Lesson 5  - Primary Research Methods 1
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Lesson 5 - Primary Research Methods 1

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Lesson 5  - Primary Research Methods 1 Lesson 5 - Primary Research Methods 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 5 RESEARCH METHODS 2
    • Students will …
      • … select appropriate primary research methods
      • … differentiate data and information
      • … learn about ethnographic research
      • … list sampling types
      • … select representative samples
      • … reduce sample errors
    L e arning Out c om e s
  • DATA INFORMATION Qualitative research primarily uses information (e.g. via interviews & focus groups). Jenny Nhim is a 21 year-old student at Raffles College, Singapore. Data is information in table form Singapore Singaporean Sailor Chris Lim New York American Pilot Tim Gray Singapore Burmese Student Nhim Jenny City Nationality Occupation Family Name Given Name Quantitative research gathers and uses data. (e.g. via polls & surveys)
  • Collects quantitative data via questionnaire (participant answers questions themselves online or on paper) or structured interview . Usually uses closed questions and aims for short, quantifiable answers. Explain study to all participants. Data Collection Survey
  • Data Collection Survey
  • Data Collection Survey
  • Quantitative statistical, objective, factual data that describe a group of people. Primary data is collected via a questionnaire in a poll, survey or census. Secondary data may be published online or elsewhere. Common demographic variables are: age, gender, household size, personal income, education, race, religion. Data Collection Demographics
  • Quantitative data used to measure subjective information. Psychographic research attempts to quantify the qualitative . Collected via a questionnaire in a survey or structured interview. Common psychographic variables are: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographics
  • Quantitative data used to measure subjective information. Psychographic research attempts to quantify the qualitative . Collected via a questionnaire in a survey or structured interview. Common psychographic variables are: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographic Question Types Likert Scales
  • Quantitative data used to measure subjective information. Psychographic research attempts to quantify the qualitative . Collected via a questionnaire in a survey or structured interview. Common psychographic variables are: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographic Question Types Likert Scales 1. If GAP were a person, what kind of person would it be? Circle the number on the scale that reflects your opinion. Honest Dishonest Fashionable Unfashionable Generous Greedy Traditional Modern Rude Polite Serious Fun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Semantic Scales 2. What do you think of Singapore? Circle the number on the scale that reflects your opinion. Boring Fun Clean Sterile Relaxed Uptight Creative Stilted 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Web statistics are a from of quantitative analysis of user online behaviour . User viewing habits tracked and collected. Used to create user profile . Available data: user age, gender, pages visited most often, how long users stay on the site, when, how often, what they like etc. Data Collection Psychographics & Demographics Online
  • Web statistics are a from of quantitative analysis of user online behaviour . User viewing habits tracked and collected. Used to create user profile . Available data: user age, gender, pages visited most often, how long users stay on the site, when, how often, what they like etc. Data Collection Psychographics & Demographics Online
  • Data Collection: Facial Recognition Billboard ads track user profiles VIDEO
  • Data collection : Facial recognition Facebook’s biometric facial recognition program to track users
  • Ethnography “ A major type of field research … the purpose of [which] is to provide a detailed description and up-close understanding of a way of life from the standpoint of its natives/members/insiders” (Neuman 2009, p. 264) video
  • Subjects record their own experiences with cameras (sometime in conjunction with personal journals). Information Gathering Photo Ethnography Researchers then combine individual case studies into a collective understanding of the community being studied.
  • The researcher may comduct primary research by photographing or filming the subject in order to better understand cultural behaviour of a target group. Researchers may also review secondary sources such as television programmes, adverts, movies etc to understand how the subject is viewed. Information Gathering Visual Anthropology VIDEO
  • Excellent method for gaining expert and/or subjective opinions on a topic. Qualitative research method. Use open-ended questions which require long, detailed answers. Record interviews. Explain study & get consent from all participants. Information Gathering Interview Who What Where Why When How
  • Organised discussions with a moderator and limited number of participants (often 8-12). Qualitative method to study opinions, motivations, attitudes & group interaction. Moderators should remain neutral , ask open ended questions, speak only when necessary & record session. Explain study & get consent from all participants. Information Gathering Focus Group VIDEO
  • REFERENCES Babbie, E 2008, The Basics of Social Research 4 th ed , Cengage, USA. Neuman, WL 2009, Understanding Research , Pearson, London. Visocky O’Grady, K & Visocky O’Grady, J 2009, A Designer’s Research Manual , Rockport, USA. Immersive Labs, 2011, Retrieved on 20 July 2011 from: http://www.immersivelabs.com
  • Focus group exercise
    • Get in groups.
    • Work on in-class project (Fashion Giants / Sexiness / Safdie) or final project
    • Decide on the focus of the topic
    •  what do you really want to achieve by asking your questions?
    • Select questions to guide the focus group
    • Focus group session to last at least 20 minutes
    • Take note of the responses – did you get a clear answer?
    • What could have been improved – as a respondent / moderator?
    • NOTE:
    • Do not out-talk the respondents
  • In groups: Interview exercise
    • Work on in-class project (Fashion Giants / Sexiness / Safdie) or final project
    • Decide on the focus of the topic
    •  what do you really want to achieve by asking questions?
    • Select specific questions to ask the interviewee
    • Interview to last 15 minutes
    • Take note of the responses
    • What did you learn from doing the interview?
    • What can be improved?
  • Lesson Six Research Writing 1
    • Project Step 3:
    • Presentation 3: Research Methods
    • Prepare a 5-6 minute presentation explaining your primary research methods .
    • Explain how you will collect information/data on the topic. Explain whether you decided to do quantitative or qualitative research and why.
    • Which method(s) will you use? Why?
    • Who will you sample ? How? Why?
    • What questions will you ask? Give examples.
    • What problems do you foresee?
    • Detail your sources .
    • Design PowerPoint slides .
    homework