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Chapters 13 & !4 study guide
 

Chapters 13 & !4 study guide

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    Chapters 13 & !4 study guide Chapters 13 & !4 study guide Presentation Transcript

    • Chapters 13 and 14 Study Guide
      World War II
    • Axis and Allied Powers
      Axis Powers
      Countries
      Germany
      Italy
      Japan
      Goals
      Conquest and control of Europe
      Control of Mediterranean area
      Control of the Pacific and Northern China
      Allied Powers
      Countries
      United States
      France
      Great Britain
      USSR
      Goals
      Defeat the Axis powers
      Liberate France and western Europe
      Rebuild European economy
    • Terminology
      Appeasement----Allies gave in to Hitler’s demands for territory in order to prevent war.
      Blitzkrieg---- Lightening War, Germany strategy of striking quickly with overwhelming force
      Holocaust---Killing of 6 million Jews by the Nazis
      Island hopping---Japanese strategy in the Pacific of conquering small island to use as air bases then “hopping” to the next.
      Kamikaze---Japanese suicide pilots
      Bushido---Code of honor practiced by Japanese soldiers. Made them disciplined and willing to fight to the death.
    • People of World War II
      Fascist leader of Italy
      Fascist leader of Nazi Germany
      Leader of Japan
      Prime Minister of England
      Premier of Soviet Union
      U.S. President 1933-1945
      Symbol of women factory workers during the war
      U.S. President 1945-1953 became President following FDR’s death in 1945
      Supreme Allied Commander
      Commander of U.S. forces in the Pacific
      Benito Mussolini
      Adolph Hitler
      Emperor Hirohito
      Winston Churchill
      Joseph Stalin
      Franklin Roosevelt
      Rosie the Riveter
      Harry S. Truman
      Dwight Eisenhower
      Douglas MacArthur
    • Benito Adolph Emperor Winston Joseph
      Mussolini Hitler Hirohito Churchill Stalin
      Franklin Rosie the Harry S. Dwight Douglas
      Roosevelt Riveter Truman Eisenhower MacArthur
    • Beginning of the War: Major Events
      Munich Pact: British and French representatives meet with Hitler and allow him to take over Czechoslovakia; 9/29-9/30/1938
      • Nazi-Soviet Pact: 8/24/1939 peace agreement between Germany and USSR preventing Russia from entering the war.
      • Start of the war: Nazi invasion of Poland September, 1939
      • Neutrality Acts: Passed by Congress in the 1930’s aimed at keeping the U.S. out of a European war
      • Lend-Lease Acts: Series of laws passed by Congress allowing the U.S. to sell war materials to the Allies
      • U.S. entry into the war: Bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941
    • War on the Home front
      WASPs: Women Air force Service Pilots flew cargo missions to free men for bombing missions
      Women in the workforce: Women took jobs in factories building war materials as men served in the armed forces
      • Women in the military (WASPs)
      • Women in the workforce
      • Japanese interment
      • Reasons created
      • Conditions
      • Effects of Japanese Internment
    • Japanese Internment
      Internment or forced removal of Japanese Americans was enacted by the government for security reasons. Japanese Americans were viewed as spies and potential threats
      Conditions: Interment camps were designed to resemble cities with block numbers, schools, post office and other facilities. Lacked indoor plumbing and other amenities
      Effects: Not until the 1980’s that Japanese Americans received an official apology and reparations for interment.
    • Battle of the Atlantic
      • Name given to the campaign fought between Allied navies and German U-boats throughout Atlantic shipping lanes from U.S. to Britain
    • Battle of Britain
      • Largely an air war between Germany and England
      • England experienced 57 consecutive nights of air raids
      • British air force prevailed, preventing Hitler from controlling all of Europe
    • Campaign for North Africa
      • Began 10 June, 1940 with the Italian invasion of Egypt
      • Erwin Rommel commander of German forces
      • Bernard Montgomery and George Patton led the Allied forces
      • Ended 16 May, 1943 when the Allies captured Tunis
    • Campaign for Italy
      • Following victory in Africa, Allies launched an invasion of Italy
      • Advance was slowed by fierce fighting and crossing the Italian Alps
      • Allies captured Rome 4 June, 1944
      • Italians surrendered and Mussolini was hanged
    • Battle of Stalingrad
      • Part of Operation Barbarossa (German invasion of USSR)
      • 17 July, 1942- 2 February, 1943
      • Germans were slowed and defeated by the Russian winter and lack of supplies
    • D-Day
      • Code named Operation Overlord
      • Allied invasion of France 6 June, 1944
      • Largest military operation in history
      • Led to the liberation of France
    • Battle of the Bulge
      • Last major offensive by the Nazi
      • Aimed at retaking the Belgium port of Antwerp
      • Allies prevailed and opened the path to Berlin
    • Holocaust
      Selection process: Jews, Gypsies, and other undesirable groups were selected
      Conditions: Camps lacked sufficient food, shelter, and prisoners were forced into hours of meaningless labor each day
      Killing centers: Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen and others where mass executions took place
      Final Solution: Nazi plan for mass extermination of European Jews
      Nazi leaders justified the Holocaust by claiming they were merely following orders
      Holocaust ended in 1945 as Allied forces liberated the camps on their march to Berlin
    • War in the Pacific
      Battles
      Pearl Harbor: 7 December, 1941 Japanese attack the U.S. naval base in Hawaii
      Philippines: Allied forces were defeated by the Japanese and forced into the Bataan Death March. Later reconquered by the Allies
      Doolittle Raid: U.S. air raids against Japan. Largely ineffective, but proved the U.S. was willing to go on the offensive
      Battles continued
      Battle of Midway: Allied victory and turning point in the Pacific campaign
      Guadalcanal: fierce battle between the U.S. and Japanese forces
      Iwo Jima: famous for flag raising photo. Last step before Allies reached Japan
    • Battle of the Pacific Continued
      Okinawa: One of the final battles before the planned Allied invasion of Japan
      Tokyo: Last naval battle of the war
    • Atomic Bomb
      Controversy: Atomic weapons had never before been used and many feared their power.
      Manhattan Project: Secret U.S. program to develop the atomic bomb
      Hiroshima/Nagasaki: Japanese cities destroyed by the atomic bomb; Led to Japanese surrender
      President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb to avoid millions of U.S. casualties in a proposed invasion of Japan