Chapter 7: The Presidency
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Chapter 7: The Presidency

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  • Prerogative Power: Extraordinary powers that the president may use under certain conditions The Virginia Plan was vague on the basic questions, including whether one person or a group of people would hold executive power, how long the term of office would be, whether the president could be reelected, and even what the precise powers of the presidency should be The New Jersey Plan was more state-centered, and although many of its provisions were also vague, it envisioned a relatively weak executive office. The principal powers granted by the Constitution to presidents allowed them to influence the judiciary by appointing judges to the bench, to have a modest say in making legislation, to conduct foreign policy, and to be the commander of the nation’s armed forces during times of war
  • Cato worried that the scheme outlined by the framers would allow the president to use his long term of office to take such a firm hold of the reins of power that it would ruin the democratic experiment.
  • Whig Model: A theory of restrained presidential powers; the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution. Stewardship Model: A theory of robust, broad presidential powers; the idea that the president is only limited by explicit restrictions in the Constitution Modern Presidency: A political system in which the president is the central figure and participates actively in both foreign and domestic policy
  • Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, the name he gave to his series of programs and initiatives that transformed the national
  • Cabinet: A group of presidential advisers, primarily the secretaries of federal departments. These officials are appointed by the president and, while they are confirmed by the Senate, they can be removed at the president’s will without the Senate’s consent. The President differentiates between the “inner” and “outer” cabinet, with the inner cabinet being the most important secretaries, usually those representing the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, and Justice.
  • Executive Office of the President (EOP): A group of presidential staff agencies created in 1939 that provides the president with help and advice. others. One of the most important agencies in the EOP is the National Security Council (NSC) , established in 1947, and although its membership varies from administration to administration, it always includes the vice president and the secretaries of defense and state. The job of the NSC is to provide the president with information and advice on all matters concerning national security. The council is led by the national security adviser , who is appointed by the president without confirmation and is not officially connected with the Department of State or the Department of Defense. The Office of Management and Budget is responsible for preparing the president’s annual national budget proposal, monitoring the performance of federal agencies, and overseeing regulatory proposals. Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), established in 1946, is led by three members who are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Their duties include assisting the president in the preparation of an annual economic report to Congress, gathering timely information concerning economic developments and trends, evaluating the economic impact of various federal programs and activities, developing and recommending policies that boost the nation’s economy, and making recommendations on economy-related policies and legislation.
  • The modern presidency is a massive network of offices, staff, and advisers, requiring a complex organizational chart to keep track of duties and responsibilities. The result is that presidents have become central to the policy process
  • Whether or not a president is viewed as successful or is a failure sometimes depends on the political context of the times In the first period, stretching from the early years of the nation to the reelection of Andrew Jackson in 1832, presidents garnered power through close, personal interactions with political elites. If the president was able to forge close, personal relations with a small group of decision makers, he was more likely to prevail From 1832 until the end of the eighteenth century, presidential success hinged on the ability of presidents to forge agreements with local party bosses From the turn of the century through the 1970s, presidential power sprung from the ability to bargain and negotiate agreements among competing interests From the 1970s through today, a successful president forges a personal connection with the public
  • FIGURE 7.1: The Ups and Downs of Presidential Approval Ratings Invariably, presidents begin their term of office with higher public support than when they leave. This is attributable to a variety of things, from the business cycle and economic conditions, to international relations or specific domestic policies the public views as a success or failure.
  • Ceremonial dinners and occasions to toss a baseball out at a special game might seem extraneous, but through these and many other events, our diverse nation becomes one
  • Veto: The disapproval of a bill or resolution by the president.
  • There are two types of vetoes. One approach is to simply send the legislation back to Congress with a message as to why the president disapproves—this is called a veto message . If a president fails to act on a piece of legislation within 10 days, it becomes law. If Congress adjourns within those 10 days, however, the president can let the measure die through a pocket veto . Here, there is neither a signature nor a veto message . Pocket vetoes are quite rare, especially on major legislation. The presidential duty to inform Congress about the state of the union each year has become another powerful legislative tool. It is an opportunity to lay out broad principles and to offer concrete measures. Even more important, it is an opportunity to speak directly to the American people.
  • This figure charts the percentage of presidential initiatives that are approved by Congress. Some presidents are more successful with the legislature than others. What makes this figure especially interesting is that presidents can be successful even when the other party controls Congress. What force do you suppose leads to greater success with Congress, even when the president faces a “hostile” legislature?
  • The president can travel around the world, meeting with the leaders of other nations, forging ties and formal alliances. The Constitution states that they can appoint and receive ambassadors. In appointing ambassadors, which the Constitution requires them to do with the advice and consent of the Senate, presidents can choose officials who share their outlook toward a given nation or foreign affairs more generally. The president can negotiate treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate. A treaty , is defined as a formal agreement between the United States and one or more other sovereign nations. Executive Agreement: Binding commitments between the United States and other countries agreed to by the president but, unlike treaties, not requiring approval by the Senate. Executive agreements are often arranged in secret. They do not require Senate approval, which makes them especially appealing to presidents—particularly if they confront a hostile Congress.
  • War Powers Resolution : A measure passed by Congress in 1973 designed to limit presidential deployment of troops unless Congress grants approval for a longer period. The War Powers Resolution requires that the president consult with Congress in “every possible instance” before sending troops to combat, that the president report to Congress in writing within 48 hours after ordering troops into harm’s way, and that any military engagement must end within 60 days unless Congress either declares war or otherwise authorizes the use of force (90 days under certain circumstances).
  • The president is in many ways the nation’s chief administrator and head bureaucrat. Although the vast majority of federal employees are civil service workers, the power to appoint certain high officials who lead the massive agencies and set their policies is an important executive function. Executive Order: A regulation made by the president that has the effect of law. There are three types of executive orders: proclamations, which serve the ceremonial purpose of declaring holidays and celebrations, and national security directives and presidential decision directives, both of which deal with national security and defense matters Signing Statement: A written proclamation issued by the president regarding how the executive branch intends to interpret a new law.
  • As Economists in Chief presidents are expected to keep a close eye on the nation’s economy and to take immediate and effective actions when conditions dictate. Presidents are also expected to be moral leaders and to set an ethical tone in both politics and society The president pushes the party’s policy agenda and helps other party members raise money during elections
  • Personal Presidency: The notion that there are greater and greater expectations placed on presidents, due in large measure to the way they run for office. At the same time, presidents are often unable to deliver on the promises they made during campaigns. Presidents are seldom in command and usually must negotiate with others to achieve their goals. As a result, achieving anything less is often viewed as failure in the eyes of the public.
  • The historian and presidential scholar Robert Dallek suggests that five qualities have been constants in the men who have most effectively fulfilled the presidential oath of office Vision: All great presidents have had a clear understanding of where they wanted to lead the nation in its quest for a better future Pragmatism: All great presidents have been realists, leaders who understood that politics is the art of the possible and that flexible responses to changing conditions at home and abroad are essential C onsensus building: All great presidents understood that their success depended on the consent of the governed. Moving government in a new direction, often down a difficult path, requires building a national consensus first Charisma: All great presidents have been able to capture and retain the affection and admiration of average citizens Trustworthiness: All truly successful presidents have had credibility and have earned the faith of their fellow citizens
  • The secretaries of the inner cabinet are the most important, usually those representing the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, and Justice.
  • The secretaries of the inner cabinet are the most important, usually those representing the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, and Justice.
  • Wherein the president attempts to win the public’s hearts and minds
  • Wherein the president attempts to win the public’s hearts and minds

Chapter 7: The Presidency Chapter 7: The Presidency Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Presidency CHAPTER7
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President and the Constitution Explain the framers’ decision to bestow the president with real powers despite their concerns about potential abuses. The Evolution of the Presidency Outline the changes that have led to the expansion of presidential powers. The Informal Powers of the President Establish how the “power to persuade” expands presidential power beyond the Constitution. Key Objectives 7.1 7.3 7.2 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Roles of Modern Presidents Identify the duties and functions of modern presidents. Presidential Greatness Evaluate the qualities that contribute to presidential success or failure. Key Objectives 7.4 7.5 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President and the Constitution • The framers were ambivalent about the role of the executive branch under the Constitution • Constitutional Convention debates – Virginia Plan – New Jersey Plan • Compromise created an active executive Explain the framers’ decision to bestow the president with real powers despite their concerns about potential abuses. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman A Powerful Executive • The experience under the Articles of Confederation suggested the need for a strong executive • Under the Articles, the Continental Congress lacked the power and the ability to respond quickly to emergencies 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Debate at the Convention • Virginia Plan: – Called for a separate executive, elected by Congress for an unspecified term of office but ineligible for re-election • New Jersey Plan – A multi-person executive, elected by Congress for a single term but could be recalled by state governors • Connecticut Compromise 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Article II and Ratification • What was this “presidency?” – What sorts of power would its occupants have? – How long would this person serve? – What would stop this person from gaining too much power and becoming another tyrant? • The office described by Article II was unfamiliar – The unitary nature and strong powers roused fears 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Article II and Ratification (cont’d) • Anti-Federalists claimed the office of the president was akin to a monarch • Hamilton countered with Federalist No. 69 – The President’s term is only 4 years – The President can be impeached – While the President can veto acts of Congress, his veto is subject to Congressional override 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Evolution of the Presidency • The scope of presidential powers has been a function of the men who have served in the position and used those powers. • The overall evolution of the presidency has been toward ever-greater powers, Outline the changes that have led to the expansion of presidential powers. 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Models of Presidential Power –Whig Model –Stewardship Model –The Modern Presidency –The Institutional Presidency 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Whigs • There were a number of reasons why it made sense that the presidency was not at the center of nineteenth-century American government – Agrarian economy – The US was not a world power – Campaigning was party-centered – Presidents viewed their job as limited to those powers expressed in Article II 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Stewardship • Under this model, the President’s power began to expand – Economy changed from agricultural to industrial – The US position in global affairs expanded – Presidents’ view of presidential powers became one with no restrictions on presidential authority except what was strictly forbidden in the Constitution 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Modern Presidents • Since FDR, the president is expected to be more active in – Leading the nation – Creating innovative solutions, giving aid and comfort to citizens in time of need – Maintaining a healthy, growing economy – Protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Institutional Changes • The structure of the executive has changed to reflect the president’s changed role • The institutional presidency emerges. The presidency is viewed as a working collectivity, a massive network of staff, analysts, and advisers with the president as its head. • President’s cabinet rises in stature 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Institutional Presidency • Executive Office of the President (EOP) • National Security Council (NSC) • Office of Management & Budget (OMB) • Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) • White House Staff –Chief of Staff as gatekeeper 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Consequences of the Institutional Presidency • Presidents have become central figures in the policy process • Internal conflict emerges within the executive office between political advisors and policy advisors • The relationship between the public and the president has become more distant 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Transformation of the Vice Presidency • For most of history, the job of the vice president was mostly ceremonial • Because of increased global tensions, the role expanded – Carter/Mondale – Clinton/Gore – Bush/Cheney – Obama/Biden 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Informal Powers of the President • The real power is the result of combining personality and political skills • The president’s informal tools include – The prestige of the office – Personal charm and bargaining skills – Others’ fear of retribution – The need for special favors Establish how the “power to persuade” expands presidential power beyond the Constitution. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Political Context • Early years-1830s – Personal relationships with elites was the key to presidential success • 1830s-late 1800s – Agreements with party bosses were required to achieve success • Early 1900s-1970s – Success was the result of bargaining with competing interests • Late 1900s through today – Forging a personal connection with the public is paramount for success 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Ups and Downs of Presidential Approval Ratings 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman First Ladies • Women have provided informal advice, advocated significant policy reform, undertaken a host of symbolic functions, and lobbied lawmakers and foreign dignitaries • Modern First ladies have also championed different policy causes 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Roles of Modern Presidents • Presidents fulfill many important functions under the Constitution – Chief of State – Chief Legislator – Chief Diplomat – Commander in Chief – Chief Executive Identify the duties and functions of modern presidents. 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief of State • As chief of state, the president participates in a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. • These activities provide public the opportunity to see and connect with its national leader. 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Legislator • Article II makes the executive branch responsible for implementing the will of the legislative branch • In keeping with the principle of checks and balances, presidents are also given legislative authority through the veto, the ability to recommend legislation and duty of informing Congress as to the “state of the union.” 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Legislative Tools • The veto • The State of the Union address 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Diplomat • Presidents are in charge of foreign affairs – United States v. Curtiss-Wright (1936), the president is the “sole organ” in conducting foreign affairs, and his powers are “exclusive” • Travel the globe, meeting with other leaders • Appoint and receive ambassadors • Negotiate and formalize treaties • Issue executive agreements 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Commander in Chief • Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution appoints the president commander in chief of all American military forces, but Congress is charged with declaring wars (in Article I, Section 8) • War Powers Resolution 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Executive • The President appoints Cabinet members • The President can issue executive orders – Proclamations – National Security Directives – Presidential Decision Directives • Signing Statements • The Office of Management and Budget helps formulate a budget 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President’s Other Roles • “Economist in Chief” • Moral Leadership? • Chief of Party 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Two Presidencies • Presidents are often frustrated when it comes to domestic affairs, given the numerous actors and Congress’s ability to check presidential initiatives • Presidents will often turn to foreign policy matters later on in their tenure, likely due to frustration over the difficulties in advancing domestic policies 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Presidential Greatness • Americans have developed a personal connection with their presidents for several reasons – The growing size and importance of the bureaucracy – The expansion of presidential powers – The heavy use of television advertising – Presidential candidates promise things they cannot deliver once in office Evaluate the qualities that contribute to presidential success or failure. 7.5 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Five Qualities of Success • Vision • Pragmatism • Consensus Building • Charisma • Trustworthiness 7.5 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The theory of restrained presidential powers – the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution – is exemplified by the A. modern presidential model. B. stewardship model. C. institutional presidential model. D. Whig model. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The theory of restrained presidential powers – the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution – is exemplified by the A. modern presidential model. B. stewardship model. C. institutional presidential model. D. Whig model. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not considered part of the president’s “inner cabinet”? A. Department of Commerce B. Department of Defense C. Department of Justice D. Department of State 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not considered part of the president’s “inner cabinet”? A. Department of Commerce B. Department of Defense C. Department of Justice D. Department of State 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The _____________ is responsible for assisting the president in preparing an annual budget. A. Council of Economic Advisors B. General Accounting Office C. Office of Management and Budget D. Congressional Budget Office 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The _____________ is responsible for assisting the president in preparing an annual budget. A. Council of Economic Advisors B. General Accounting Office C. Office of Management and Budget D. Congressional Budget Office 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The concept associated with a president’s attempt to win the public’s hearts and minds is called A. media manipulation. B. target marketing. C. public service announcements. D. going public. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The concept associated with a president’s attempt to win the public’s hearts and minds is called A. media manipulation. B. target marketing. C. public service announcements. D. going public. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman As ____________, the president performs a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. A. military chief B. chief legislator C. commander in chief D. chief of state 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman As ____________, the president performs a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. A. military chief B. chief legislator C. commander in chief D. chief of state 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Does the president’s use of “signing statements” interfere with the will of Congress to legislate? YES. Signing statements can represent the refusal of the president to fulfill his duty to enforce the law. NO. As chief bureaucrat, it is the president’s duty to interpret the meaning of the laws he is to enforce. Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Do you think the president should have the power to line-item veto appropriations? YES. The Constitution states simply that the president needs to either sign or veto legislation, not parts of it. NO. The president is ultimately accountable for spending and members of the House lack the will power to preclude special projects for their respective constituencies. Back to Learning Objectives
  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Credits 216 Win McNamee/Getty Images; 219 Library of Congress; 220 Bettmann/Corbis; 221 Official White House Photo by Pete Souza; 224 Official White House Photo by Pete Souza (2); 225 Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 226 Jim Young/Reuters/Landov; 230 AP Images/Lawrence Jackson; 232 AP Images; 233, clockwise from top left: AP Images/Paul Beaty; Pat Benic/UPI/Landov; Jason Reed/Reuters/Landov; Goddard Claussen Public Affairs; 234:AP Images/Bob Daugherty; 236 AP Images/Pfc. L. Paul Epley; 238, AP Images/Jack Kightlinger; 240 Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images; 243, top to bottom: Public Domain (2); Bettmann/Corbis; Hulton Archive/Getty Images; Public Domain; Library of Congress; AP Images/Doug Mills Back to Learning Objectives