Professional Baking, Fourth Edition
by Wayne Gisslen

ProMgmt. is a registered trademark of the National Restaurant Associ...
Commonly Used Metric Prefixes
 kilo

= 1,000
 deci = 1/10
 centi = 1/100
 milli = 1/1000

©2005 National Restaurant As...
Determining the Percentage
of an Ingredient Using
Baker’s Percentages
(Total weight of ingredient ÷ Total weight of flour)...
Converting a Formula to a
New Yield
 Change

percentage yield to decimal form
 Divide desired yield by new decimal figur...
Four Factors That Affect
Gluten Development
 Selection

of flour
 Shortening
 Liquids
 Mixing methods

©2005 National ...
Techniques to Minimize Staling
 Protect

from air
 Add moisture retainers
 Freeze rather than refrigerate
 Reheat prod...
Main Mixing Attachments
 Paddle

– for general mixing
 Wire whip – for beating eggs and cream
 Dough arm or hook – for ...
The Four Basic Types of Ovens
1.
2.
3.
4.

Deck oven
Rack oven
Mechanical oven
Convection oven

©2005 National Restaurant ...
Specialty Items for Baking Breads
 Banneton

– wood mold for shaping hearth

breads
 Loaf pan – rectangular pan with fla...
Specialty Items for Baking Cakes
 Cake

pans – can be round, square, or
specially shaped
 Sheet pan – shallow, rectangul...
Specialty Items for Molds
 Baba

mold – thimble-sized mold
 Bombe mold – dome-shaped mold for
frozen desserts
 Charlott...
Image courtesy the Wheat Foods Council

The Structure of Wheat

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundati...
Bakeshop Flours and Their Uses
Strong Flours
 Straight flour:
 Patent flour:
 Clear flour:
 High-gluten flour:

Weak F...
Bakeshop Shortenings and
Their Uses







Regular shortenings:

Flaky pastries and products
mixed by the creaming
me...
Fat Content of Milk Products
 Fresh,

whole: 3.5%
 Evaporated and condensed, whole: 8%
 Dried, whole: 27%
 Fresh, evap...
Functions of Eggs in Baking
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Provide structure
Emulsify fats and liquids
Leaven
Aid in shortening
Provid...
Twelve Steps for the Production of
Yeast Breads
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Scaling ingredients
Mixing
Fermentation
Punching
Scalin...
Straight Dough Method
 Dissolve

yeast in some of the warm water
(100˚F–110˚F, or 38˚C–43˚C)
 Combine remaining ingredie...
Modified Straight Dough Method
 Soften

yeast in some of the warm water
 Combine fat, sugar, salt, milk solids,
and flav...
Sponge Method
 Combine

liquids, yeast, and some of the flour
 Mix until soft
 Let ferment until double in size
 Punch...
Procedure for Punching Dough
1.
2.
3.

Pull up the dough on all sides
Fold it over the center, and press down
Turn dough u...
Formula for Determining the
Water Temperature Needed to
Control Fermentation
1.
2.

3.

Multiply desired dough temperature...
Defining Artisan Bread
 Handmade
 Uses

pre-ferments and sourdough starters
 No chemical additives
 No preservatives
...
Yeast Pre-ferments
 Poolish
 Biga
 Levain-levure
 Scrap

dough

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foun...
Making a Sourdough Starter







Combine whole rye flour and water –or–
Combine bread flour and water, and bury fres...
During Autolyse:
Flour is fully hydrated
 Enzymes react with proteins before they are stretched
Results of autolyse:
 Gl...
Baking Artisan Bread
 Preheat

oven to 425˚F and 450˚F (218˚C and

232˚C)
 Inject moisture during first 15 minutes
 Und...
Crisp-Crusted Breads
 Italian
 Vienna
 French
 Hard

rolls

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundati...
Soft-Crusted Breads
 Soft

rolls
 Braided bread
 Straight-dough rye
 Pan loaves

©2005 National Restaurant Association...
Make-Up for Round Rolls
 Scale

and round dough
 Place 2 inches apart on prepared pans
 Proof and wash with water
 Bak...
Make-Up for Elongated Loaves
 Round

and relax dough
 Flatten and shape into oval
 Roll up and tightly seal ends
 Use ...
Make-Up for Pan Loaves
 Round

and bench loaf-size units
 Stretch into long rectangle
 Fold into thirds
 Roll dough to...
Sweet and Rich Dough Products
 Sweet

rolls
 Cinnamon rolls
 Brioche
 Stollen

©2005 National Restaurant Association E...
Rolled-in Dough Products
 Croissants
 Danish

pastries

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.

T...
Pattern for Cutting
Croissant Triangles
a.
f.
b.

d.

g.

e.
c.
©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundati...
Make-Up for Small Brioches
 Roll

dough into small round pieces
 Pinch, but do not detach, a small piece
 Round both pa...
Wreath Coffee Cake Make-Up
 Use

a sweet or Danish dough
 Bend roll into circle
 Slash sides and place on a greased she...
Common Quick Bread Mixtures
 Soft

doughs:

Thick enough to roll out and cut
into shapes
 Pour batters: Thin enough to p...
Quick Bread Dough and Batter
Mixing Methods
 Biscuit

method:

 Muffin

method:

 Creaming

method:

Used for scones an...
Biscuit Method
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sift dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl
Cut in shortening using paddle or pastry kni...
Muffin Method
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sift dry ingredients together in mixing bowl
Combine all liquid ingredients, including
melted f...
Creaming Method for Muffins,
Loaves, and Coffee Cakes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Combine fat, sugar, salt, and milk powder
in a bowl
...
Guidelines for
Yeast-Raised Doughnuts
Mixing method:
Modified straight dough
Proofing temperature: Room temperature
Frying...
Guidelines for Cake-Type
Doughnuts
 Mixing

method:
Creaming
 Frying temperature: 375˚F to 385˚F (190˚C to
195˚C)
 Fryi...
Guidelines for Preparing and
Storing Fat
 Use

high-quality, flavorless fat
 Keep fat and equipment clean
 Strain coole...
Guidelines for Preparing Fritters
 Mixing

method:
Muffin
 Frying temperature: 375˚F (190˚C)
 Frying time:
Until golden...
Advance Volume Preparation of
Pancake and Waffle Batter
 Leavened

only with baking powder – make the
day before and refr...
Preventing Crystallization of
Sugar Syrups
1.
2.
3.
4.

Cover saucepan and boil syrup for several
minutes
Carefully wash s...
Basic Ratios for Whipped Cream
 Heavy

cream

 Sugar

1 quart
2–4 ounces

 Flavorings:
–
–

Vanilla
Liquors

½ ounces
2...
Guidelines for Whipping Cream









Use day-old cream
Chill cream and all utensils
Use a wire whip (hand) or wh...
Basic Meringue Types


Common meringue:



Swiss meringue:



Italian meringue:

Egg whites and sugar
beaten together
L...
Guidelines for Making Meringues
 Fat

prevents foaming
 Egg whites foam best at room temperature
 Do not overbeat
 Sug...
Procedure for Making
Vanilla Custard
 Quickly

whip eggs and sugar together
 Scald milk
 Slowly beat hot milk into egg ...
Pie Dough Ingredients
1.
2.
3.
4.

Flour
Fat
Liquid
Salt

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.

T...
Pie Dough Mixing Consistencies
 Mealy

pie dough:
 Flaky pie dough:
– Short-flake:
– Long-flake:

Coarse corn meal
Thin ...
Guidelines for Rolling Pie Dough
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dust bench and rolling pin lightly with flour
Rough dough to a uniform ⅛ inc...
Fruit Filling Cooking Methods
and Their Uses
 Cooked

juice method:

 Cooked

fruit method:

 Old-fashioned

method:

©...
Guidelines for Using Gelatin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Measure gelatin accurately
Stir gelatin into cold water; heat until dissol...
Procedure for One Four-Fold
 Roll

dough into a rectangle ½ inch thick
 Spot butter over ⅔ of the dough
 Fold unbuttere...
Makeup of Puff Dough Products
 Use

sharp cutting tools
 Avoid touching sides with fingers
 Place units upside-down on ...
Mixing Procedure for Éclair Paste
 Bring

liquid, fat, salt, and sugar to a rapid boil
 Add flour and stir until paste f...
Makeup for Strudel









Place dough on cloth
Sprinkle or brush butter over dough
Sprinkle dough with crumb mix...
Guidelines for Handling
Commercial Phyllo Dough
 Thaw

frozen phyllo completely before opening
package
 After opening, k...
Procedure for Making Tart Shells
Remove refrigerated dough and let rest until pliable
 Roll out dough on floured canvas
...
Making Tartlet Shells
 Roll

dough as for tart shells
 Drape dough over all shells
 Let dough settle into tins
 Run ro...
Assembly for Unbaked Tarts
 Prepare

fruit; drain well
 Spread a layer of pastry cream
 Arrange fruit on pastry cream
...
Unbaked Tart Variations
1.
2.
3.

Sprinkle bottom of shell with chopped nuts,
cake crumbs, cookie crumbs, or breadcrumbs
S...
Cake Mixing Methods





High-fat or shortened
cakes:
Creaming method
Two-stage method
Flour-batter method

©2005 Natio...
Three Goals of Cake Batter Mixing
1.
2.
3.

Combine all ingredients into a smooth,
uniform batter
Form and incorporate air...
Causes of Curdling in Cake Batters
 Using

the wrong type of fat
 Using ingredients that are too cold
 Mixing the first...
Developing Proper Cake Texture
 Use

cake flour: low gluten levels help create a
fine, light product
 Strictly observe a...
The Function of Cake
Batter Ingredients
Tougheners:
 Flour
 Eggs
Tenderizers:
 Sugar
 Fats
 Chemical leaveners

©2005...
Cakes are done when:
 Center

of top springs back when
touched lightly
 Wooden pick inserted into center
comes out clean...
Seven Types of Icings
 Fondants
 Buttercreams
 Foam-type

icings
 Fudge-type icings
 Flat-type icings
 Royal, or dec...
Guidelines for Frosting Cakes









Cool cakes completely
Trim ragged edges and large bumps
Brush all crumbs fr...
Paper Cone Falling Method
Used to make lines of even thickness on
horizontal surfaces
Hold cone vertically.
Touch tip to...
Paper Cone Contact Method
Used to vary the thickness of lines and to
decorate vertical surfaces.
 Hold cone as if holding...
Pastry Bag Decorating Technique
 Fit

desired tip into pastry bag
 Roll down top of bag to create a collar
 Hold under ...
Components in a European-Style
Layer Cake
 Optional

bottom layer
 Cake layers
 Additional specialty layers
 Dessert s...
Common European-Style Tortes
 Black

Forest torte
 Moch! torte
 Fruit torte
 Dobos torte
 Napoleon gâteau
 Kirsch to...
Procedure for Making Swiss Rolls
 Similar,

though more delicate than American
jelly rolls
 Use Swiss roll sponge formul...
Common Forms of French Pastries
 Slices:

chilled portion sizes of layer cakes,
Swiss rolls, or other rolls
 Triangles: ...
Versions of Othellos








Othellos: filled with chocolate pastry cream, iced with
chocolate fondant
Iagos: filled w...
Factors That Contribute
to Crispness
 Low

moisture content
 High sugar and fat content
 Long baking periods
 Small si...
Factors that Contribute to Softness
 Low

sugar and fat content
 Honey, molasses, or corn syrup in formulas
 Underbakin...
Factors That Contribute
to Chewiness
 High

sugar and liquid content,
but low fat content
 High proportion of eggs
 Str...
Factors That Encourage Spread
 High

sugar content
 High baking soda or baking ammonia content
 Well-creamed fat and su...
Eight Basic Cookie Types









Bagged
Dropped
Rolled
Molded
Icebox
Bar
Sheet
Stencil

©2005 National Restaurant...
Custard Types
Rangetop custards:
 Cooked on stove top
 Stirred while cooking
 Remain pourable
once cooked

©2005 Nation...
Guidelines for Baked Puddings
 Scald

milk before adding to eggs
 Remove foam
 Bake in a water bath at 325˚F (163˚C)
 ...
Baking Puddings in a Water Bath
 Set

pudding mold in a large, deep pan
 Fill pan halfway up sides of molds
with hot wat...
Procedure for Preparing Bavarians
 Soften

gelatin in cold liquid
 Stir gelatin into hot custard sauce
until dissolved
...
Guidelines for Successful Mousses
 Fold

in egg whites before adding
whipped cream
 Egg whites folded into a hot base wi...
Popular Frozen Desserts
Ice cream: milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and
sometimes eggs
 Ice milk: ice cream with a lower b...
Ice Cream Quality Factors
 Smoothness:

size of crystals in the product
 Overrun: percentage of air incorporated
while f...
Guidelines for Storing and Serving
Ice Cream and Sherbets
1.
2.
3.
4.

Store below 0˚F (-18˚C)
To prepare for serving, tem...
Still-Frozen Desserts
 Frozen

mousses
 Frozen soufflés
 Original parfaits
 Bombes

©2005 National Restaurant Associat...
Assembling a Bombe
 Line

a chilled mold with ice cream or sherbet
and freeze
 Fill center with bombe mixture, cover, an...
Fresh Fruit Desserts
 Uncooked

and plain
 Uncooked with cream
 Uncooked with sabayon
 Uncooked with flavored syrup, l...
Fruit Storage









Fruits that ripen after
purchase:
Bananas
Kiwi fruit
Mangoes
Papayas
Pears
Peaches
Pineapple...
Traditional American Fruit Desserts
 Cobblers:

large fruit pies without a bottom crust
 Crisps: no bottom crust with a ...
Fruit Garnish Examples
 Jams

and jellies
 Marmalades
 Compotes
 Candied citrus zest

©2005 National Restaurant Associ...
Simple Dessert Presentations
 Dessert

alone
 Dessert plus garnish
 Dessert plus sauce
 Dessert plus garnish and sauce...
Dessert Garnishes
 Fresh

or poached fruit
 Ice cream or sorbet
 Whipped cream dollop
 Petits fours sec
 Chocolate cu...
Complex Dessert Presentations
 Contain

one or more dessert items, sauce,
garnish, or both
 Use small portions, but comb...
Examples of Matching
Dessert Elements
 Chocolate

soufflé with chocolate sauce
 Medley of chocolate desserts
 Fruit des...
Examples of Contrasting
Dessert Elements
 Poached

pears with vanilla ice cream and
chocolate sauce
 Hot desserts served...
Chocolate





True chocolate
couverture:
Cocoa solids
Sugar
Cocoa butter

©2005 National Restaurant Association Educat...
Chocolate Tempering Temperatures
 115˚F

to 118˚F (46˚C to 48˚C) – melting
temperature
 78˚F to 79˚F (26˚C) – cooling or...
Procedure for Tempering Chocolate








Chop chocolate into small pieces and place
in a dry saucepan
Set pan in a...
Making Filled Chocolate
 Fill

molds as if for solid chocolates
 After a few moments, pour out liquid chocolate,
leaving...
Making Chocolate from
Two-Part Molds
 Paint

inside surface with tempered chocolate
 Clip open-bottom molds together
 P...
Working with Marzipan
 To

color, add tinted paste or food dye
while mixing
 Use stainless steel bowls, as aluminum
disc...
Molding Marzipan Fruits
 Divide

marzipan into equal portions
 Roll by hand into perfectly smooth balls
 Using real fru...
Working with Pastillage
 Make

certain all equipment is perfectly clean
and dry
 Use stainless steel bowls, as aluminum
...
Working with Nougatine
 Pour

cooked nougatine onto a marble slab
 As it sets, flip with a spatula so it cools evenly
 ...
Basic Procedure for Boiling
Sugar Syrup







Slowly stir sugar and water in heavy pan over low heat
When sugar dis...
Procedure for Spinning Sugar









Lightly oil two wooden rods
Spread out paper on floor
Bring boiling sugar sy...
Procedure for Poured/Cast Sugar









Place oiled mold on oiled marble slab
Heat boiling sugar syrup to 330˚F (...
Procedure for Pulled Sugar









Heat boiling sugar syrup to 320˚F (160˚C)
Plunge base of pan into cold water
R...
Procedure for Blown Sugar
 Roll

hot pulled sugar into ball.
 Indent with wooden rod.
 Replace rod with blowpipe and se...
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Transcript of "Gisslen probaking4e"

  1. 1. Professional Baking, Fourth Edition by Wayne Gisslen ProMgmt. is a registered trademark of the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. This presentation may be reproduced on paper or overhead transparency FOR CLASSROOM USE ONLY. Notwithstanding the preceding exception, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.
  2. 2. Commonly Used Metric Prefixes  kilo = 1,000  deci = 1/10  centi = 1/100  milli = 1/1000 ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 1-1
  3. 3. Determining the Percentage of an Ingredient Using Baker’s Percentages (Total weight of ingredient ÷ Total weight of flour) × 100% = Percentage of ingredient ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 1-2
  4. 4. Converting a Formula to a New Yield  Change percentage yield to decimal form  Divide desired yield by new decimal figure  Round up  Use weight of flour to calculate weights of other ingredients  (Please note: reprint the numbers in the example on page 11) ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 1-3
  5. 5. Four Factors That Affect Gluten Development  Selection of flour  Shortening  Liquids  Mixing methods ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 1-4
  6. 6. Techniques to Minimize Staling  Protect from air  Add moisture retainers  Freeze rather than refrigerate  Reheat product just before serving ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 1-5
  7. 7. Main Mixing Attachments  Paddle – for general mixing  Wire whip – for beating eggs and cream  Dough arm or hook – for mixing and kneading yeast dough ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 2-1
  8. 8. The Four Basic Types of Ovens 1. 2. 3. 4. Deck oven Rack oven Mechanical oven Convection oven ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 2-2
  9. 9. Specialty Items for Baking Breads  Banneton – wood mold for shaping hearth breads  Loaf pan – rectangular pan with flared sides for loaf breads  Pullman pan – straight-sided pan with a removable lid  Muffin pan – has cup-shaped indentations for individual items ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 2-3
  10. 10. Specialty Items for Baking Cakes  Cake pans – can be round, square, or specially shaped  Sheet pan – shallow, rectangular pan  Spring-form pan – cake pan with removable bottom  Tart pan – shallow, with fluted sides  Tube pan – deep cake pan with a tube in the center ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 2-4
  11. 11. Specialty Items for Molds  Baba mold – thimble-sized mold  Bombe mold – dome-shaped mold for frozen desserts  Charlotte mold – round, tapered, flat-bottomed mold with two handles  Charlotte rings – molds of various diameters and heights used for shaping layered desserts ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 2-5
  12. 12. Image courtesy the Wheat Foods Council The Structure of Wheat ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 3-1
  13. 13. Bakeshop Flours and Their Uses Strong Flours  Straight flour:  Patent flour:  Clear flour:  High-gluten flour: Weak Flours  Cake flour:  Pastry flour: Bread Best choice for bread Rye bread Pizza crusts, bagels, hardcrusted breads Cakes, delicate pastries Pie dough, muffins, cookies, biscuits ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 3-2
  14. 14. Bakeshop Shortenings and Their Uses      Regular shortenings: Flaky pastries and products mixed by the creaming method Emulsified shortenings: High-ratio cakes, icings Butter: Cakes, icings, flaky pastries Cake margarine: Cakes, cookies Pastry margarine: Danish pastries, puff pastries, napoleons ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 3-3
  15. 15. Fat Content of Milk Products  Fresh, whole: 3.5%  Evaporated and condensed, whole: 8%  Dried, whole: 27%  Fresh, evaporated and dried, skim: trace ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 3-4
  16. 16. Functions of Eggs in Baking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Provide structure Emulsify fats and liquids Leaven Aid in shortening Provide moisture Provide flavor, nutritional value, and color ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 3-5
  17. 17. Twelve Steps for the Production of Yeast Breads 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Scaling ingredients Mixing Fermentation Punching Scaling Rounding ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Benching Makeup and panning Proofing Baking Cooling Storing Transparency 4-1
  18. 18. Straight Dough Method  Dissolve yeast in some of the warm water (100˚F–110˚F, or 38˚C–43˚C)  Combine remaining ingredients in separate bowl  Add dissolved yeast  Mix until it is smooth and the dough develops ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 4-2
  19. 19. Modified Straight Dough Method  Soften yeast in some of the warm water  Combine fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and flavorings  Gradually add eggs  Add liquids  Add flour and dissolved yeast; mix until smooth ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 4-3
  20. 20. Sponge Method  Combine liquids, yeast, and some of the flour  Mix until soft  Let ferment until double in size  Punch down; add remaining ingredients  Mix until uniform and smooth ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 4-4
  21. 21. Procedure for Punching Dough 1. 2. 3. Pull up the dough on all sides Fold it over the center, and press down Turn dough upside-down in the container ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 4-5
  22. 22. Formula for Determining the Water Temperature Needed to Control Fermentation 1. 2. 3. Multiply desired dough temperature by 3 Add the flour temperature and room temperature, plus 20˚F (7˚C) to account for friction during mixing Subtract the results of Step 2 from that of Step 1 ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 4-6
  23. 23. Defining Artisan Bread  Handmade  Uses pre-ferments and sourdough starters  No chemical additives  No preservatives  Uses traditional production methods ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 5-1
  24. 24. Yeast Pre-ferments  Poolish  Biga  Levain-levure  Scrap dough ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 5-2
  25. 25. Making a Sourdough Starter      Combine whole rye flour and water –or– Combine bread flour and water, and bury fresh fruit/vegetables in mixture Cover and let sit at room temperature to ferment Refresh the starter Continue fermentation and refreshing procedures until fully developed (about 2 weeks) ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 5-3
  26. 26. During Autolyse: Flour is fully hydrated  Enzymes react with proteins before they are stretched Results of autolyse:  Gluten structure is improved  Dough is easier to handle  Mixing time is reduced  Color and flavor is improved  Texture of baked bread is improved  ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 5-4
  27. 27. Baking Artisan Bread  Preheat oven to 425˚F and 450˚F (218˚C and 232˚C)  Inject moisture during first 15 minutes  Underbaking is a common mistake  Final product has a well-browned, crisp crust ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 5-5
  28. 28. Crisp-Crusted Breads  Italian  Vienna  French  Hard rolls ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 6-1
  29. 29. Soft-Crusted Breads  Soft rolls  Braided bread  Straight-dough rye  Pan loaves ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 6-2
  30. 30. Make-Up for Round Rolls  Scale and round dough  Place 2 inches apart on prepared pans  Proof and wash with water  Bake with steam ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 6-3
  31. 31. Make-Up for Elongated Loaves  Round and relax dough  Flatten and shape into oval  Roll up and tightly seal ends  Use hands to roll into elongated oval  Place seam-side down on prepared pan  Proof, wash with water, and slash diagonally  Bake with steam ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 6-4
  32. 32. Make-Up for Pan Loaves  Round and bench loaf-size units  Stretch into long rectangle  Fold into thirds  Roll dough to fit prepared pan  Seal seam tightly  Place seam-side down in pan and bake ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 6-5
  33. 33. Sweet and Rich Dough Products  Sweet rolls  Cinnamon rolls  Brioche  Stollen ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 7-1
  34. 34. Rolled-in Dough Products  Croissants  Danish pastries ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 7-2
  35. 35. Pattern for Cutting Croissant Triangles a. f. b. d. g. e. c. ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 7-3
  36. 36. Make-Up for Small Brioches  Roll dough into small round pieces  Pinch, but do not detach, a small piece  Round both parts on a bench  Place large-end first into tin  Press the smaller ball into the larger one ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 7-4
  37. 37. Wreath Coffee Cake Make-Up  Use a sweet or Danish dough  Bend roll into circle  Slash sides and place on a greased sheet  Proof, egg wash, and bake ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 7-5
  38. 38. Common Quick Bread Mixtures  Soft doughs: Thick enough to roll out and cut into shapes  Pour batters: Thin enough to pour  Drop batters: Thick enough to drop from a spoon ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 8-1
  39. 39. Quick Bread Dough and Batter Mixing Methods  Biscuit method:  Muffin method:  Creaming method: Used for scones and biscuits Used for muffins, pancakes, waffles, and loaf- or sheet-type quick breads Used for muffin-type products with high sugar and fat content ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 8-2
  40. 40. Biscuit Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sift dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl Cut in shortening using paddle or pastry knife attachment until mixture resembles cornmeal Add liquids to dry ingredients Mix until ingredients are just combined and form a soft dough Bring dough to bench and knead lightly for about 30 seconds ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 8-3
  41. 41. Muffin Method 1. 2. 3. 4. Sift dry ingredients together in mixing bowl Combine all liquid ingredients, including melted fat or oil Add liquids to dry ingredients. Mix until flour is just moistened. Batter will appear lumpy Pan and bake immediately ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 8-4
  42. 42. Creaming Method for Muffins, Loaves, and Coffee Cakes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Combine fat, sugar, salt, and milk powder in a bowl Cream ingredients together until light Add eggs in two or three stages, creaming well after each addition Add liquids and stir lightly Sift together the flour and baking powder; add to the liquid and mix until just smooth ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 8-5
  43. 43. Guidelines for Yeast-Raised Doughnuts Mixing method: Modified straight dough Proofing temperature: Room temperature Frying temperature: 365˚F to 385˚F (185˚C to 195˚C) Frying time: 2½ minutes ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 9-1
  44. 44. Guidelines for Cake-Type Doughnuts  Mixing method: Creaming  Frying temperature: 375˚F to 385˚F (190˚C to 195˚C)  Frying time: 1½ to 2 minutes ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 9-2
  45. 45. Guidelines for Preparing and Storing Fat  Use high-quality, flavorless fat  Keep fat and equipment clean  Strain cooled fat after each use  Discard spent fat  Keep fat covered when not in use ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 9-3
  46. 46. Guidelines for Preparing Fritters  Mixing method: Muffin  Frying temperature: 375˚F (190˚C)  Frying time: Until golden brown on all sides ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 9-4
  47. 47. Advance Volume Preparation of Pancake and Waffle Batter  Leavened only with baking powder – make the day before and refrigerate  Leavened with baking soda – premix dry and liquid ingredients and combine right before cooking  Leavened with beaten egg whites – incorporate the egg whites just before cooking ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 9-5
  48. 48. Preventing Crystallization of Sugar Syrups 1. 2. 3. 4. Cover saucepan and boil syrup for several minutes Carefully wash sides of pan with brush dipped in water Add cream of tartar or lemon juice Add corn syrup or glucose ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-1
  49. 49. Basic Ratios for Whipped Cream  Heavy cream  Sugar 1 quart 2–4 ounces  Flavorings: – – Vanilla Liquors ½ ounces 2–4 ounces ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-2
  50. 50. Guidelines for Whipping Cream         Use day-old cream Chill cream and all utensils Use a wire whip (hand) or whip attachment (machine) Sweeten with extra-fine or confectioners’ sugar Add sugar when whip marks are visible Stop beating when peaks hold their shape Add flavorings last Cover and refrigerate when not using ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-3
  51. 51. Basic Meringue Types  Common meringue:  Swiss meringue:  Italian meringue: Egg whites and sugar beaten together Least stable Egg whites and sugar beaten over hot-water bath More stable Hot sugar syrup beaten into egg whites Most stable ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-4
  52. 52. Guidelines for Making Meringues  Fat prevents foaming  Egg whites foam best at room temperature  Do not overbeat  Sugar improves stability of egg white foams  Cream of tartar and lemon juice facilitate foaming ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-5
  53. 53. Procedure for Making Vanilla Custard  Quickly whip eggs and sugar together  Scald milk  Slowly beat hot milk into egg mixture  Heat mixture slowly in double boiler  Sauce is cooked when it reaches 185˚F (85˚C)  Cool immediately ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 10-6
  54. 54. Pie Dough Ingredients 1. 2. 3. 4. Flour Fat Liquid Salt ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 11-1
  55. 55. Pie Dough Mixing Consistencies  Mealy pie dough:  Flaky pie dough: – Short-flake: – Long-flake: Coarse corn meal Thin layers Peas Walnuts ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 11-2
  56. 56. Guidelines for Rolling Pie Dough 1. 2. 3. 4. Dust bench and rolling pin lightly with flour Rough dough to a uniform ⅛ inch (3 mm) Roll from center outward in all directions Finished dough should be a nearly perfect circle ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 11-3
  57. 57. Fruit Filling Cooking Methods and Their Uses  Cooked juice method:  Cooked fruit method:  Old-fashioned method: ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Canned or frozen fruit Fresh fruit (except berries) Dried fruits (rehydrated) Homemade pies made with fresh apples or peaches Transparency 11-4
  58. 58. Guidelines for Using Gelatin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Measure gelatin accurately Stir gelatin into cold water; heat until dissolved Stir chiffon base occasionally to prevent gelatin from setting along the outside edges If gelatin sets before egg whites can be added, warm base slightly When folding in egg whites and whipped cream, work rapidly without pausing Fill pie shells immediately ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 11-5
  59. 59. Procedure for One Four-Fold  Roll dough into a rectangle ½ inch thick  Spot butter over ⅔ of the dough  Fold unbuttered third over the center  Fold remaining third on top  Turn one quarter and place on bench  Roll into new ½ inch rectangle  Fold two ends to the center, and then fold in half again ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 12-1
  60. 60. Makeup of Puff Dough Products  Use sharp cutting tools  Avoid touching sides with fingers  Place units upside-down on baking sheet  Refrigerate and rest 30 minutes before baking  Keep egg wash from running down edges ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 12-2
  61. 61. Mixing Procedure for Éclair Paste  Bring liquid, fat, salt, and sugar to a rapid boil  Add flour and stir until paste forms  Remove from heat, and let cool to 140˚F (60˚C)  Beat in eggs a little at a time  Paste should be smooth and moist ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 12-3
  62. 62. Makeup for Strudel         Place dough on cloth Sprinkle or brush butter over dough Sprinkle dough with crumb mixture Spread filling 1½ inch thick Leave 2-inch band empty along edges Use cloth to roll up dough like a jelly roll Brush with butter or egg wash Bake at 375˚F (191˚C) until brown ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 12-4
  63. 63. Guidelines for Handling Commercial Phyllo Dough  Thaw frozen phyllo completely before opening package  After opening, keep leaves covered  Remove only one sheet at a time ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 12-5
  64. 64. Procedure for Making Tart Shells Remove refrigerated dough and let rest until pliable  Roll out dough on floured canvas  Pick up dough using rolling pin  Drape dough over tart pan  Press dough into corners without stretching  Flute edges and trim excess dough  Fill and bake If baking empty:  Line with parchment paper and dry beans  Bake until light brown Transparency 13-1 ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. 
  65. 65. Making Tartlet Shells  Roll dough as for tart shells  Drape dough over all shells  Let dough settle into tins  Run rolling pin over dough to cut  Press dough firmly into shells  Bake as for larger tarts ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 13-2
  66. 66. Assembly for Unbaked Tarts  Prepare fruit; drain well  Spread a layer of pastry cream  Arrange fruit on pastry cream  Brush fruit tops with glaze  Refrigerate until sold or served ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 13-3
  67. 67. Unbaked Tart Variations 1. 2. 3. Sprinkle bottom of shell with chopped nuts, cake crumbs, cookie crumbs, or breadcrumbs Spread frangipane cream or pastry cream on the bottom of the shell For hard fruits, poach fruits in syrup or sauté them in butter or syrup ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 13-4
  68. 68. Cake Mixing Methods    High-fat or shortened cakes: Creaming method Two-stage method Flour-batter method ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.    Low-fat or foam-type cakes: Sponge method Angel food method Chiffon method Transparency 14-1
  69. 69. Three Goals of Cake Batter Mixing 1. 2. 3. Combine all ingredients into a smooth, uniform batter Form and incorporate air cells into the batter Develop the proper texture in the finished product ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 14-2
  70. 70. Causes of Curdling in Cake Batters  Using the wrong type of fat  Using ingredients that are too cold  Mixing the first stage of the procedure too quickly  Adding the liquids too quickly  Adding too much liquid ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 14-3
  71. 71. Developing Proper Cake Texture  Use cake flour: low gluten levels help create a fine, light product  Strictly observe all mixing times  Add flour toward the end of the creaming, sponge, and angel food mixing methods  Add flour in the first step of the two-step mixing method  Always scale ingredients accurately ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 14-4
  72. 72. The Function of Cake Batter Ingredients Tougheners:  Flour  Eggs Tenderizers:  Sugar  Fats  Chemical leaveners ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Moisteners:  Water  Liquid milk  Syrup and liquid sugars  Eggs Driers:  Flour  Starches  Cocoa  Milk solids Transparency 14-5
  73. 73. Cakes are done when:  Center of top springs back when touched lightly  Wooden pick inserted into center comes out clean  Shortened cakes pull away slightly from the sides of the pan ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 14-6
  74. 74. Seven Types of Icings  Fondants  Buttercreams  Foam-type icings  Fudge-type icings  Flat-type icings  Royal, or decorator’s, icings  Glazes ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 15-1
  75. 75. Guidelines for Frosting Cakes         Cool cakes completely Trim ragged edges and large bumps Brush all crumbs from cake Place bottom cake upside-down on cake circle Spread filling on bottom layer Place top layer right-side up on bottom layer Ice exterior of cake Push, do not pull, icing from center out to edges ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 15-2
  76. 76. Paper Cone Falling Method Used to make lines of even thickness on horizontal surfaces Hold cone vertically. Touch tip to cake’s surface to attach Lift cone 1 inch Trace pattern ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 15-3
  77. 77. Paper Cone Contact Method Used to vary the thickness of lines and to decorate vertical surfaces.  Hold cone as if holding a pen  Touch tip to surface at a 30- to 45-degree angle  Draw lines as though writing  Control thickness by squeezing ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 15-4
  78. 78. Pastry Bag Decorating Technique  Fit desired tip into pastry bag  Roll down top of bag to create a collar  Hold under collar with thumb and forefinger  Fill bag ½ to ¾ full  Turn bag over and gather top together  Force icing out by squeezing top with palm ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 15-5
  79. 79. Components in a European-Style Layer Cake  Optional bottom layer  Cake layers  Additional specialty layers  Dessert syrup  Fillings  Icings and coatings ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 16-1
  80. 80. Common European-Style Tortes  Black Forest torte  Moch! torte  Fruit torte  Dobos torte  Napoleon gâteau  Kirsch torte  Sachertorte ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 16-2
  81. 81. Procedure for Making Swiss Rolls  Similar, though more delicate than American jelly rolls  Use Swiss roll sponge formula  Fill with jam, jelly, buttercream, or other dessert cream  Roll as for jelly rolls  Ice with fondant or other sweet topping ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 16-3
  82. 82. Common Forms of French Pastries  Slices: chilled portion sizes of layer cakes, Swiss rolls, or other rolls  Triangles: layered sponge cake filled with contrasting colors of buttercream  Squares: layered sheet cake filled with icing in contrasting colors  Othellos: sponge roll batter mounded, baked, and sandwiched together, then coated ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 16-4
  83. 83. Versions of Othellos     Othellos: filled with chocolate pastry cream, iced with chocolate fondant Iagos: filled with coffee-flavored pastry cream, iced with coffee-flavored fondant Desdemonas: filled with vanilla pastry cream, iced with kirsch-flavored fondant Rosalinds: filled with rose water-flavored whipped cream, iced with rose water-flavored pink fondant ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 16-5
  84. 84. Factors That Contribute to Crispness  Low moisture content  High sugar and fat content  Long baking periods  Small size or thin shape  Storing in a cool, dry place ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 17-1
  85. 85. Factors that Contribute to Softness  Low sugar and fat content  Honey, molasses, or corn syrup in formulas  Underbaking  Large or thick shapes  Storing tightly covered or wrapped ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 17-2
  86. 86. Factors That Contribute to Chewiness  High sugar and liquid content, but low fat content  High proportion of eggs  Strong gluten development ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 17-3
  87. 87. Factors That Encourage Spread  High sugar content  High baking soda or baking ammonia content  Well-creamed fat and sugar  Low oven temperatures  Slack butter (butter with high liquid content) in formula  Strong flour  Heavily greased pans ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 17-4
  88. 88. Eight Basic Cookie Types         Bagged Dropped Rolled Molded Icebox Bar Sheet Stencil ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 17-5
  89. 89. Custard Types Rangetop custards:  Cooked on stove top  Stirred while cooking  Remain pourable once cooked ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Baked custards:  Baked in an oven  Not stirred during cooking  Hold firm when done Transparency 18-1
  90. 90. Guidelines for Baked Puddings  Scald milk before adding to eggs  Remove foam  Bake in a water bath at 325˚F (163˚C)  Pudding is done when a knife comes out clean ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 18-2
  91. 91. Baking Puddings in a Water Bath  Set pudding mold in a large, deep pan  Fill pan halfway up sides of molds with hot water  Bring water to a boil  Lower heat, cover, and simmer gently  Add hot water as needed ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 18-3
  92. 92. Procedure for Preparing Bavarians  Soften gelatin in cold liquid  Stir gelatin into hot custard sauce until dissolved  Chill until almost set  Fold in whipped cream  Pour into molds ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 18-4
  93. 93. Guidelines for Successful Mousses  Fold in egg whites before adding whipped cream  Egg whites folded into a hot base will coagulate and make the mousse firmer and more stable  Never add whipped cream to a hot base ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 18-5
  94. 94. Popular Frozen Desserts Ice cream: milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and sometimes eggs  Ice milk: ice cream with a lower butterfat content  Frozen yogurt: ice cream with added yogurt  Sherbet: fruit juice, water, sugar, and sometimes milk and/or egg whites  Ices: fruit juice, water, sugar, sometimes egg whites, but never any dairy  Granite: coarse crystallized ices with no egg whites  Sorbetto: Italian ice  Gelato: Italian ice cream Transparency 19-1 ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. 
  95. 95. Ice Cream Quality Factors  Smoothness: size of crystals in the product  Overrun: percentage of air incorporated while freezing product  Mouth feel: should be smooth, but not too heavy as it melts ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 19-2
  96. 96. Guidelines for Storing and Serving Ice Cream and Sherbets 1. 2. 3. 4. Store below 0˚F (-18˚C) To prepare for serving, temper between 8˚F and 15˚F (-13˚C and -9˚C) for 24 hours before serving To serve, draw scoop across top of product so the product rolls into a ball inside the scoop Use standard scoops and ladles for portioning ice creams and toppings ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 19-3
  97. 97. Still-Frozen Desserts  Frozen mousses  Frozen soufflés  Original parfaits  Bombes ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 19-4
  98. 98. Assembling a Bombe  Line a chilled mold with ice cream or sherbet and freeze  Fill center with bombe mixture, cover, and freeze again  Remove from mold and turn out onto a sheet of genoise  Decorate with whipped cream  Serve immediately ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 19-5
  99. 99. Fresh Fruit Desserts  Uncooked and plain  Uncooked with cream  Uncooked with sabayon  Uncooked with flavored syrup, liqueurs, or wine ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 20-1
  100. 100. Fruit Storage        Fruits that ripen after purchase: Bananas Kiwi fruit Mangoes Papayas Pears Peaches Pineapples ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.      Fruits to refrigerate immediately: Blueberries Strawberries Raspberries Grapes Cherries Transparency 20-2
  101. 101. Traditional American Fruit Desserts  Cobblers: large fruit pies without a bottom crust  Crisps: no bottom crust with a crumbly streusel topping  Betties: alternate rich cake crumbs and fruit  Compote: small slices of cooked fruit served in its own liquid ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 20-3
  102. 102. Fruit Garnish Examples  Jams and jellies  Marmalades  Compotes  Candied citrus zest ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 20-4
  103. 103. Simple Dessert Presentations  Dessert alone  Dessert plus garnish  Dessert plus sauce  Dessert plus garnish and sauce ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 21-1
  104. 104. Dessert Garnishes  Fresh or poached fruit  Ice cream or sorbet  Whipped cream dollop  Petits fours sec  Chocolate curls  Confections ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 21-2
  105. 105. Complex Dessert Presentations  Contain one or more dessert items, sauce, garnish, or both  Use small portions, but combined to create an appearance of abundance  Desserts must complement and harmonize with each other  Use large dinner plates to avoid overcrowding desserts ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 21-3
  106. 106. Examples of Matching Dessert Elements  Chocolate soufflé with chocolate sauce  Medley of chocolate desserts  Fruit dessert with matching fruit sherbet ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 21-4
  107. 107. Examples of Contrasting Dessert Elements  Poached pears with vanilla ice cream and chocolate sauce  Hot desserts served with frozen desserts  Creamy desserts with a slightly tart sauce ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 21-5
  108. 108. Chocolate    True chocolate couverture: Cocoa solids Sugar Cocoa butter ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.   Chocolate coating: Some cocoa butter replaced by other fats While easier to handle and less expensive, it lacks the shine, texture, and flavor of genuine couverture Transparency 22-1
  109. 109. Chocolate Tempering Temperatures  115˚F to 118˚F (46˚C to 48˚C) – melting temperature  78˚F to 79˚F (26˚C) – cooling or tempering temperature  86˚F to 88˚F (30˚C to 31˚C) – reheating temperature  Do not reheat above 88˚F (31˚C) ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 22-2
  110. 110. Procedure for Tempering Chocolate        Chop chocolate into small pieces and place in a dry saucepan Set pan in a bowl of warm water Stir constantly until chocolate melts and reaches 115˚F (46˚C) Remove pan from warm water Continue stirring until chocolate cools to 78˚F (26˚C) Reset pan in warm-water bath Stir until it reaches 86˚F (30˚C) ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 22-3
  111. 111. Making Filled Chocolate  Fill molds as if for solid chocolates  After a few moments, pour out liquid chocolate, leaving a thin coating  Let set  Fill molds ¾ full with desired filling  Pour tempered chocolate on top of filling and let set ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 22-4
  112. 112. Making Chocolate from Two-Part Molds  Paint inside surface with tempered chocolate  Clip open-bottom molds together  Pour in chocolate until almost full and tap the sides  After a few moments, pour out excess chocolate  Leave to cool ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 22-5
  113. 113. Working with Marzipan  To color, add tinted paste or food dye while mixing  Use stainless steel bowls, as aluminum discolors marzipan  When molding, keep unused portion in a bowl covered with a damp cloth  Store in an airtight container ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 23-1
  114. 114. Molding Marzipan Fruits  Divide marzipan into equal portions  Roll by hand into perfectly smooth balls  Using real fruit models, shape marzipan  Let dry overnight  Color by applying food colors with a brush or a sprayer ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 23-2
  115. 115. Working with Pastillage  Make certain all equipment is perfectly clean and dry  Use stainless steel bowls, as aluminum discolors pastillage  Roll paste to a thickness of ⅛ inch (3mm)  Turn objects occasionally so they dry evenly ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 23-3
  116. 116. Working with Nougatine  Pour cooked nougatine onto a marble slab  As it sets, flip with a spatula so it cools evenly  Flatten with oiled rolling pin  Place patterns on nougatine and cut with heavy, oiled knife ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 23-4
  117. 117. Basic Procedure for Boiling Sugar Syrup       Slowly stir sugar and water in heavy pan over low heat When sugar dissolves, raise heat to medium high Stop stirring, place sugar thermometer tip in liquid If coloring, add food dye at 260˚F (125˚C) At 275˚F (135˚C), add dissolved cream of tartar Boil rapidly until desired temperature is reached ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 24-1
  118. 118. Procedure for Spinning Sugar         Lightly oil two wooden rods Spread out paper on floor Bring boiling sugar syrup to 300˚F (149˚C) Remove from heat and plunge pan bottom into cold water Remove from water and let stand to thicken slightly Dip wire whip with cut ends into hot sugar Wave solution over rods to catch long threads Lift mass off rod and coil or shape as desired ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 24-2
  119. 119. Procedure for Poured/Cast Sugar         Place oiled mold on oiled marble slab Heat boiling sugar syrup to 330˚F (165˚C) Plunge base of pan into cold water Remove and let stand to thicken slightly Pour syrup into mold to desired thickness Cool for five minutes Remove mold When fully cooled, remove from marble with palette knife ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 24-3
  120. 120. Procedure for Pulled Sugar         Heat boiling sugar syrup to 320˚F (160˚C) Plunge base of pan into cold water Remove and let stand to thicken slightly Pour onto oiled marble slab; let cool Before hardening, begin folding edges into center When cool, lift up, and stretch and fold until it crackles Cut into pieces and place under sugar lamp Stretch and fold pieces 12–20 times until they are pearled ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 24-4
  121. 121. Procedure for Blown Sugar  Roll hot pulled sugar into ball.  Indent with wooden rod.  Replace rod with blowpipe and seal.  Inflate slowly, shaping object as it grows.  Heat end to detach, shape stem with fingers.  To make round objects, hold pipe upwards.  To make long objects, point pipe downwards. ©2005 National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation. Transparency 24-5
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