Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Foreign and National
Security Policy
CHAPTER15
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Competing Principles for American Foreign Policy
Compare an...
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Political Institutions and Foreign Policymaking
Analyze how...
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Competing Principles for
Americ...
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Perspectives on Foreign Policy
...
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Perspectives on Foreign Policy
...
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Neoconservatives
•Four common t...
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Neoliberals
•Neoliberal transfo...
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• Whereas both the neoconservat...
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Conservatives
•Conservatives be...
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Isolationists
Three themes guid...
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• Transformers and maintainers ...
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Neoconservative Evaluation
•Neo...
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Neoliberal Evaluation
•Neoliber...
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Conservative Evaluation
•Conser...
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Isolationist Evaluation
•Genera...
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• Diverging attitudes about how...
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The attitude of this group woul...
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The attitude of this group woul...
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Links Between Foreign and
Domes...
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• American domestic and foreign...
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• Rarely does American policy s...
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• Lobbyists pursue a two-step l...
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• Citizens and governments of o...
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Public concerns about the benef...
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Public concerns about the benef...
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The Domestic Context of
America...
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• Public opinion provides a fir...
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• A winning candidate in modern...
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• A wide variety of groups use ...
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• Globalization as a political ...
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At which stage is public opinio...
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At which stage is public opinio...
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Political Institutions and Fore...
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• Chief of Staff: Plays an incr...
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• State Department: The formal ...
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• Congress’s ability to influen...
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Supportive Congress
•A supporti...
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Strategic Congress
•From roughl...
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Competitive Congress
•The perio...
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War Powers Resolution
•The most...
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Reemergence of the Strategic Co...
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Disengaged Congress
•The 9/11 t...
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Legislation, Funding, and Overs...
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• The Supreme Court seldom voic...
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A Congress that reacts to the
e...
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A Congress that reacts to the
e...
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Foreign Policy and National
Sec...
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• Combating terrorism and stopp...
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• The most fundamental economic...
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• Human welfare issues focus on...
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The strategic tactic of strikin...
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The strategic tactic of strikin...
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What do you think?
Should the U...
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What do you think?
Should the U...
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Credits
594 Thomas Peter/Reuter...
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0205084567 ch15

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  • Both the neoconservative and neoliberal transformers are optimists. They view the United States as being in an unchallenged position to bring about fundamental changes in other states that will protect American goals and values and allow them to prosper and become universally accepted. Neoconservatives: People who believe that the United States has a special role to play in world politics; they advocate the unilateral use of force and the pursuit of a value-based foreign policy. Neoliberals: People who believe that cooperation is possible through the creation and management of international institutions, organizations, and regimes.
  • Do not presume that nations automatically share interests or that cooperation can be easily generated. They do, however, value international institutions and regimes as a way to manage and coordinate expectations among nations They favor foreign aid and economic assistance programs, especially when the aid is made dependent on conditions such as respect for human rights.
  • Isolationist maintainers have little doubt about the importance of military power and the need to defend American national interests.
  • President George W. Bush had branded Iraq part of an “axis of evil,” along with North Korea and Iran, in his 2002 State of the Union address. The Bush administration argued that Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction required preemptive military action on the part of the United States. The military operation appeared a spectacular success. On April 9, Baghdad fell, and on May 1, President Bush declared an end to major combat operations. By December 2003, Saddam Hussein was captured. However the early appraisals of success in Iraq and Afghanistan would prove to be premature and overly optimistic. Amid seemingly endless sectarian and ethnic strife, Iraqi political leaders repeatedly failed to meet reestablished deadlines to lay the foundation for a new democratic political order.
  • We commonly talk of American foreign policy and domestic policy as two separate areas, but the boundary separating domestic and foreign policy is not watertight.
  • Consider the impact of domestic policy values on American foreign policy by looking at how the U.S. approaches human rights issues at the global level.
  • Consider the impact of domestic policy values on American foreign policy by looking at how the U.S. approaches human rights issues at the global level.
  • Between July 2007 and December 2008, about 340 foreign interests representing governments, separatist groups, and for-profit corporations, spent about $87 million on lobbying efforts in the United States. Many foreign governments are deeply concerned about American foreign aid legislation and arms sales. To secure their objectives in these areas, they pursue a two-step lobbying campaign. By listening to and responding to foreign voices, policymakers may ignore or, worse, harm American national interests. This concern is reinforced by periodic revelations of foreign attempts at bribery and espionage. Globalization —the expansion of economic interactions between countries—has added a third concern. Foreign governments and firms might not stop at seeking to influence American political decisions; they might also seek to influence American economic decisions in ways that harm the United States.
  • Public concerns about the benefits and costs of American foreign policy today run high in two areas: international trade policy and protection of civil liberties Talks sponsored by the WTO on trade liberalization have met with many obstacles due to the persistence of European Union and U.S. agricultural subsidies. Developing countries point to “hypocrisy” when the United States insists that they open their markets via deregulation, privatization, and trade liberalization. Economic downturns heighten concerns about protecting American jobs across the political spectrum. Right-wing and left-wing populists rally against outsourcing and “unfair” foreign economic competition. The U.S. experience in Vietnam suggests that such public support cannot be maintained indefinitely in the absence of visible military success
  • Public concerns about the benefits and costs of American foreign policy today run high in two areas: international trade policy and protection of civil liberties
  • Public concerns about the benefits and costs of American foreign policy today run high in two areas: international trade policy and protection of civil liberties
  • Public opinion can serve as a source of public policy innovation or restrain innovation or serve as a policymaking resource to preserve the status quo. Policymakers tend to regard public opinion as a resource to be mobilized in international conflicts. They want to show foreign leaders that the American public is united behind the president and will demonstrate a “rally’ round the flag” effect. Between the agenda-building and ratification stages, the institutional forces in the executive branch and Congress are the focus of attention.
  • Often, presidential elections turn out to be less a debate over foreign policy and more a contest about whom the public trusts to achieve those goals. Part of the problem is that the American public tends not to be well informed about foreign policy issues
  • The third avenue down which the public can travel to express its outlook on foreign policy issues is interest group activity.
  • The Constitution allocates political power among the president, Congress, and the courts in the formation of foreign policy.
  • It is the president who announces decisions on war and peace; meets foreign leaders at the White House, at international summit conferences, or in foreign capitals; and signs treaties and international agreements. Presidents do not make foreign policy decisions in isolation.
  • Secretaries of defense have generally adopted one of two approaches. Generalists will defer to military know-how and see themselves as the military’s representatives in policy deliberations with the president and other foreign affairs bureaucracies. Secretaries who see themselves as experts in defense matters seek to shape and control the Defense Department in accordance with their views. Another longstanding issue involves the conditions under which American military forces should be sent into combat. The Powell Doctrine, named for Colin Powell, calls for the decisive use of American military only when there is clear public support for the use of force and an exit strategy is in place. According to the McNamara Doctrine, named for Robert McNamara, the secretary of defense during much of the Vietnam War, limited and graduated use of military force is permissible when there is a recognized problem demanding a military response, with or without public support.
  • Viewed over time, presidential-congressional relations in foreign policy have alternated between long stretches of presidential dominance and moments when Congress emerged as an important force, fully capable of frustrating presidential initiatives. In turn, these two factors are influenced by many other considerations, including the party in control of the White House and of the Congress; the size of the majority one party has in the House, the Senate, or in both houses of Congress; the timing of presidential and congressional elections; the popularity of the president and the Congress with the American public; the impact of interest groups and movements on political actors; the goals and skills of the president and the leadership of the Congress; and a host of other political forces.
  • A broad consensus existed that the Soviet Union and communism were the enemy and that containment —a Cold War strategy that sought to control and encircle the Soviet Union rather than defeat it militarily—was the proper strategy for meeting the threat. Congress saw its role as supporting the president and providing him with the means to carry out his foreign policy.
  • Exceptions to Congressional affinity with the president were escalation of the Vietnam War with little evidence of success. The second issue on which Congress was active during this period was military strength. The biggest military issue of the time was the “missile gap”—the idea that the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States in missile production, and that the president had not done enough to protect the US.
  • The War Powers Resolution sought to limit the president’s ability to use military force by requiring that Congress receive formal notification of troop deployment abroad into combat situations and issue its approval. If congressional approval is not granted, the forces must be withdrawn within 60 days. Congress has never exercised its power to withdraw military forces.
  • Congress often seeks to assert its influence by attaching amendments to foreign policy legislation that place conditions on the president’s actions. It may also target foreign aid and military assistance money for certain countries Congressional budgetary powers are equally blunt and hard to use with finesse, in part because of the committee structure within Congress Several factors limit the impact of congressional oversight. One is the small political payoff for a great investment of time. Constituent work and shaping of domestic legislation are much more valuable for reelection purposes. A second limiting factor is organization: More than 80 committees have some kind of jurisdiction over the sprawling Department of Homeland Security. Third, most congressional oversight of foreign policy tends to be after the fact. Defenders see congressional input as vital to keeping the government in touch with the national mood and ensuring long-term public support for American foreign policy
  • When there is a conflict between state laws and treaties on a subject involving American foreign policy, the Supreme Court has ruled consistently that treaties take precedence over state laws The Supreme Court has consistently supported the president in conflicts with Congress. The Supreme Court has been reluctant to grant the government broad powers that may restrict American civil liberties and constitutionally guaranteed freedoms.
  • Most experts now argue that we are seeing the emergence of yet another form of terrorism. Instead of being highly centralized and directed by a single leader, such as bin Laden, or a single source, such as al-Qaeda, terrorist groups now operate independently, linked by an anti-Western ideology and the Internet. A fundamental reality of the nuclear age is that the knowledge needed to build nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons is readily available. Until recently, the U.S. position was that the spread of weapons of mass destruction needed to be stopped because they were dangerous weapons in their own right. The Bush administration advanced a new strategic doctrine of preemption —a means of dealing with terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction by striking first in self-defense. Preemption is controversial for several reasons. First, containment and deterrence may be more effective against some enemies. Deterrence threatens a state-based enemy with swift and overwhelming retaliation for actions such as nuclear attacks or acts of aggression. Second, preemption cannot be carried out very often. A third concern is morality.
  • How should the US respond to the growing economic power of other nations? As of 2010, China remains the world’s largest recipient of foreign direct investment. Because many technologies being traded globally today can be used for both commercial and military applications, the stronger China grows economically, the more powerful it is likely to become militarily. As it grows economically and militarily, the political influence of this communist country will increase in Asia and around the world A second, related question deals with the future of foreign aid. How much aid should be given? For what purposes should aid be rendered
  • Defined by the United Nations as “the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national ethnic, racial, or religious group,” genocide is the most extreme category of human rights violation. No clear-cut policy toward genocide has been enunciated in the United States, the United Nations, or anywhere else in the world. Two dilemmas face any attempt to formulate policies against genocide. The first is that the pace of killing sometimes is much faster than the ability of countries to respond. Secondly, knowing that the U.S. and others will respond to genocide may actually encourage some to provoke violence against their people in hopes of involving outside forces. One of the greatest tragedies of modern warfare is that the killing and maiming of people often continues after the fighting ends as a result of buried land mines. The United States has played an ambiguous role in the land mine issue. Human trafficking is now the third-largest illegal business on earth, following drug and weapons trafficking. Since the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act in 2000, the U.S. is required to cut off most non-humanitarian foreign aid to countries not making an effort to eliminate this problem. Environmental issues are a major national security issue for the United States. The relationship between environmental degradation and emerging security risks has become more apparent as the scale and intensity of environmental problems have evolved. Other important issues include child labor, the status of women, poverty, and access to health care.
  • 0205084567 ch15

    1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
    2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Foreign and National Security Policy CHAPTER15
    3. 3. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Competing Principles for American Foreign Policy Compare and contrast four different approaches to American foreign policy. Links Between Foreign and Domestic Policy Establish three links between American foreign and domestic policy. The Domestic Context of American Foreign Policymaking Assess pathways for citizen participation in foreign policymaking. Key Objectives 15.1 15.3 15.2 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
    4. 4. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Political Institutions and Foreign Policymaking Analyze how political institutions compete for influence in making foreign policy. Foreign Policy and National Security Issues Outline the major foreign policy issues confronting the United States today. Key Objectives 15.4 15.5 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
    5. 5. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Competing Principles for American Foreign Policy • Today, there are two major approaches to U.S. interaction with the rest of the world. – Transformers – Maintainers • Both perspectives view the U.S. as a leading power in world politics • They differ, however, on what the United States should accomplish from this position of strength Compare and contrast four different approaches to American foreign policy. 15.1
    6. 6. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Perspectives on Foreign Policy TRANSFORMERS: PERSPECTIVES AND BELIEFS Neoconservatives • The United States must enforce the rules on other countries (although not necessarily abide by them), because it is the sole unchallenged superpower. • Military power is the most important factor in foreign policy. • The United States must be able to act unilaterally, as its leaders see fit, in dealing with foreign policy problems; international organizations may come between the United States and its best interests. • Spreading democracy to other nations is in the best interests of the United States. Neoliberals • Spreading democracy is in the American national interest. • Nonmilitary means are preferred over military action. • Support from international organizations and agreements can be important to future endeavors. 15.1
    7. 7. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Perspectives on Foreign Policy MAINTAINERS: PERSPECTIVES AND BELIEFS Conservatives • The United States must be prepared to use military force. • Global interests may be different from U.S. interests. • Power is an important asset; it must be maintained and used carefully. • Power is more effective if it is viewed as legitimate. Isolationists • Military power should be used as a shield to protect U.S. interests. • The United States is minimally accountable to its allies and the international community. • Foreign policy should consist mostly of cultural, commercial, and diplomatic interactions. 15.1
    8. 8. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Neoconservatives •Four common themes tend to unite their views on American foreign policy – The U.S. is in a position to force others to follow rules of proper behavior, but it does not have to abide by those rules itself – The U.S. military is the central instrument of American foreign policy – Unilateralism is the proper approach for dealing with foreign policy problems – Spreading democracy around the world is in the U.S.’s national interest Transformers 15.1
    9. 9. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Neoliberals •Neoliberal transformers share three common objectives – Seek to spread democracy to further American national interests – Stress nonmilitary means for achieving foreign policy ends – Stress the importance of international institutions and agreements as ways of accomplishing foreign policy objectives Transformers (cont’d) 15.1
    10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Whereas both the neoconservative and neoliberal transformers are optimists, the conservative and isolationist maintainers are pessimists • Maintainers see the international system as a threat to American interests Maintainers 15.1
    11. 11. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Conservatives •Conservatives believe that an effective foreign policy must be built around four themes – The U.S. must be prepared to act militarily – When American national interests are in conflict with global interests national interests must always take precedence – Power, especially military power, must be refreshed constantly and used carefully – The exercise of American power is most effective when others view it as legitimate Maintainers (cont’d) 15.1
    12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Isolationists Three themes guide isolationist foreign policy thinking – American foreign policy must concentrate on protecting American lives and property, the territory of the U.S., and the integrity of the American political system – American responsibility to allies and the international community is minimal – Foreign aid should be reduced and American troops brought home Maintainers (cont’d) 15.1
    13. 13. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Transformers and maintainers took different positions • Transformers and maintainers all agreed that Saddam was an obstruction but disagreed on the means for his removal Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan 15.1
    14. 14. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Neoconservative Evaluation •Neoconservatives view the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as essential to the future security of the U.S. •Removing Saddam from power was also necessary in order to build democracy in Iraq and set the stage for the democratization of the Middle East •The U.S. can’t leave Iraq until democracy and economic recovery are assured Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (cont’d) 15.1
    15. 15. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Neoliberal Evaluation •Neoliberals asserted that nonmilitary means were a preferable line of action for removing these regimes •Occupying and reconstructing these nations would be difficult •Democracy could not be imposed from outside •The UN should be playing a larger role 15.1 Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (cont’d)
    16. 16. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Conservative Evaluation •Conservatives make some key distinctions between the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan •Favor the broader, more engaged international alliance employed in the U.S.-centered approach in Iraq •View the Iraq War as having distracted the U.S. from pursuing Osama bin Laden and his terrorists •Overarching concern that by acting unilaterally, the U.S. disrupted the balance of global politics leaving America less secure 15.1 Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (cont’d)
    17. 17. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Isolationist Evaluation •Generally supported the war in Afghanistan as a direct response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks •Saw little value added in the Iraq War, regarding democracy building in the Middle East as a “fool’s errand” •Prefer focus on more rigorous efforts to promote homeland security 15.1 Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (cont’d)
    18. 18. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Diverging attitudes about how to interact with the world have long been shaped by specific historical circumstances, America’s strategic interests, and the different foreign policy preferences of American leaders Echoes from the Past 15.1
    19. 19. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives The attitude of this group would support economic sanctions over the use of military if possible A. Neoliberals B. Isolationists C. Conservatives D. Neoconservatives 15.1
    20. 20. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives The attitude of this group would support economic sanctions over the use of military if possible A. Neoliberals B. Isolationists C. Conservatives D. Neoconservatives 15.1
    21. 21. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Links Between Foreign and Domestic Policy • Foreign policy is often based on ideas and values that guide domestic policy • U.S. political decision-making process is influenced by the presence and activity of a number of international factors • U.S. foreign policy can affect the distribution of costs and benefits among different groups in the U.S. Establish three links between American foreign and domestic policy. 15.2
    22. 22. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • American domestic and foreign policy emphasizes individual legal rights and civil liberties; paying less attention to economic and social rights • Washington usually regards hostile, overly strong governments as the primary threat to human rights Domestic Policy Values Guide American Foreign Policy 15.2
    23. 23. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Rarely does American policy see a need to strengthen foreign governments in order to promote human rights • American foreign policy generally rejects violence as a means for promoting human rights Domestic Policy Values Guide American Foreign Policy (cont.) 15.2
    24. 24. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Lobbyists pursue a two-step lobbying campaign – Seek to establish a relationship with the White House, the Departments of State and Defense – Lobby Congress • Foreign lobbying raises concerns – Competition between Americans and foreign lobbyists – Potential incompatibility between U.S. and foreign interests • Increasing globalization International Factors Influence U.S. Political Activity 15.2
    25. 25. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Citizens and governments of other countries are also engaged in their own respective cost-benefit assessments • There is an inverse relationship between public support for interventionist foreign policy and detrimental effects on U.S. domestic programs • Battlefield losses also figure into support for international action International and Domestic Gains and Losses 15.2
    26. 26. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Public concerns about the benefits and costs of American foreign policy today run high in A. foreign aid. B. immigration policy. C. joint efforts in stopping terrorism. D. international trade policy. 15.2
    27. 27. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Public concerns about the benefits and costs of American foreign policy today run high in A. foreign aid. B. immigration policy. C. joint efforts in stopping terrorism. D. international trade policy. 15.2
    28. 28. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives The Domestic Context of American Foreign Policymaking • The making and carrying out of foreign policy seems distant and remote to most Americans • Some individuals are better positioned to influence public policy as they possess knowledge and access to policymakers Assess pathways for citizen participation in foreign policymaking. 15.3
    29. 29. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Public opinion provides a first pathway for most citizens to express their views about American foreign policy • Public opinion is likely to be heard most clearly in the agenda-building and ratification stages of foreign policy decision making. Public Opinion 15.3
    30. 30. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • A winning candidate in modern presidential elections can claim that the victory provides a mandate for that candidate’s program Elections 15.3
    31. 31. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • A wide variety of groups use this pathway to influence American foreign policy • Among the most influential interest groups are ethnic identity groups • Religion-based interest groups are becoming increasingly active Interest Groups 15.3
    32. 32. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Globalization as a political issue has succeeded in mobilizing protesters because it taps into two important contemporary issues: quality of life and civil rights and liberties • Protests can also bring new voices into the political process and reenergize long-established political forces, such as labor unions Political Protest 15.3
    33. 33. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives At which stage is public opinion most effective in foreign policy? A. Implementation stage B. Formulation stage C. Ratification stage D. Evaluation stage 15.3
    34. 34. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives At which stage is public opinion most effective in foreign policy? A. Implementation stage B. Formulation stage C. Ratification stage D. Evaluation stage 15.3
    35. 35. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Political Institutions and Foreign Policymaking • The Constitution allocates powers for making foreign policy – Treaty-making power (President and Senate) – Appointment power (President and Senate) – War powers (President and Congress) Analyze how political institutions compete for influence in making foreign policy. 15.4
    36. 36. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Chief of Staff: Plays an increasingly important role • Vice-Presidents: Despite their recent prominence, they have only as much influence and authority as presidents allow • National Security Council: A modern president’s most important source of advice: about foreign policy problems • National Security Advisor: Intended to be a kind of neutral referee, managing the NSC and reporting to the president The Executive 15.4
    37. 37. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • State Department: The formal channel of information between the United States and foreign governments and serves as a resource for senior policymakers • Department of Defense , the CIA and the Department of Homeland Security The Executive (continued) 15.4
    38. 38. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Congress’s ability to influence foreign policy depends on its level of activity and assertiveness • The level of assertiveness and activity are influenced by a range of other factors Congress 15.4
    39. 39. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Supportive Congress •A supportive Congress is actively engaged in foreign policy issues but does not try to assert control over them •From the onset of the Cold War around 1947 until the late 1950s, Congress was largely supportive •Relations between the president and Congress were positive Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    40. 40. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Strategic Congress •From roughly 1958 through 1968, a “strategic” Congress emerged •Congress was not particularly active but was willing to be assertive on selected issues •Resolutions of support for presidential foreign policy initiatives were still the rule Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    41. 41. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Competitive Congress •The period from1969 into the mid-1980s featured a divided government and a Congress that was reacting to the excessive use of presidential power •During that time, Congress challenged presidents on both the content and the conduct of American foreign policy Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    42. 42. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives War Powers Resolution •The most important challenge to the president’s ability to conduct foreign policy has been the War Powers Resolution, which Congress passed over President Nixon’s veto in 1973 Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    43. 43. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Reemergence of the Strategic Congress •A strategic Congress slowly began to reemerge in the mid-1980s until September 11, 2001 •During this period, Congress pulled back from broad-based challenges to the president’s conduct of foreign policy and concentrated on a smaller set of highly visible issues. Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    44. 44. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Disengaged Congress •The 9/11 terrorist attacks brought back a disengaged Congress •Congress ceded much of its authority and initiative in making crucial foreign policy decisions to the president, including mobilization of resources for the War on Terror Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    45. 45. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Legislation, Funding, and Oversight •Congress most frequently uses three tools to influence foreign policy – Legislation – Funding – Oversight •Presidents and critics of Congress tend to see the body as an obstacle to formulating and carrying out coherent foreign policy Congress (cont’d) 15.4
    46. 46. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • The Supreme Court seldom voices an opinion regarding American foreign policy • Over the course of its history, it has produced three types of rulings dealing with foreign policy – Controversies between state laws and treaties – Conflicts between the president and Congress – Conflicts between liberty and security The Supreme Court 15.4
    47. 47. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives A Congress that reacts to the excessive use of presidential power is characterized as A. competitive. B. strategic. C. cooperative. D. disengaged. 15.4
    48. 48. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives A Congress that reacts to the excessive use of presidential power is characterized as A. competitive. B. strategic. C. cooperative. D. disengaged. 15.4
    49. 49. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Foreign Policy and National Security Issues • The US faces three categories of foreign policy problems – Military security – Economic – Human welfare Outline the major foreign policy issues confronting the United States today. 15.5
    50. 50. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Combating terrorism and stopping the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction top the list of pressing military security issues – Terrorism – Weapons of mass destruction – Preemption and deterrence Military Security Issues 15.5
    51. 51. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • The most fundamental economic issue in American foreign policy is how to respond to the growing pace of globalization • Goods, people, ideas, and money now move across national borders more frequently and with greater speed – Global economic powers – Foreign aid Economic and Foreign Trade Issues 15.5
    52. 52. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives • Human welfare issues focus on improving the lives of people around the world – Genocide – Land mines – Human trafficking – Climate change – Other issues Human Welfare Issues 15.5
    53. 53. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives The strategic tactic of striking first in self-defense is called A. deterrence. B. preemption. C. retaliation. D. None of these 15.5
    54. 54. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives The strategic tactic of striking first in self-defense is called A. deterrence. B. preemption. C. retaliation. D. None of these 15.5
    55. 55. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives What do you think? Should the U.S. rescind China’s most favored nation’s trading status for human rights violations? YES. Giving China this status was meant to be a carrot to encourage ‘good behavior’ which it has not produced. NO. Removing the status would provoke China at this point and given the weak economy, nationally and world-wide, it would not be prudent.
    56. 56. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives What do you think? Should the US have invaded Iraq? YES. Saddam was a destabilizing leader with significant human rights violations. The U.S. had a duty to finish what it started in the first Gulf War. NO. A preemptive strike, without broad international support has proved unsuccessful and expensive in lives and treasure.
    57. 57. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Back to Learning Objectives Credits 594 Thomas Peter/Reuters/Landov; 599 AFP/ Getty Images; 600 Larry Downing/Reuters/Landov; 601 Bloomberg via Getty Images; 605 Roger L. Wollenberg/UPI/Landov; 606 Benoit Tessier/Reuters/Landov; 609 Official White House Photo by Pete Souza; 610 Alex Wong/Getty Images; 611 AP Images/David Guttenfelder; 614 AP Images/US Navy/NATO, Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Mark O’Donald; 616 Reuters/Corbis; 618 Adrian Bradshaw/epa/Corbis; 620 Adrees Latif/Reuters/Corbis; 623, top to bottom: AFP/Getty Images; Adrian Bradshaw/epa/Corbis; Howard Burditt/Corbis; Roger L. Wollenberg/UPI/Landov;AIPAC;Wally McNamee/Corbis

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