Chapters 13 and 14 Study Guide<br />World War II<br />
Axis and Allied Powers<br />Axis Powers <br />Countries<br />Germany<br />Italy<br />Japan<br />Goals<br />Conquest and control of Europe<br />Control of Mediterranean area<br />Control of the Pacific and Northern China<br />Allied Powers<br />Countries<br />United States<br />France<br />Great Britain<br />USSR<br />Goals<br />Defeat the Axis powers<br />Liberate France and western Europe<br />Rebuild European economy<br />
Terminology<br />Appeasement----Allies gave in to Hitler’s demands for territory in order to prevent war.<br />Blitzkrieg---- Lightening War, Germany strategy of striking quickly with overwhelming force <br />Holocaust---Killing of 6 million Jews by the Nazis<br />Island hopping---Japanese strategy in the Pacific of conquering small island to use as air bases then “hopping” to the next.<br />Kamikaze---Japanese suicide pilots <br />Bushido---Code of honor practiced by Japanese soldiers. Made them disciplined and willing to fight to the death.<br />
People of World War II<br />Fascist leader of Italy<br />Fascist leader of Nazi Germany<br />Leader of Japan<br />Prime Minister of England<br />Premier of Soviet Union<br />U.S. President 1933-1945<br />Symbol of women factory workers during the war<br />U.S. President 1945-1953 became President following FDR’s death in 1945<br />Supreme Allied Commander<br />Commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific<br /> Benito Mussolini<br />Adolph Hitler<br />Emperor Hirohito<br /> Winston Churchill<br /> Joseph Stalin<br />Franklin Roosevelt<br />Rosie the Riveter<br />Harry S. Truman<br />Dwight Eisenhower<br />Douglas MacArthur<br />
Benito Adolph Emperor Winston Joseph<br />Mussolini Hitler Hirohito Churchill Stalin<br />Franklin Rosie the Harry S. Dwight Douglas<br />Roosevelt Riveter Truman Eisenhower MacArthur<br />
Beginning of the War: Major Events<br />Munich Pact: British and French representatives meet with Hitler and allow him to take over Czechoslovakia; 9/29-9/30/1938<br /><ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Pact: 8/24/1939 peace agreement between Germany and USSR preventing Russia from entering the war.
Start of the war: Nazi invasion of Poland September, 1939
Neutrality Acts: Passed by Congress in the 1930’s aimed at keeping the U.S. out of a European war
Lend-Lease Acts: Series of laws passed by Congress allowing the U.S. to sell war materials to the Allies
U.S. entry into the war: Bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941</li></li></ul><li>War on the Home front<br />WASPs: Women Air force Service Pilots flew cargo missions to free men for bombing missions<br />Women in the workforce: Women took jobs in factories building war materials as men served in the armed forces<br /><ul><li> Women in the military (WASPs)
Effects of Japanese Internment</li></li></ul><li>Japanese Internment<br />Internment or forced removal of Japanese Americans was enacted by the government for security reasons. Japanese Americans were viewed as spies and potential threats<br />Conditions: Interment camps were designed to resemble cities with block numbers, schools, post office and other facilities. Lacked indoor plumbing and other amenities<br />Effects: Not until the 1980’s that Japanese Americans received an official apology and reparations for interment.<br />
Battle of the Atlantic<br /><ul><li> Name given to the campaign fought between Allied navies and German U-boats throughout Atlantic shipping lanes from U.S. to Britain</li></li></ul><li>Battle of Britain<br /><ul><li> Largely an air war between Germany and England
England experienced 57 consecutive nights of air raids
British air force prevailed, preventing Hitler from controlling all of Europe</li></li></ul><li>Campaign for North Africa<br /><ul><li> Began 10 June, 1940 with the Italian invasion of Egypt
Allies prevailed and opened the path to Berlin</li></li></ul><li>
Holocaust<br />Selection process: Jews, Gypsies, and other undesirable groups were selected<br />Conditions: Camps lacked sufficient food, shelter, and prisoners were forced into hours of meaningless labor each day<br />Killing centers: Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen and others where mass executions took place<br />Final Solution: Nazi plan for mass extermination of European Jews<br />Nazi leaders justified the Holocaust by claiming they were merely following orders<br />Holocaust ended in 1945 as Allied forces liberated the camps on their march to Berlin<br />
War in the Pacific<br />Battles <br />Pearl Harbor: 7 December, 1941 Japanese attack the U.S. naval base in Hawaii<br />Philippines: Allied forces were defeated by the Japanese and forced into the Bataan Death March. Later reconquered by the Allies<br />Doolittle Raid: U.S. air raids against Japan. Largely ineffective, but proved the U.S. was willing to go on the offensive<br />Battles continued<br />Battle of Midway: Allied victory and turning point in the Pacific campaign<br />Guadalcanal: fierce battle between the U.S. and Japanese forces<br />Iwo Jima: famous for flag raising photo. Last step before Allies reached Japan<br />
Battle of the Pacific Continued<br />Okinawa: One of the final battles before the planned Allied invasion of Japan<br />Tokyo: Last naval battle of the war<br />
Atomic Bomb<br />Controversy: Atomic weapons had never before been used and many feared their power.<br />Manhattan Project: Secret U.S. program to develop the atomic bomb<br />Hiroshima/Nagasaki: Japanese cities destroyed by the atomic bomb; Led to Japanese surrender<br />President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb to avoid millions of U.S. casualties in a proposed invasion of Japan<br />
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