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  • 1. Techniques involved in designing a questionnaire validation administration Method of translation Name of the scholar:D. KavithaPh.D scholar Guide: Dr Anjalakshi Chandrasekar HOD (OG),Ph.D Co-Guide:Dr.Venkatraman ,Asst.Professor SRM University
  • 2. Definition • A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or attitudes of some sample of individuals. • As a data collecting instrument, it could be structured or unstructured.
  • 3. Factors affecting questionnaires • Length of the questionnaire. • Reputation of the sponsoring agency. • Complexity of the questions asked. • Relative importance of the study as determined by the potential respondent. • Extent to which the respondent believes that his responses are important. • Quality and design of the questionnaire. • Time of year the questionnaires are sent out.
  • 4. Types of questionnaires • Open or unrestricted form - calls for free response from the respondent • There is predetermined set of response • They provide true, insightful and unexpected suggestions • Allows for greater depth of response; is difficult to interpret, tabulate, and summarize. • An ideal questionnaire contains open ended questions toward end of all questions
  • 5. Closed or restricted form of questionnaire Offers respondents a number of alternative replies, from which the subjects must choose the one that most likely matches the appropriate answer. • Characteristic of questionnaire Facilitates easy statistical calculation Provides easy preliminary analysis Can be asked to different groups at different intervals Facilitates efficient tracking of opinion.
  • 6. Types of closed form of questionnaire • Dichotomous questions: respondent to make a choice between two responses such as yes/ no or male/ female • Multiple choice question: respondents to make a choice between more than two response alternatives • Cafeteria questions :respondents to select a response that most closely corresponds to their view. • Rank order questions – Respondents to rank their responses from most favorable to least favorable • Contingency questions: A question that is asked further only if the respondent gives a particular response to previous question.
  • 7. • Rating questions: Respondent is asked to rate a particular issue on a scale that ranges from poor to good • Likert questions: helps know how strongly the respondent agrees with a particular statement. • Bipolar questions: These questions have two extreme answers his/ her response between two opposite ends of the scale. • Matrix questions: it includes multiple questions and identical categories are assigned .questions are placed along the top and list of questions down the side
  • 8. Characteristics of a good questionnaire • Deals with a significant topic • Seeks only that information which cannot be obtained from other sources such as census data • As short as possible, only long enough to get the essential data. • Attractive in appearance, neatly arranged, and clearly duplicated or printed. • Directions are clear and complete. Questions are objective, with no leading suggestions to the desired response • Questions are presented in good psychological order, proceeding from general to more specific responses. • To easy tabulate and interpret.
  • 9. Guidelines for preparing questionnaire o Prepared according with study objective o Concise, precise and brief o Criticism from faculty and class members o Trailing the questionnaire with friends o Respondents selected carefully o As par as possible open ended questions should be avoided o Controversial and ambiguous questions should be avoided o Getting permission in organization before administering questionnaire o Try to get the aid of sponsorship o Mailed questionnaire should have introduction, purpose and directions to fill the questions o Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire should be avoided.
  • 10. Sequence of questions • Arranged in logical sequence • Answer to questions not influenced by previous questions • Questions should flow from general to more specific • Questions should flow least to more sensitive
  • 11. Question construction The sample -- who are you going to ask The method--- how are you going to ask them The questionnaire– what are you going to ask them The result – what will you do with information The cost – how much do you want to pay for answer The time scale– By them do you need information
  • 12. Construction of questionnaire Problem definition Search for relevant secondary data for problem Exploratory interviews with subject expertise and review personal experience with colleques Writing of specific research objectives Listing of hypothesis to be tested Development of questions for questionnaire
  • 13. Method of administration of questionnaire POSTAL Lowcost Not in labour intensive PHONE High speed Rapport with respondent High respondent rate ELECTRONIC low cost, high speed, not labour intensive PERSONALLY ADMINISTERED detailed questions , high response rate
  • 14. • Cost effective • Easy to analyse • Less time and energy need to administer • Reduce bias as interviewer is not present • Used for large sample size • Less instructive than face to face interview Advantages of questionnaire
  • 15. • Not suitable for all • Low response rate • Mailed questions may filled by some one • Provides superficial information • Chances of misinterpretation • People can lie and answer the questions vaguely. Disadvantages of questionnaire
  • 16. Validity of Research tool • Validity of an instrument refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring • Types of validity • 1.Face validity: overlook of instrument regarding its appropriateness to measure a particular attribute or phenomenon • 2.Content validity: Scope of coverage of the content are to be measured • 3.Criterion validity: Relationship between measurements of the instruments with some other external criteria
  • 17. • Predictive validity: degree of fore casting judgment • Concurrent validity: it is the degree of the measures at present. • 4.construct validity: Gives more importance to testing relationship predicted on theoretical measurement.
  • 18. • Degree of consistency and accuracy with which an instrument measures the attribute for which it is designed to measure Reliability of the tool
  • 19. Test –Retest method • Administration of a research instrument to a sample of subjects on two different occasions • Scores of the tool administered at two different occasions is compared and calculated by using following formula of correlation coefficient • The correlation coefficient reveals the magnitude and directions of relationships between scores generated by research instrument at two separate occasions. • Interpretation of results– the results of the correlation coefficient ranges between -1.00 through 0.0 and +1.00, and the results are interrelated as follows • +1,00 score---- perfect reliability • 0.00 score ---- no reliability • Above 7 indicates --- acceptable reliability
  • 20. Split of method • Divide items of a research instrument in two equal parts through grouping either in odd number question and even number question /first half and second half item groups • Administer two subparts of the tool simultaneously, score them independently and compute the correlation co-effcient on the two separate scores
  • 21. Method of Translation • Team approaches generate more translation options and provide sounder and less idiosyncratic translation review and evaluation • Team based approach based on the multi- stage translation frameworks
  • 22. Steps in translation • Translation • Review • Initial adjudication • Cognitive Interview pretesting • Final review and adjudication.
  • 23. • References • Barbara H. Forsy; Methods for Translating Survey Questionnaires Paper presented to American Association for Public Opinion research, Montreal, Canada, May, 2006. • Kothari C.K; Research Methodology‐ Methods and Techniques , New Age International, New Delhi;2004