affordability level of costumers to ensure patronage.
• Managerial goal- the meals must be planned according to the material and human resources available. This means that the manager should consider the number of workers, the skills they have, the food supplies, the tools and equipments available, the time for preparation, and the money available for purchase.• Aesthetic goal- the meal should be pleasing, attractive, and satisfying to the costumers. There should be an aesthetic combination of dishes in terms of color, texture, flavor and temperature. Attractive dishes are certainly inviting to the costumers.
Factors to Consider in Menu Planning ∞Availability of Foods- a menu is primarily based on what can be bought in the market. In fact, this should really be the basis for planning for planning specific dishes. Always consider food in season. Think of available ingredients as substitutes for those off- season. ∞Food Habits of Costumers- food managers can make a survey I the vicinity where food establishment is located. The survey can consider the culture of the people living in the vicinity (their customs, traditions, religion and etc.) people will patronize a food establishment where their needs and desires, as well as their beliefs and practices are not violated in the food they eat.
Amount of Money Available- a food establishment has adefinite budget intended for food preparation. Controlin expenses, by operating within a given budget, allowsthe food manager to predict cost and, at the sametime, predict profit. It is important, however, thatexpenses incurred in food compensates for the bulk ofsale expected or predicted for the day.Amount of Time Available- food preparations mst metdeadlines. Costumers has their own meal schedule tomeet. Quick service is one important asset of an idealestablishment. Food ordered should be prepared in theshortest time possible. To realize this, time-savingtechniques must be employed by the cooks especially iforders keep coming in.
Type of Costumers- this refers to theage, sex, occupation, socio-economic status, andnutritional needs of the costumers. For instance, theschool canteen where students are the major patrons ofthe establishment, the canteen manager must offer foodshigh in carbohydrates and protein since most of thestudents are growing kids. Set menus offered at affordableprices and snack items using foods in season should alsobe offered.Environmental Conditions- here, one thinks of hotsummer months and the cold rainy months. Specificdishes offered in food establishments should consider theenvironmental temperatures. Special hot foods can beoffered on cold rainy days and vice versa. Aside from theregular menu of the establishment, will be seasonalofferings in keeping with the conditions of the
Occasions- special occasions likeChristmas, birthdays, anniversaries and etc. requirespecial menus. The manager must prepare a completelist of main dishes, entrees, appetizers, salads anddesserts from which patrons will choose from.Types of Business- this includes the kind of foodestablishment you will have, eitherluxurious, canteens, carinderias, coffee shop, cafeteriaand the likes.Hours of Business- includes the time of the day that theestablishment will be opened.Types of Menu- the type of menu is considered in thisfactor. It will be either A La Carte, or Du Jour Menu.And the way these foods will be served-buffet, self-service os sit-down.
Personnel and Facilities- includes the number of employees needed to work in different areas such as in preparation, cooking and service. POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PERSONNELS AND FACILITIESa) To plan menus adequately, it is important to analyze your prospective costumers.b) The menu affects the number of people employed.c) The kitchen facilities and kitchen layouts including the service area, affect the menu.d) The menu affects the way food is prepared and the size of the portion served.
TYPES OFMENU• A la carte- each food is priced individually and the costumer has to choose any from the list in the menu book. The costumer is free to order what he wants. This allows feasibility to choose depending on the budget of the costumer an what the costumer wants to eat at a particular time.
• Table d’ Hote- this is a set menu for a family or group with a fixed price. A good example is the menu offered by the school cafeteria. They offer complete student meals at prices that are affordable to the students.
• Du Jour Menu- this refers to the menu for the day. This can be interpreted in two ways: 1)a special menu offered for the long day in addition to ala carte dishes or regular dishes and 2)the only menu offered for the day which is case is a limited menu.
• Semi-A La Carte Menu- this type offers different combinations of entrée or main dish with accompanying salad and a beverage. The advantage of this kind is that it allows costumers to choose from different kinds of food combinations at a fixed price which would meet the budget of the costumers.
• Short orders- this is • Cyclical menus- also shown in the growth of called master menus many specialty houses where the principal offering only one or two entrees are worked out types of food such as for a definite period of pizza and pasta, fries and time. At the end of the hamburger and the period, the menu is likes. It is possible to repeated , hence the improve the quality of menu is used over and cooking , and at the over again for a same time, reduce food particular period of cost by minimizing the time. waste due to leftovers.