Chapter Two
Research Methods
Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology
 Why do we need scientific methods?Why do we need scientific...
Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology
 The story of clever HansThe story of clever Hans
• Facts, t...
Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies
 Research design: The experimentResearch design: The experiment
...
Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies
Activity
Testing Random Assignment
Central Tendency
Mean, Median & Mode
• Let’s look at the salaries of the employees
• at Dunder Mifflen Paper in Scranton:
...
Measures of Variability
• Range: distance from
highest to lowest
scores.
• Standard Deviation:
the variance of scores
arou...
Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies
• Laboratory observationLaboratory observation
• Case studiesCase...
Data Collection MethodsData Collection Methods
• Self-reportSelf-report
methodmethod
• QuestionnairesQuestionnaires
• Inte...
Minimizing Bias in PsychologicalMinimizing Bias in Psychological
ResearchResearch
 Avoiding observer andAvoiding observer...
Activity
• “Softens hands while you do the dishes.”
Ethical Issues inPsychologicalResearchEthical Issues inPsychologicalResearch
 Research with humansResearch with humans
• ...
HomeworkHomework
• Read Chapter ThreeRead Chapter Three
• ReminderReminder: Unit One Exam (Chapters 1-3) is on: Unit One E...
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Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2)

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Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2)

  1. 1. Chapter Two Research Methods
  2. 2. Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology  Why do we need scientific methods?Why do we need scientific methods? • Hindsight biasHindsight bias • False consensus effectFalse consensus effect  EmpiricismEmpiricism • Empirical challenges of studying peopleEmpirical challenges of studying people  People are complexPeople are complex  People are differentPeople are different  People react to situations differentlyPeople react to situations differently
  3. 3. Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology  The story of clever HansThe story of clever Hans • Facts, theories and hypothesisFacts, theories and hypothesis • What can we learn from Hans?What can we learn from Hans?  Be skepticalBe skeptical  Observe carefully in controlled conditionsObserve carefully in controlled conditions  Be aware of observer-expectancy effectsBe aware of observer-expectancy effects
  4. 4. Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies  Research design: The experimentResearch design: The experiment • Independent variableIndependent variable • Dependent variableDependent variable • VariablesVariables • ParticipantsParticipants • ConfederatesConfederates
  5. 5. Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies
  6. 6. Activity Testing Random Assignment
  7. 7. Central Tendency Mean, Median & Mode • Let’s look at the salaries of the employees • at Dunder Mifflen Paper in Scranton: $25,000-Pam $25,000- Kevin $25,000- Angela $100,000- Andy $100,000- Dwight $200,000- Jim $300,000- Michael The median salary looks good at $100,000. The mean salary also looks good at about $110,000. But the mode salary is only $25,000. Maybe not the best place to work!!
  8. 8. Measures of Variability • Range: distance from highest to lowest scores. • Standard Deviation: the variance of scores around the mean. • The higher the variance or SD, the more spread out the distribution is. • Do scientists want a big or small SD? Shaq and Kobe may both score 30 ppg (same mean). But their SDs are very different.
  9. 9. Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies • Laboratory observationLaboratory observation • Case studiesCase studies • SurveySurvey • Laboratory studyLaboratory study • Field studyField study
  10. 10. Data Collection MethodsData Collection Methods • Self-reportSelf-report methodmethod • QuestionnairesQuestionnaires • InterviewsInterviews • ObservationalObservational methodsmethods • Data collectionData collection pros and conspros and cons
  11. 11. Minimizing Bias in PsychologicalMinimizing Bias in Psychological ResearchResearch  Avoiding observer andAvoiding observer and subject expectancy effectssubject expectancy effects • Observer-expectancy effectObserver-expectancy effect • Subject-expectancy effectSubject-expectancy effect • Double-blind experimentDouble-blind experiment • PlaceboPlacebo • Placebo effectPlacebo effect
  12. 12. Activity • “Softens hands while you do the dishes.”
  13. 13. Ethical Issues inPsychologicalResearchEthical Issues inPsychologicalResearch  Research with humansResearch with humans • The right to privacyThe right to privacy • Possibility of discomfortPossibility of discomfort or harmor harm • The use of deceptionThe use of deception  Research with animalsResearch with animals  How can we ensureHow can we ensure ethical research?ethical research? • Institutional ReviewInstitutional Review BoardsBoards
  14. 14. HomeworkHomework • Read Chapter ThreeRead Chapter Three • ReminderReminder: Unit One Exam (Chapters 1-3) is on: Unit One Exam (Chapters 1-3) is on Tuesday, September 10Tuesday, September 10thth (IN CLASS)(IN CLASS)

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