MSL’s: Measures of Student Learning• Two forty-five minute sections to American History I exam • Section 1: 20 multiple choice sections (broad based—document interpretation, maps, charts, graphs, et.) • Section 2: 8 constructed response questions (document analysis—looking for a specific answer)
What does that mean for you?• AH1.H1: Apply the four interconnected dimensions of historical thinking to the American History in order to understand the creation and development of the United States over time.
So What Are the 4 Dimensions of Historical Thinking?1. Use Chronological thinking to: • Identify the structure of a historical narrative or story: (its beginning, middle and end). • Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines.
2. Use Historical Comprehension to: • Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage. • Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations. • Analyze data in historical maps. • Analyze visual, literary and musical sources.
3. Use Historical Analysis andInterpretation to: • Identify issues and problems in the past. • Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past. • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation. • Evaluate competing historical narratives and debates among historians. • Evaluate the influence of the past on contemporary issues.
4. Use Historical Research to: • Formulate historical questions. • Obtain historical data from a variety of sources. • Support interpretations with historical evidence. • Construct analytical essays using historical evidence to support arguments.
Additional Standards2. Analyze key political, economic and social turning points in AmericanHistory using historical thinking3. Understand the factors that led to exploration, settlement, movement,and expansion and their impact on theUnited States
4. Analyze how conflict andcompromise have shaped politics,economics and culture in the UnitedStates.5. Understand how tensions betweenfreedom, equality and power haveshaped the political, economic andsocial development of the UnitedStates.
6. Understand how and why the role of the United States in the world has changed over time.7. Understand the impact of war on American politics, economics, society and culture8. Analyze the relationship between progress, crisis and the “American Dream” within the United States.
Constructed Response Example• The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions: for men being all the workmanship of one omnipotent, and infinitely wise maker; . . . and being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us, that may authorize us to destroy one another, as if we were made for one another’s uses, as the inferior ranks of creatures are for ours. . . . This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is not without reason, that he seeks out, and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I call by the general name, property. When any one, or more, shall take upon them to make laws, whom the people have not appointed so to do, they make laws without authority, which the people are not therefore bound to obey; by which means they come again to be out of subjection, and may constitute to themselves a new legislative, as they think best, being in full liberty to resist the force of those, who without authority would impose any thing upon them.• John Locke, Second Treatise (1689)
Constructed Response Example• When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.• Thomas Jefferson, The United States Declaration of Independence (1776)
Constructed Response ExampleUsing the two excerpts above, analyzethe relationship between theEnlightenment ideas of John Locke andthe founding ideas of the United States asset forth in the Declaration ofIndependence, written by ThomasJefferson. In your response, be sure toprovide at least two examples of howLocke may have influenced Jefferson.
Great AwakeningA period of historythat saw:An increase inreligious toleranceAn increase inreligious practiceAn increase in ideasof equality
The Declaration of IndependenceSaid that people were endowed by theircreator with certain unalienable rights. Thismeans rights that cannot be taken away.It went on the say that if government tried totake rights away from people, the peoplecould establish a new government.
The Articles of ConfederationFirst government of the United StatesGave more power to the states insteadof the national government.Did not give the government the powerto tax.
Shays’ RebellionRebellion caused byhigh taxes onfarmers.Showed the need fora strong nationalgovernment
The ConstitutionThe fundamental lawsof the United States.Changes are calledamendmentsHas a system ofchecks and balancesso that one branch ofgovernment does notget too strong.
First AmendmentProtects the rights of freedom ofspeech, press, assembly, religion, andpetition.
Three-Fifths CompromiseCounted slaves as three-fifths of aperson for the purposes of taxation andrepresentation
FederalismThe practice of sharing power betweenthe states and federal government
Jefferson vs. HamiltonThe result of the dispute between ThomasJefferson and Alexander Hamilton was thecreation of political parties.Hamilton wanted the economy to bebased on manufacturing.Jefferson wanted the economy to bebased on agriculture.Hamilton represented the Federalist Party.Jefferson represented the Democratic-Republican Party.
Powers of CongressDeclare warCreate moneyCollect taxes
Washington’s Farewell AddressWashington warned against thecreation of political parties andalliances with other nations.
Judicial ReviewThe power of the Supreme Court tooverturn laws that they feel areunconstitutionalEstablished by the case—Marbury v.Madison
Women’s Suffrage MovementThe Women’s Suffrage Movementwanted women to have as many rightsas men.
Which area on the map was gained by the U.S. in 1848 as a result of the Mexican-America War?
Missouri CompromiseThe North and South had kept the balance offree and slave states. This was threatenedwhen Missouri was going to join the Union asa slave state. To keep the balance, Mainewas brought into the Union at the same time.The Missouri Compromise maintained thebalance between slave and free states
Compromise of 1850In 1850, there was another problem with freeand slave states. All of the territory won in thewar with Mexico would become states soon.The issue was solved by allowing Californiainto the Union as a free state, and having theterritories of New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona,and Utah decide the issue of slaverythemselves.California was admitted to the Union as a freestate.
The Dred Scott CaseDred Scott was a slave.His owner took him to a free state in the North.Scott sued for his freedom because he was in afree state.The case went all the way to the SupremeCourt.The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was aslave and therefore property, so he could notsue.The court also said that Congress could notban slavery in the territories.
Who was Frederick Douglass?A runaway slaveAn abolitionistWriter of anabolitionistnewspaper calledThe North Star
Who was Harriet Tubman?An abolitionistand leader of theUndergroundRailroad
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?An abolitionist leaderand editor of theinfluential abolitionistnewspaper TheLiberator
What do Harriet Tubman,William Lloyd Garrison, andFrederick Douglass have in common?They were all abolitionists.
How did Henry Clay’s American System try to improve thetransportation system in the U.S.?By creating more canals and roads
What right did women lose between 1777 and 1851?
The cotton gin was invented in 1793.Look at the chart below. What was the long term effect of this invention?
The Emancipation ProclamationThe Emancipation Proclamationdeclared that slaves in the Confederatestates would be free.
NullificationThe idea that states have the right toreject laws made by Congress is callednullification.
54th Massachusetts RegimentMade up one of the first African-American regiments in the Civil War.
Battle of GettysburgWas the turning point of the warConfederate army never invaded theNorth againLee lost nearly 1/3 of his army.
14th and 15th amendmentsThe goal of the 14th and 15thamendments was to give rights toformerly enslaved persons
Freedmen’s BureauHelped resolve disputes betweenwhites and blacksSet up schools for newly freed slavesProvided relief for those peopledisplaced by the war.
New technology in the Civil Wardeadlier cannons and bulletsironclad warshipsmore accurate rifles
ReconstructionThe immediate goal of Reconstruction wasto bring the Southern states back into theUnion.The goal of the 14th and 15thamendments was to give rights to formerlyenslaved persons.
ReconstructionThe Freedmen’s Bureau helped resolveconflicts between blacks and whites.They set up schools for newly freed slaves.Provided relief for those people hurt by thewar.Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfatherclauses were designed by Southernlawmakers prevent African-Americans fromvoting.