Macrophotography is also called as “close-up photography”, usually of very small subjects. Classically a macrophotograph is one in which the size of the subject on the negative is greater than life size. However in modern use it refers to a finished photograph of a subject at greater than life size.
"Macro" lenses specifically designed for close- up work, with a long barrel for close focusing, are one of the most common tools for macrophotography. (Nikon designates such lenses as "Micro" because of their original use in making microforms, but most lens makers use the term "Macro" or "Makro“. ) These lenses are optimized for high reproduction ratios. Most modern macro lenses can focus continuously to infinity as well, using complex focusing mechanisms that alter the optical formula.
Macro lenses of different focal lengths find different uses: Continuously Variable Focal Length — suitable for virtually all macro subjects 45–65 mm — product photography, small objects that can be approached closely without causing undesirable influence, and scenes requiring natural background perspective 90–105 mm — insects, flowers, and small objects from a comfortable distance 150–200 mm — insects and other small animals where additional working distance is required
Canon MP-E 65mm macro lens. Small front lens elements are typical of macro lenses.
Extending the distance between the lens andthe film or sensor, by inserting either extensiontubes or a continuously adjustable bellows, isanother equipment option formacrophotography.The further the lens is from the film or sensor,the closer the focusing distance, the greaterthe magnification, and the darker the imagegiven the same aperture. Tubes of variouslengths can be stacked, decreasing lens-to-subject distance and increasingmagnification.
Extension Tubes for extreme macro use with SLRs. Note the pen placed through the tube toillustrate that it does not contain any lens elements. Bellows fitted between an SLR and reversed lens. It has the same function like the Extension tubes.
"Depth of field” — Limited depth of field is an important consideration in macro photography. This makes it essential to focus critically on the most important part of the subject, as elements that are even a millimeter closer or farther from the focal plane might be noticeably blurred. Due to this, the use of a microscope stage is highly recommended for precise focus with large magnification such as photographing skin cells.
" Lighting” — The problem of sufficiently and evenly lighting the subject can be difficult to overcome. Some cameras can focus on subjects so close that they touch the front of the lens. It is impossible to place a light between the camera and a subject that close, making extreme close-up photography impractical. A normal-focal-length macro lens (50 mm on a 35 mm camera) can focus so close that lighting remains difficult. To avoid this problem, many photographers use telephoto macro lenses, typically with focal lengths from about 100 to 200 mm. These are popular as they permit sufficient distance for lighting between the camera and the subject.
Vacation Photography is sometimes called “Travel Photography”. (Although they have some differences too) It is a subcategory of photography involving the documentation of an areas landscape, people, cultures, customs and history.
Take Kid Pictures First — When you visit an attraction or landmark immediately pick out a spot with a good background and take your photo of the kids in front that background. The kids may be fresh-faced and cute in their matching vacation outfits for the moment but after three hours of walking in the sun they will be more like messy kids right off the playground than your photogenic angels.
Shoot wherever, whenever — You’ve probably heard the “best light” is only in early morning or early evening hours. It’s true the soft light of those hours often makes for great photos. However, there are wonderful opportunities to shoot in the middle of the day. Look to shadows for details and other macro subjects or step into shaded areas without direct sunlight for portraits of your kids. You’ll find the diffused light perfect for portrait photos.
Photograph in transitional weather — Photographing in inclement weather, or just as the weather changes, adds ambiance, texture and intrigue to your photos. Often, photographing on the cusp of a rainstorm, either just as it approaches, or as the storm is breaking, yields interesting light; perfect for dramatic photos.
Make it Interactive —Whenever safely possible take images that show your family interacting with your surroundings. This will bring life to otherwise standard snapshots.
Dont Let Your Images Stay Hidden — Leaving your images on your memory card or as undeveloped film when you get home will not help you remember your trip at all. Take the time to upload your images or have them printed.