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Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2)

Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2)






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    Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2) Psyc 2301 chapter two powerpoint(2) Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Two Research Methods
    • Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology  Why do we need scientific methods?Why do we need scientific methods? • Hindsight biasHindsight bias • False consensus effectFalse consensus effect  EmpiricismEmpiricism • Empirical challenges of studying peopleEmpirical challenges of studying people  People are complexPeople are complex  People are differentPeople are different  People react to situations differentlyPeople react to situations differently
    • Research Methods in PsychologyResearch Methods in Psychology  The story of clever HansThe story of clever Hans • Facts, theories and hypothesisFacts, theories and hypothesis • What can we learn from Hans?What can we learn from Hans?  Be skepticalBe skeptical  Observe carefully in controlled conditionsObserve carefully in controlled conditions  Be aware of observer-expectancy effectsBe aware of observer-expectancy effects
    • Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies  Research design: The experimentResearch design: The experiment • Independent variableIndependent variable • Dependent variableDependent variable • VariablesVariables • ParticipantsParticipants • ConfederatesConfederates
    • Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies
    • Activity Testing Random Assignment
    • Central Tendency Mean, Median & Mode • Let’s look at the salaries of the employees • at Dunder Mifflen Paper in Scranton: $25,000-Pam $25,000- Kevin $25,000- Angela $100,000- Andy $100,000- Dwight $200,000- Jim $300,000- Michael The median salary looks good at $100,000. The mean salary also looks good at about $110,000. But the mode salary is only $25,000. Maybe not the best place to work!!
    • Measures of Variability • Range: distance from highest to lowest scores. • Standard Deviation: the variance of scores around the mean. • The higher the variance or SD, the more spread out the distribution is. • Do scientists want a big or small SD? Shaq and Kobe may both score 30 ppg (same mean). But their SDs are very different.
    • Types of Research StrategiesTypes of Research Strategies • Laboratory observationLaboratory observation • Case studiesCase studies • SurveySurvey • Laboratory studyLaboratory study • Field studyField study
    • Data Collection MethodsData Collection Methods • Self-reportSelf-report methodmethod • QuestionnairesQuestionnaires • InterviewsInterviews • ObservationalObservational methodsmethods • Data collectionData collection pros and conspros and cons
    • Minimizing Bias in PsychologicalMinimizing Bias in Psychological ResearchResearch  Avoiding observer andAvoiding observer and subject expectancy effectssubject expectancy effects • Observer-expectancy effectObserver-expectancy effect • Subject-expectancy effectSubject-expectancy effect • Double-blind experimentDouble-blind experiment • PlaceboPlacebo • Placebo effectPlacebo effect
    • Activity • “Softens hands while you do the dishes.”
    • Ethical Issues inPsychologicalResearchEthical Issues inPsychologicalResearch  Research with humansResearch with humans • The right to privacyThe right to privacy • Possibility of discomfortPossibility of discomfort or harmor harm • The use of deceptionThe use of deception  Research with animalsResearch with animals  How can we ensureHow can we ensure ethical research?ethical research? • Institutional ReviewInstitutional Review BoardsBoards
    • HomeworkHomework • Read Chapter ThreeRead Chapter Three • ReminderReminder: Unit One Exam (Chapters 1-3) is on: Unit One Exam (Chapters 1-3) is on Tuesday, September 10Tuesday, September 10thth (IN CLASS)(IN CLASS)