ประเภทของคอมพิวเตอร์

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ประเภทของคอมพิวเตอร์

  1. 1. " " 3 Analog Computer) Measuring Principle) Continuous Data) Analog Signal Analog Computer Digital Computer) Discrete Data)Digital Signal Counter) DigitalComputer Analog Signal)Digital Signal) Analog Signal Converter)
  2. 2. Digital Signal Analog Signal Hybrid Computer)Analog Computer Digital Computer AnalogComputer Digital Computer Converter) Special Purpose Computer) Inflexible) General Purpose Computer) Flexible)
  3. 3. Super Computer)NASA) Mainframe Computer) Family) Network) Terminal) Multi Tasking) Multi User) ATM Mini Computer)Harddisk)
  4. 4. Micro Computer) Personal Computer : PC) Desktop Computer)2. Portable Computer) Laptop Computer Notebook Computer Input Unit) Central Processing Unit ; CPU) Output Unit) Secondary Storage Unit)
  5. 5. 4 Input Unit) Central Processing Unit : CPU) Output Unit)Secondary Storage) 1. Case 1.1 Power Supply 1.2 Mainboard Mainboard 1.2.1 CPU 1.2.2 RAM 1.2.3 Expansion Slots 1.2.4 Ports 1.3 Hard Disk 1.4 Floppy Disk Drive 1.5 CD-ROM Drive 1.6 DVD-ROM Drive 1.7 Sound Card 1.8 Network Card 2. Case 2.1 Keyboard 2.2 Monitor 2.3 Mouse 2.4 Printer 2.5 Scanner 2.6 Digital Camera 2.7 Modem 2.8 UPS Case) Case 2 Desktop ) Tower) Case
  6. 6. CaseCase Case Case Mainboard Chips) Wafer) Fibreglass) MainboardMotherboard System Board 1 0) Mainboard CPU RAM CPU Cache ( CPU RAMChipset 2 Mainboard Mainboard Mainboard Chipset Mainboard Chipset
  7. 7. CPU CPU IntelAMD) Mainboard 1. Socket CPU 2. Socket(s) RAM Modules 3 Sockets 3. AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) Slot VGA Card 4. Expansion Slots PCI 5 Slots 5. Ports Central Processing Unit : CPU) Processor) chip) 31. Arithmetic & Logical Unit : ALU) 22. Control Unit)
  8. 8. 3. Main Memory) RAM) RAM Random Access Memory)
  9. 9. Input) Output) 4 1. Input Storage Area 2. Working Storage Area 3. Output Storage Area 4. Program Storage Area RAM Memorychip HM411000-70 RAM Accesstime Databus Access time RAM Access time Chip Access time(ns) Memory chip 250 25 200 20 150 15 120 12 100 10 85 85 80 8,80 70 7,70 65 65 60 6,60 53 53
  10. 10. RAM Cycle time ns Cycletime Read/Write cycle time ( RAM) Access time Refresh time RAM CPU 2 clock cycle 2 RAM RAM WAIT CPU CPU clock cycle WAIT STATE WAIT STATE1. INTERLEAVE Refresh time RAM Memory 1 address 1 cycle time CPU Memory blockAddress Interleave Cycle time Cycle time Bank Memory Bank Memoryaddress Bank CPU 2Bank Memory Bank 2 Bank 4 Bank Memory Memory Bank Memory 2 Bank Bank2. Page Mode RAM Paged RAM Memory Page Page Memory Address Page Wait StatePage Wait State3. Cache Memory Memory CPU Internal Cache External Cache RAM Wait State CPU Cache SRAM WaitState Cache controller Cache main memory 2-4 KB Cache CPU Memory Cache Main memory Cache CPU Cache controller Random Random CPU Cache
  11. 11. Random 80% Wait State 80% Check Parity Parity 1 8 9 1 8 Parity 2 Odd Parity (ParityEven Parity (Parity Odd Parity 1 8 IC 74LS280 Parity 74LS280 1 8Parity bit 1 1 9 Parity bit 1 8 Parity bit 0 1 9 EvenParity Parity 1 9 Parity bit RAM RAM 11001010 OddParity Parity bit 110001010 Odd Parity 1 IC74LS280 CPU Halt PARITY ERRORSYSTEM HALT Parity bit 2 10001001 10101011 Parity RAM RAM 1. DIP (Dual In-line Package) DIPRAM IC (Integrate Circuit ) Memory chip RAM DIP DIP DIP Pin
  12. 12. 2. SIPP (Single In-line Pin Package)RAM DIP PCB (Printed Circuit Board)SIPP PCB Pin IC Pin SIPP PCB SIPP Pin SIPP DIP 3. SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module)SIPP Pin EdgeConnector PCB SIMM SIMM SIMM Edge connector SIMM Pin SIMMSIMM 8 , 16 , 32 Edgeconnector 4. DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) RAM JEDEC (Joint Electron DeviceEngineering Council) SIMM 168 Pin( 84 pin )Module RAM RAM chip icPrinted Circuit Board Module 2 Module SIMM DIMMSIMM Single In-line Memory Module Module datapath 32 bit circuitboard SIMM RAM prosonal computer:PC)8088 80286 DRAM DIP (dual in-line package)
  13. 13. DRAM BIOS) DRAM DRAM SIPRAM : Single In-line Package RAM) 30 SIMM RAM : Single In-lineMemory Module RAM) 30DIMM Dual In-line Memory Module Module datapath 64 circuite board CPUPentium datapath 32 bit SIMM RAM slot RAM Memory Module 3 30-pin, 72-pin, 168-pin 168-pin RAM Parity bit 1 system haltNon-Parity bit Error Cheching and Correcting(ECC) bit system halt halt ECC overhead Parity Performance
  14. 14. RAMDynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) DRAM Capaciter)refresh refresh refresh Dynamic RAMStaic Random Access Memory (SRAM) DRAM DRAM refresh SRAM refresh refresh refresh DRAMFast Page Mode DRAM (FPM DRAM) FPM DRAM DRAM 6-3-3-3 (Latency3 clock 3 clock page) 32bit 100 MB 64 bit 200 MB RAM RAMExtended-Data Output (EDO) DRAM Hyper-Page Mode DRAM RAM CASlatency40% FPM 15% EDO 66 MHz timming 5-2-2-2 83 MHz Timming chip EDO 50ns) 100 MHzTomming 6-3-3-3 DRAM 264 MB EDO RAM
  15. 15. Burst EDO (BEDO) DRAM BEDO EDO Burst Mode address adressgenerate 3 address 1 adress Timming 5-1-1-1 66 MHz BEDO IntelSDRAM EDO BEDOchipset SDRAMSynchronous DRAM (SDRAM) SDRAM DRAMDRAM RAS CAS chip RAM 50, -60, -80 -50 50 SDRAM SDRAM CAS CAS 2 2 SDRAM Timming 5-1-1-1 BEDO RAM 100 MHz 528 MBDDR SDRAM ( SDRAM II) DDR RAM SDRAM DDR SDRAM 1GRambus DRAM (RDRAM) RAMBUS RAMBUS Inc. 80 --- RAMBUS pinstatic buffer interface DRAM RAMBUS Performance 3SDRAM 100 MHz 1.6 G
  16. 16. RAM RDRAMInterface PCB (Printed Circuit Board)Controller Interface 2 3.2 G 4 6.4 GSynchronous Graphic RAM (SGRAM) SGRAM SDRAM Graphics HardwareSDRAM Graphic CardSDRAM SGRAM Matrox G200 Page Register SG ClearScreen bit wordbitmask bit SGRAM SDRAM Graphics Clear Screen Graphics Card SystemVideo RAM (VRAM) VRAM Video Dispaly Card VRAMDRAM VRAM serial port 1 2 port RAM Dual-Port)Triple-Port) Parallel Port Standard Interface Host Processor refresh Seral PortDisplayWindowns RAM (WRAM) WRAM Matrox RAM Graphics Card card Millenium Millenium II Millenium G200 SGRAM ) Number 9 WRAM Number 9 Revolutuon IV WRAM 8M Crad WRAM VRAM Bandwith
  17. 17. Double-Buffer VRAM Access Time DRAM ns) 60 70 DRAM SIMM 8 Single-in-line Memory Modules) 30 DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory DRAM Page Fast Page DRAMFast Page DRAM Page Fast Page DRAM SIMM 32 72 Pentium 64 SIMM EDO Ram BufferEDO RAM EDO RAM Fast Page DRAM 10 % Access Time EDO SIMM 32 72 DIMM 64 144 EDO Extended Data Out EDO 25 % Access Time Wait StateSDRAM SDRAM Access Time Ram 66, 100 133 MHz SDRAM DIMM 64 168 MHz SDRAM Sychronous DRAM sync"SDRAM II DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM 184 (DDR) 2 FSB RAM 2 SDRAM 133 MHz
  18. 18. 2 Pipline 266 MHz RDRAM RAMBUS 184 Pentium4 PentiumIII Chipset i820 Intel 4 FSB RAM 4 RAM BUS = 100 MHz 4 piplineRDRAM 400 MHz Rambus, Inc. Rambus DRAM RDRAM SDRAM RDRAM RDRAM Synclink DRAM SDRAM bank 16 banks 4 banks Hard disk 5.25 360 track) 40 1000 5
  19. 19. clean room Winchester Disk) platters) Spindle 3600
  20. 20. Spindle 2Landing Zone
  21. 21. Aluminum Alloy Platter Platter 2-3 0 1 Track 2 2 2 4 4Track Sector Track
  22. 22. 4 15 15 2 4 163,600 3 70-100 70-100G) 2,000 TPI) CylinderTrackSector 512
  23. 23. Multiple ZoneRecordingMultiple Zone Recording 3.5 60 120Multiple Zone Recording “C” 197317 microinch ( 3 microinch 747 1Seek Time
  24. 24. 3,000 3.5 2,999 Seek time ms) Seek time 2 ms 20 ms Average seek timeRandom) Average seek time 8 14 ms seekSeek time Seek time Seek time 14 ms “ 14ms” Seek time 14ms Seek time Seek time sequential)seek timeHead Switch Time msCylinder Switch Time trackswitch)
  25. 25. msRotational Latency Rotational Latency ms RPM ( Hard Disk) 2 EIDE (Enhanced Integrated DriveElectronics) SCSI (Small Computer SystemInterface) EIDE SCSIServer
  26. 26. EIDE Enhance IDE IDE 40 AT Attachment ATA ATA-2, ATAPI, EIDE, FastATA ATA-33 ATA-66 ATA-6680 1 2 2 4 1 EIDE PIO (Programmed InputOutput) PIO PIO mode MB./sec) 0 3.3 ATA 1 5.2 ATA 2 8.3 ATA 3 11.1 ATA-2 4 16.6 ATA-2DMA (Direct Memory Access) PIO mode 4 PIO DMA mode MB./sec) Single Word 0 2.1 ATA
  27. 27. 1 4.2 ATA 2 8.3 ATA 0 4.2 ATA Multi Word 1 13.3 ATA-2 2 16.6 ATA-2 BIOS Windows NT, Windows98 UNIX EIDE Ultra DMA/2 ATA-33( ATA-4) 2 33 MHz UltraDMA/4 ATA-66 ( ATA-5) DMA mode MB./sec) Ultra DMA/2 33.3 ATA-33 (ATA-4) (UDMA2 UDMA/33) Ultra DMA/4 66.6 ATA-66 (ATA-5) (UDMA4 UDMA/66) ATA-100SCSISCSI Intelligent SCSI 7 SCSI 14 SCSI-2)
  28. 28. SCSI SCSI Ultra Ultra Ultra 3 SCSI Fast Wide Fast Wide Ultra Wide 2 (Ultra160) 8 8 19 16 32 16 32 16 32 5 10 5 10 10 20 20 40 40MHz) 5 10 10 20 40 40 80 80 160MB/s) SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI- SCSI-3 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5,400 rpm) 7,200 SCSI 10,000
  29. 29. ATA-33 ATA-66 SCSI EIDE7 EIDE Server LAN IDE 2 Master Slave UltraDMA/66 PIO mode 4 Buffer) 128KB 256-512KB 2MB
  30. 30. 15G 7,200 rpm 20G 5,400 rpm 15G 7,200 rpm 0.5 x Cylender x x Sector1 byte) = 8 bit)1 Kilobyte) = 1,0241 Megabyte) = 1,048,5761 Gigabyte) = 1,073,741,8241 Terabyte) = 1,099,5111 Petobyte) = 1,125,899,906 CD-ROM DriveCD-ROM Drive CD Case CD-ROM DriveCD-ROM Drive CD-ROM CD-ROM 2 CD-ROMCD-ROM Drive Start Programme Desktop
  31. 31. CD-ROM CD-ROMFloppy Disk(S) Audio-CD CD File WAV CD Sound Card Video-CD Concert Karaoke Video-CD SoundCard Video-CD WindowsMedia Player Windows File Video_CD MP3 MP3MP3 File WAV File 12 14 File 150 CD Winamp Video-CD FileMP3 CD-ROM Drive CD-ROM Drive Double-Speed 2x CD-ROM Drive 60x CD-ROMDrive 2 240 CD-ROM Drive CD-ROM Audio-CD Video-CD 2xCD-Writer
  32. 32. CD-Writer CD-ROM Drive CD-Writer CD-ROM Drive CD CD CD-R( CD-RW(1,000 CD-Writer CD-ROM Drive 13 20/10/40 CD-Writer CD-R20x CD-RW 10x 40x Floppy Disk Floppy Disk Drive Case Disks8 , 5.25 3.5 Disk Mylar Disk Drive Unit SpindleClamps 300 360 DiskCircular Tracks Floppy Disk Drive Hard Disk Drive Floppy Disk Drive Floppy Disk 1.44 Mb 720 KbFloppy Disk Drive Floppy Disk 120 Mb Portable Mass Storage)Formats Format VGA Card Display Adapter
  33. 33. VGA Card digital ChipCPU VGA card ChipGPU (Grarphic Processing Unit) Card VGA - Video Graphics Array 720 x 400 2 16 640 x 480 256 320 x 220 8 16 24 SVGA - Super Video Graphics Array 1024 x 768 1280 x 1024 XGA - Extended Graphics Array 256 1024 x 768Resolution Pixel) 640x480 640 480 640x480 800x600, 1024x768 1280x1024 16 , 256 , 65,535 16 True color 72
  34. 34. Sound Card DigitalDigital Analog Analog Digital Mainboard Mainboard Mainboard ExpansionCard Sound Card Sound Board 2 A/D Converter A/D Converter - A/D Converter 8 bit 256 - A/D Converter 16 bit 65,536 Modems)
  35. 35. Modems digital signals) analog signals) Modems) modulate/demodulate)1. rate) bps) kbps) 56,000 bps 56 K2.compression)3.
  36. 36. Fax capabilities) printer)4. error control)5. 2 external modems) internal modems)6. Network Computer Network NetworkInternetNetwork Card ( Ethernet Card) ( Expansionslot Network Card Socket Network SocketNetwork Socket Internet Network LAN Card Card PC VGA Card Sound Card Lan Card 10 Mbps, 10/100 Mbps, 100 Mpbs Lan Cable UTB, STB HUB Hub Port 8 ports, 12 ports, 24 ports
  37. 37. Monitor MonitorMonitor, CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Text) Graphic) 80 25 Pixel) 640 pixel x 480 pixel Video Card, Video Adapter) 1. Monochrome Monitor) 0 1 2. Color Monitor) 4 , , 16 16 3. LCD; Liquid Crystal Display) 1. Active matrix TFT – Thin Film Transistor 2. Passive matrix color DSTN – Double Super Twisted Nematic ----- 1 line 15 - 17 20 - 30 5 Standby 80 - 100 Keyboard
  38. 38. 50shift) 7 8 7 8 2524 832527 84 PS/2 17 101 MouseMouse Keyboard SocketCase Mouse 3
  39. 39. 1. Serial Mouse Serial Port 1 2 Serial Port 1 2. PS/2 Mouse PS/2 Mouse Port 3. USB Mouse USB Port Mouse Tracking Ball Mouse Mouse Mouse Adapter PS/2 Serial) Mouse 2 2 3 Web Pages3

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