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The effectiveness of safety mgt system in caterpiller
 

The effectiveness of safety mgt system in caterpiller

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    The effectiveness of safety mgt system in caterpiller The effectiveness of safety mgt system in caterpiller Document Transcript

    • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Safety is inevitable to any organization when employees are involved. Anorganization’s responsibility to its employees extends beyond the payment of wages fortheir services. The employee’s safety both on and off the job within the organization is avital concern of the employer. Providing a safe and healthy environment is a pre-requisite for any productive effort. This research deals with the study on the safetyprovided to the employees at Caterpillar.Introduction to Safety- Begin this course with an overview of effective safety and healthprograms and an understanding of their importance to both employers and employees.Discover methods for implementing safety programs in the industrial workplace.Walking and working Surfaces- Identify common hazards that may increase theprobability of workplace accidents. Study proper “House Keeping” and the correct useof ladders and stairways. Identify when to use covers and guardrails and the steps thatcan be taken to minimizing slipping, tripping, and falling in the workplace.Prevention and Protection Plans- Study the importance of an effective emergencymanagement plan in reducing workplace injuries and deaths. Learn that an effectivesafety plan includes proper and clearly marked exits, functioning and regularlymaintained fire-fighting equipment and employee training programs.Employee Safety: 1
    • A top priority for any employer should be to take the time and initiative tohelp protect their employees. If an employee becomes injured at work, your businessmay suffer. Machines in the workplace can pose operating hazards. From minor cuts andabrasion to serious lacerations, exposure to machine operations can be detrimental tolife, health and productivity. It is highly recommended that you purchase machineryequipped with guarding or that the guards on existing equipment left intake andemployees be trained to use them.Hazards Materials Chemicals and solvents in the workplace can create hazardous conditions.Some combinations of common cleaning chemicals can cause serious life threateningconditions. • Use a designated storage place for chemicals • Read the labels on your products and become familiar with material safety data sheets.Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) When the workplace hazards cannot be eliminated or reduced, personalprotective equipment may be necessary. PPE does not eliminate a hazardous situation; itsimply creates a protective barrier between the employee and the hazard. Equipmentcan be in the form of;Non respirators  Safety glasses or goggles  Gloves  Boots  Hearing protection  Hardhats  Helmet  Earplug  Apron 2
    •  Leg guard  Arm shield  Wind shieldRespirators  Dust respirators  Chemical respirators  Welding fume  Visual air systemDefinitions of safety System Safety Engineering and Management states that safety may be defined“as a quality of a system that allows the system to function under pre-determinedconditions with an acceptable minimum of accidental loss”. Air services Australia (2001, AA-Safe-001, p.1) define safety as “Being in asituation where the risks of an aircraft accident or air safety incident are reduced to alevel as a low as reasonable practicable” reinforcing the proposition that the workingdefinition of Safety includes risk management. Safety can be framed for the purposes of this paper as a characteristic of a systemthat does not permit unacceptable risks to be undertaken with the goal of injury freeoperations.  The condition of being safe; freedom from danger, risk, or injury.  the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions  Occupational safety is concerned with risks in areas where people work: offices, manufacturing plants, farms, construction sites, and commercial and retail facilities. Public safety is concerned with hazards in the home, in travel and recreation, and in other situations that do not fall within the scope of occupational safety. 1.2 NEED AND IMPORTANCE OFTHE STUDY 3
    • 1. This study would give an overview of the safety measures existing at Caterpillar.2. Since safety and welfare are two important elements essential for improving the productivity of an organization, a study on the existing safety measures would help the organization perform better.3. This study would throw light on the perception of the employees regarding safety.4. Caterpillar can identify the areas where it can improve so as to improve the performance of the employees.5. This study would also help to analyze if there is dependence between departments and categories and the level of satisfaction of safety measures6. Suggest provisions of more safety measures. 4
    • 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study undertaken for CATERPILLAR aims to find the reason for safetymeasures. This study is done with the help of a questionnaire which contains questionswhich probe into the details so as to find the reason of their choice. Safety and welfare are two important elements essential for improving theproductivity of an organization, a study on the existing safety measures would help theorganization perform better. Safety measures may be viewed as a total concept and as a relative concept. Thetotal concept is a desirable state of existence involving the physical, mental, moral andeconomical well-being. These four elements together constitute the structure of thewelfare implies the welfare of man, his family and community. 5
    • 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYPrimary Objectives: A study on “The Effectiveness of Safety Management System” in CaterpillarIndia Private Ltd.Secondary Objectives:  To find out whether adequate safety measures are provided to the employees  To find out the fulfillment of safety measures to employees  To analyze the safety measures followed by the contract laborers  To observe the employees satisfaction towards the safely training program  To find out the employees expectation towards safety measures in this company. 6
    • 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study is applicable to “CATERPILLAR PVT LIMITED” The respondents have replied to the queries recalling from their memory. Therefore recall bias and personal bias are possible. The sample size was limited to 100. Since the data was collected using a schedule, the interviewer’s inability to understand and record the responses correctly is possible. The respondents were unable or unwilling to give a complete and accurate response to certain questions. 7
    • 1.6 COMPANY PROFILE For more than 80 years, Caterpillar has been building the world’s infrastructureand, in partnership with network of Cat® dealers worldwide, has helped drive positiveand sustainable change on every continent. They are a global company, with hundredsof locations worldwide to serve and support customer base, and respond quickly to theirneeds .Corporate Profile For more than 80 years, Caterpillar Inc. has been making progress possible anddriving positive and sustainable change on every continent. With 2008 sales andrevenues of $51.324 billion, Caterpillar is the world’s leading manufacturer ofconstruction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gasturbines. The company also is a leading services provider through Cat FinancialServices, Cat Remanufacturing Services, Cat Logistics Services and Progress RailServices. They are proud to be a leader in building the world’s infrastructure, and inenabling progress for millions of people around the globe. They manufacture more than300 products in 23 countries and serve customers in nearly 200 countries. They areheadquartered in Peoria, Illinois.The History of Caterpillar1890. Benjamin Holt and Daniel Best experimented with various forms of steam tractorsfor use in farming. They did so separately, with separate companies.1904. Holts first steam track-type tractor.1906. Holts first gas track-type tractor.1915. Holt "Caterpillar®" track-type tractors are used by the Allies in World War I.1925. The Holt Manufacturing Company and the C. L. Best Tractor Co. merge to formCaterpillar Tractor Co. 8
    • 1931. The first Diesel Sixty Tractor rolled off the assembly line in East Peoria, Illinois,with a new efficient source of power for track-type tractors.1940. The Caterpillar product line now included motor graders, blade graders, elevatinggraders, terracers and electrical generating sets.1942. Caterpillar track-type tractors, motor graders, generators sets and a special enginefor the M4 tank are used by the United States in its war effort.1950. Caterpillar Tractor Co. Ltd. in Great Britain is established, the first of manyoverseas operations created to help manage foreign exchange shortages, tariffs, importcontrols and better serve customers around the world.1953. In 1931, the company created a separate engine sales group to market dieselengines to other equipment manufacturers. This group was replaced in 1953 with aseparate sales and marketing division to better serve the needs of a broad range ofengine customers. Engine sales now account for approximately one-third of thecompanys total sales and revenues.1963. Caterpillar and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. form one of the first jointventures in Japan to include partial U.S. ownership. Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd. startedproduction in 1965, has been renamed Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd., and is now theNo. 2 maker of construction and mining equipment in Japan.1981-83. the worldwide recession took its toll on Caterpillar, costing the company theequivalent of $1 million a day and forcing it to dramatically reduce employment.1983. Caterpillar Leasing Company is expanded to offer equipment financing options toits customers worldwide and is renamed Caterpillar Financial Services Corporation.1985-present. The product line continued to diversify to meet a variety of customerneeds. More than 300 products are now offered, more than double the figure in1981. 9
    • 1986. The Caterpillar Tractor Co. changes its name to Caterpillar Inc. - a more accuratereflection of the enterprises growing diversity.1987. A $1.8 billion plant modernization program was launched to streamline themanufacturing process.1990. The company decentralized its structure, reorganizing into business unitsresponsible for return on assets and customer satisfaction.1997. The company continued to expand, acquiring the U.K.-based Perkins Engines.With the addition of Germanys MaK Motoren the previous year, Caterpillar becomesthe world leader in diesel engine manufacturing.1998. The worlds largest off-highway truck - the 797 - makes its debut at the Cat ProvingGround in Arizona.1999. Caterpillar unveils new line of compact construction equipment at CONEXPO,worlds largest construction show, in response to changing customer needs for smaller,more versatile construction equipment.2000. Caterpillar celebrates its 75th anniversary.2001. Caterpillar is the first company to globally launch 6 Sigma and deliver first-yearbenefits in excess of implementation costs.2003. Caterpillar becomes the first engine manufacturer to offer a complete line of 2004model year clean diesel engines fully compliant and certified by the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA). Caterpillars breakthrough emissions control technology,known as ACERT®, is designed to comply with EPA standards without sacrificingperformance, reliability or fuel efficiency.2005. Demonstrating a pledge to sustainable development, Caterpillar responded to anumber of tragedies around the world, including the Asian Tsunami disaster, hurricanes 10
    • along the U.S. Gulf Coast and earthquakes in South Asia. In the face of each of thesechallenges, employees, dealers and corporate leaders alike joined together to build apromise of hope and growth for all those affected by donating machinery, money andresources for relief and recovery efforts.2006. Benjamin Holt, one of Caterpillar Inc.s founding fathers and designer of the firsttrack-type tractor was recognized for his ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit with aninduction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.2006. Caterpillar Inc. subsidiary Caterpillar Logistics Services, Inc. (Cat Logistics) opensa new parts distribution center in the Lingang Industrial Area in Shanghai.2006. Caterpillar launched a revised and updated Worldwide Code of Conduct andEnterprise Strategy. Serving new markets and new customers in new ways, Caterpillarwelcomed the opportunity to experience unchartered growth across all businessventures.Mission Their mission is to enable economic growth through infrastructureAnd energy development, and provide solutions that protect people and preserve theplanet.Vision Their vision is a world in which all people’s basic requirements—such asShelter, clean water, sanitation and reliable power—are fulfilled in a way that sustainsour environment.Strategy Their strategy is to provide work environments, products, services and solutionsthat make efficient use of the world’s natural resources and reduce unnecessary impactson people, the environment and the economy. This means that they leverage resources,including technology and innovation to: 11
    • • Optimize the use of renewable resources • Minimize emissions • Maximize recycling • Promote and protect individual Safety and well-being • Minimize the use of energy, materials, water and land • Provide employment, education and trainingSustainable Development Critical Success Factors (CSFs) ProgressCulture Create a culture of sustainable development in all their business units and in alltheir daily work.Operations Be consistent with their sustainability principles and contribute to enterprisesustainable development goals.Business Opportunities Identify and pursue business growth opportunities created by sustainabledevelopment.Caterpillar Enterprise Goals to 2020 (Baseline 2006) Established in 2007, these aspirational, enterprise-wide goals focus onsustainability in every aspect of their business.2020 Goals forProducts, Services and Solutions • Reduce customer greenhouse gas emissions by 20% • Increase customer energy efficiency by 20% • Provide leadership in the safety of people in, on and around our products • Increase customer material efficiency by 20% 12
    • 2020 Goals forOperations • Use alternative/renewable sources to meet 20% of their energy needs • Reduce recordable workplace injury rates to 0.6 and lost-time case rate due to injury to 0.15 • Increase energy efficiency by 25% • Design all new construction to meet Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design(LEED) or comparable green building criteria • Eliminate waste by reducing Hold water consumption flat waste generation and reusing or recycling all that remains • Reduce absolute greenhouse gas emissions from existing facilities by 25% 13
    • 1.7 Industry Profile Indian Infrastructure sector is currently going through a vast transformationwith the third largest road network of 3 million Km crisscross the country, theautomobile revolution has more than doubled from 21.3 million at the beginning of1990’s to 48.4 million by end of the decade. The Government has already embarked upon massive road construction projects,with national highway development from building the North-South and East-Westcorridors and golden quadrangle projects connecting major cities. Besides government’sdecision to throw open the construction of roads, bridges and airports to private sectorand allowing 100% foreign investment in real estate projects, has provided a boost to theconstruction industry as well as generate demand for construction machinery. The total investment of road and highway construction project is estimated as$40 billion turnover the next 15 years of which 20% is expected to be in constructionmachinery. Hence a total demand of $10 billion construction machinery is expected innext 20 years. The present market for construction machinery is estimated to $1312.17 million,out of which about 1% is imported. Indian construction machinery Industry isundergoing a rapid transformation from low volume, intensive use of equipmentstructure to high volume, and specific use one. The new housing and infrastructureventures have generated substantial demand for construction machinery, manufacturingand servicing. While the previous trend was to forge joint venture associations withIndian companies, more and more multinational companies are now entering the Indianmarket on their own strength.The major manufacturers and importers of the estimated $1312.17 industry are:  Ashok Leyland  Atlas Copco (India) 14
    •  B G Shirke Construction Equipment  Caterpillar India  Ingersoll Rand India  JCB India  Larsen & Toubro  Metso Minerals  Salgaocar Engineers  Schwing-Stetter India  Telco Construction Equipment  Terex Vectra Equipment  VoltasIn India, Caterpillar languishes in fourth position in sales of diggers, loaders and otherconstruction machines.The key Success Factors are:Focus on quality and operational efficiency From the outset, CIPL has had a strong focus on quality. To this end, it focusedon implementing Six Sigma and the pursuit of operational excellence using Class Adisciplines.Superior product development capabilities Caterpillar’s unique New Product Introduction (NPI) process gives guidance,direction and accountability to all stakeholders while ensuring its overall success. Thecornerstone of this product development process is the customer validation exercisewhere machines are placed in a non-clinical environment and evaluated for more than3,500 hours. The company uses tools like the Prediction of Estimated Reliability GrowthPlan (PERG) and Statistical tools such as the Weibull Analysis for checking machineperformance prior to launch. Such processes and tools enabled the company tosuccessfully launch the backhoe loader, and assure success in a competitive market.World Wide Competitors of Caterpillar are:  Komatsu(Japan)  Hitachi(Japan) 15
    •  CNH-Case new Holland(France) John Deer(USA) Volvo (Sweden). 16
    • 1.8 REVIEW OF LITERATUREDefinitions of safety  The condition of being safe; freedom from danger, risk, or injury.  the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions  Occupational safety is concerned with risks in areas where people work: offices, manufacturing plants, farms, construction sites, and commercial and retail facilities. Public safety is concerned with hazards in the home, in travel and recreation, and in other situations that do not fall within the scope of occupational safety.IntroductionIntroduction to safety- Being this course with an overview of effective safety and healthprograms and an understanding of their importance to both employers andemployees .Discover methods for implementing safety programs in the industrialworkplace.Employee safety: A top priority for any employer should be to take the time and initiative to helpprotect their employees becomes at work, your business may suffer. Machines in the work place can pose operating hazards. From minor cuts andabrasion to serious lacerations, exposure to machine operations can be detrimental tolife, health and productivity. It is highly recommended that you purchased machineryequipped with guarding or that the guards on existing equipment left intake andemployees be trained to use them. 17
    • FACTORIES ACT, 1948 The Factories Act is a social legislation which has been enacted foroccupational safety, health and welfare of workers at work places. This legislation isbeing enforced by technical officers i.e. Inspectors of Factories, Dy. Chief Inspectors ofFactories who work under the control of the Chief Inspector of Factories and overallcontrol of the Labour Commissioner, Government of National Capital Territory of DelhiSALIENT FEATURES OF THE ACT ARE:-1. Approval of Factory Building Plans before construction/extension, under the Delhi Factories Rules, 1950.2. Grant of Licenses under the Delhi Factories Rules, 1950, and to take action against factories running without obtaining License.3. Renewal of Licenses granted under the Delhi Factories Rules, 1950, by the Dy. Chief Inspectors of Factories.4. Inspections of factories by District Inspectors of Factories, for investigation of complaints, serious/fatal accidents as well as suo moto inspections to check compliance of provisions of this Act relating to :- 18
    • I.HealthII.SafetyIII .WelfarefacilitiesIV.WorkinghoursV.Employment 19
    • 1.CLEANLINESS:Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising fromany drain, privy or other, nuisance, and in particular - (a) accumulations of dirt andrefuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from thefloors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages, and disposed of in asuitable manner;(b) The floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week bywashing, using disinfectant, where necessary, or by some other effective method;(c) where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process tosuch extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be providedand maintained;(d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides andtops of passages and staircases shall - (ii) where they are painted otherwise than withwashable water-paint or varnished, be repainted or re-varnished least once in everyperiod of five years;(ii) Where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervioussurfaces, be cleaned at least once in every period of fourteen months by such method asmay be prescribed;(iii) In any other case, be kept whitewashed or color-washed, and the whitewashing orcolor-washing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months;(d) All doors and window frames and other wooden or metallic frame work andshutters shall be kept painted or varnished and the painting or varnishing shall becarried out at least once in every period of five years;(e) The dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are carried out shall beentered in the prescribed register.(2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried on in a factory or class ordescription of factories or any part of a factory or class or description of factories, it is 20
    • not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the provisions of sub-section(1), the State Government may by order exempt such factory or class or description offactories or part from any of the provisions of that sub-section and specify alternativemethods for keeping the factory in a clean state.12. DISPOSAL OF WASTES AND EFFLUENTS. - (1) Effective arrangements shall bemade in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to themanufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and for theirdisposal.(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be madeunder sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in accordance with sub-section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be prescribed.13. VENTILATION AND TEMPERATURE. - (1) Effective and suitable provision shallbe made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom - (a) adequateventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and(b) Such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions ofcomfort and prevent injury to health; and in particular, - (i) walls and roofs shall be ofsuch material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept aslow as practicable;(ii) Where the nature of the work carried on in the factory involves, or is likely toinvolve, the production of excessively high temperatures such adequate measures as arepracticable shall be taken to protect the workers there from, by separating the processwhich produces such temperatures from the workroom, by insulating the hot parts or byother effective means.(2) The State Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation andreasonable temperature for any factory or class or description of factories or partsthereof and direct that [ lra-48 proper measuring instruments, at such places and in such 21
    • position as may be specified, shall be provided and such records, as may be prescribed,shall be maintained;(3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperatures in any factorycan be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may, without prejudice to therules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier, an order in writing specifyingthe measures which, in his opinion, should be adopted, and requiring them to be carriedout before a specified date.14. DUST AND FUME. - (1) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturingprocess carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a natureand to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employedtherein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken toprevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust applianceis necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of originof the dust, fume or other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.(2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated unless theexhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal combustion engine shall beoperated in any room unless effective measures have been taken to prevent suchaccumulation of fumes therefore as are likely to be injurious to workers employed in theroom.15. ARTIFICIAL HUMIDIFICATION. - (1) In respect of all factories in which thehumidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules, - (a)prescribing standards of humidification;(b) Regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air,(c) Directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity of the air to be correctlycarried out and recorded;(d) Prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling ofthe air in the workrooms. 22
    • (2) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall be effectively purified before it is so used. (3) If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified under sub-section (2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before specified date. 16. OVERCROWDING. - (1) No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act at least 9.9 cubic meters and of a factory built after the commencement of this Act at least 14.2 cubic meters or space for every worker employed therein, and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of any space which is more than 4.2 meters above the level of the floor of the room. (3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of workers who may, in compliance with the provisions of this section, be employed in the room. (4) The Chief Inspector may by order in writing exempt, subject to such conditions, ifany, as he may think fit to impose, any workroom from the provisions of this section, if heis satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room is unnecessary in the interestof the health of the workers employed therein. 17. LIGHTING. (1) In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both. 23
    • (2) In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of theworkroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and, so far ascompliance with the provisions of any rules made, under sub-section (3) of section 13will allow, free from obstruction.(3) In every factory effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for theprevention of - (a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from asmooth or polished surface;(b) The formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye-strain or the risk ofaccident to any worker.(4) The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting forfactories or for any class or description of factories or for any manufacturing process.18. DRINKING WATER. - (1) In every factory effective arrangements shall be made toprovide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employedtherein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.(2) All such points shall be legibly marked "drinking water" in a language understood bya majority of the workers employed in the factory, and no such point shall be situatedwithin six meters of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carryingsalvage or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance isapproved in writing by the Chief Inspector.(3) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarilyemployed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather byeffective means and for distribution thereof.(4) In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the State Governmentmay make rules for securing compliance with the provisions of sub-sections (1), (2) and(3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution ofdrinking water in factories. 24
    • 19. LATRINES AND URINALS. - (1) In every factory - (a) sufficient latrine and urinalaccommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated andaccessible to workers at all times while they are at the factory;(b) Separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers;(c) Such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, and no latrine orurinal shall, unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector, communicatewith any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage;(d) All such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at alltimes;(e) Sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to keep clean latrines,urinals and washing places.(2) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarilyemployed - (a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitarytypes;(b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of ninety centimeters, of the latrines andurinals and the sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed titles or otherwise finished toprovide a smooth polished impervious surface;(c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (1), the floors,portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines andurinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days withsuitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.(3) The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to beprovided in any factory in proportion to the numbers of male and female workersordinarily employed therein, and provide for such further matters in respect ofsanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considersnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein. 25
    • 20. SPITTOONS. –(1) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons inconvenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and the number ofspittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such furthermatters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.(3) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons providedfor the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violationshall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.(4) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable with fine notexceeding five rupees.Safety CultureAn organization with a "safety culture" is one that gives appropriate priority to safetyand realizes that safety has to be managed like other areas of the business. For theshipping industry, it is in the professionalism of seafarers that the safety culture must takeroot.That culture is more than merely avoiding accidents or even reducing the number ofaccidents, although these are likely to be the most apparent measures of success. Interms of shipboard operations, it is to do the right thing at the right time in response tonormal and emergency situations. The quality and effectiveness of that training willplay a significant part in determining the attitude and performance - the professionalism- the seafarer will subsequently demonstrate in his, or her, work. And the attitudeadopted will, in turn, be shaped to a large degree by the culture of the shippingcompany. 26
    • The key to achieving that safety culture is in: • recognizing that accidents are preventable through following correct procedures and established best practice; • constantly thinking safety; and • Seeking continuous improvement.It is relatively unusual for new types of accidents to occur on board and many of thosethat continue to occur are due to unsafe acts by seafarers. These errors, or more oftenviolations of good practice or established rules, can be readily avoided. Those whomake them are often well aware of the errors of their ways. They may have taken short-cuts they should not have taken. Most will have received training aimed at preventingthem but, through a culture that is tolerant to the calculated risk, they still occur.The challenge for trainers and training, and managers ashore and afloat, is how tominimize these unsafe acts, how to instill not only the skills but also the attitudesnecessary to ensure safety objectives are met. The aim should be to inspire seafarerstowards firm and effective self-regulation and to encourage personal ownershipof established best practice. Internationally recognized safety principles and thesafeguards of best industry practice have to become an integral part of an individualown standards.Hazards, risks, outcomesThe terminology used in OSH varies between states, but generally speaking: • A hazard is something that can cause harm if not controlled. • The outcome is the harm that results from an uncontrolled hazard. • A risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved. 27
    • “Hazard”, “risk”, and “outcome” are used in other fields to describe e.g. environmentaldamage, or damage to equipment. However, in the context of OSH, “harm” generallydescribes the direct or indirect degradation, temporary or permanent, of the physical,mental, or social well-being of workers. For example, repetitively carrying out manualhandling of heavy objects is a hazard. The outcome could be a musculoskeletal disorder(MSD) or an acute back or joint injury. The risk can be expressed numerically (e.g. a 0.5or 50/50 chance of the outcome occurring during a year), in relative terms (e.g."high/medium/low"), or with a multi-dimensional classification scheme (e.g. situation-specific risks).Hazard AssessmentHazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which individual hazards of theworkplace are identified, assessed and controlled/eliminated as close to source (locationof the hazard) as reasonable and possible. As technology, resources, social expectation orregulatory requirements change, hazard analysis focuses controls more closely towardthe source of the hazard. Thus hazard control is a dynamic program of prevention.Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not assigning or implying there are"acceptable risks" in the workplace. A hazard-based program may not be able toeliminate all risks, but neither does it accept "satisfactory" -- but still risky—outcomes.And as those who calculate and manage the risk are usually managers while thoseexposed to the risks are a different group, workers, a hazard-based approach can by-pass conflict inherent in a risk-based approach.Risk assessment Modern occupational safety and health legislation usually demands that a riskassessment be carried out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept in mind thatrisk management requires risk to be managed to a level which is as low as is reasonablypractical. 28
    • This assessment should: • Identify the hazards • Identify all affected by the hazard and how • Evaluate the risk • Identify and prioritize appropriate control measuresThe calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the harm beingrealized and the severity of the consequences. This can be expressed mathematically as aquantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high likelihood and severitywith integers and multiplying them to obtain a risk factor, or qualitatively as adescription of the circumstances by which the harm could arise.The assessment should be recorded and reviewed periodically and whenever there is asignificant change to work practices. The assessment should include practicalrecommendations to control the risk. Once recommended controls are implemented, therisk should be re-calculated to determine of it has been lowered to an acceptable level.Generally speaking, newly introduced controls should lower risk by one level, i.e, fromhigh to medium or from medium to low. 1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology is a systematic way to solve the research problem. It may beunderstand as a science of studying how research is done logically. The various stepsthat are generally adopted by a researcher problem are also the main function of theresearch methodology.RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive research studies are concerned with describing thecharacteristics of a particular individual or of a group, or a situation. This type of 29
    • research design can be used in conditions where decision problem are linked to answerspecific question concerning who, what when, and how a topic. In the study theresearcher wants to elevate “how” effective the performance appraisal system are usinga structured Questionnaire for collection of data, hence the research design used isdescriptive in nature.DATA COLLECTION The two types of data used for the purpose and study are Primary data &Secondary data,1. Primary data It relates to the study was collected from the operators level in the company. Itwas collected through interview and questionnaire method. The other methods such asobservation, indirect oral interview and detailed discussion with the employees hadbeen conducted for the purpose of data collection.2. Secondary data Secondary data are those which have already been collected by some otheragency and which have already been processed. Secondary data for the study has beencomplied from the reports and official publication of the organization, which havehelped in getting and insight of the present scenario existing in the operation of thecompany.Sampling plan Sampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basic ofwhich a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made.Sampling technique A population is the collection of elements about which one has to makesome inference. The population was 100 the researcher followed censes samplingmethod, which is the count of all elements, in a population. 30
    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGYKey issue Options selectedData source Primary and secondary dataResearch approach instrument Interview survey questionnaireContact method Personal contact.QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The questionnaire used for collecting the data is a structured one. It was amixture of open ended, closed ended and multiple industry choices. The words usedwere simple and help in avoiding confusion and misunderstanding among therespondents. During questions were avoided in order to make sure that the questions werearranged in a logical order and So that the respondent would not find the questionsconfusing.Sampling Procedure KEY ISSUES OPTION SELECTED Sample Unit Operators Sample Size 100 31
    • SAMPLING PROCEDURE The first step of research design is used to formulate the objective ofresearch plan, which while specify the way of achieving research objectivesquestionnaires were used to collect the needed information. The sampling method wasconveniences sampling and it is made in such a view freely with hesitation.SAMPLING UNIT • The operators were surveyedSAMPLE SIZE • 100 samples of operators considered for the study.SURVEY METHOD The survey method used by the researcher was self- administered survey. Self –administered survey is data collection technique in which the respondent read thesurvey question and records his /her answer without the presence of a trainedinterviewer.STATISTICAL TOOLS1. Simple Percentage Percentage refers to a special kind of ration .Percentage are used in makingcomparisons between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describerelationships. Percentage can also be used to compare the relative terms the distribution of twoor more or more series of data.2. Chi-Square Analysis Chi square test is a non-parametric test. Marking researches to test hypothesesuses it most frequently. The test is employed for testing hypotheses when distribution ifpopulation is not know and when nominal data in to be analyzed. The quantity x2 describes the magnitude of discrepancy between theory andobservation. Verity the distribution of observed data with answered theoretical 32
    • distribution non parametric test. The symbol “X2” is the Greek letter Chi. the Test wasfirst used by Kara person in the year 1990.  The Quantity χ2 is defined as χ2 = (Oi-Ei/Ei) 2 Where, Oi = Refers to the observed frequency Ei = Refers to expected frequency 33
    • CHAPTER II 2.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1.1.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSISTABLE: 2.1.1 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- AGE WISE No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Up to 20 0 0 2 21-30 10 10 3 31-40 20 20 4 41-50 50 50 5 Above50 20 20 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.1 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- AGE WISEINFERENCE: It is found from the above table that 10% of the respondents between 21-30 yearsof age level, 20% of the respondents between 31-40 years of age level, 50% of therespondents between 41-40 years of age level, 20% of the respondents belongs to above50 years of age level and none of the respondents are below 20 years of age, 34
    • TABLE: 2.1.2 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- DESIGNATION WISE No. of S. No Particulars Respondents Percentage 1 Operator 65 65 2 Fitter 15 15 3 Welder 10 10 4 Burner 4 4 5 Painter 6 6 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.2 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- DESIGNATION WISEINFERENCE: 65% of the respondents are operator, 15% of the respondents are fitter, 10% of therespondents are welder, 4% of the respondents are burner and 6% of the respondents arepainter. 35
    • TABLE: 2.1.3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- DEPARTMENT WISE No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Loader Assembly 40 40 2 Axle Plant 15 15 3 Dumber FABN 30 30 4 Tool Room 5 5 5 FOP Paint 10 10 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- DEPARTMENT WISEINFERENCE: It is found from the above table 40% of the respondents are loaderassemble, 15% of the respondents are axle plant, 30% of the respondents are dumberFABN, 5% of the respondents are tool room and 10% of the respondents are FOP paint. 36
    • TABLE: 2.1.4 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- MARTIAL STATUS No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Single 18 18 2 Married 82 82 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.4 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- MARTIAL STATUSINFERENCE: It is found from the above tables 18% of the respondents are single and 82% ofthe respondents are married. 37
    • TABLE: 2.1.5 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- QUALIFICATION WISE No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage th 1 10 30 30 2 12th 34 34 3 Diploma 16 16 4 PG 2 2 5 Others 18 18 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.5 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- QUALIFICATION WISEINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 30% of the respondents have qualified in10th, 34% of the respondents have qualified in 12th, 16% of the respondents have qualifiedin diploma, 2% of the respondents have in PG level and 18% of the respondents havequalified in others. 38
    • TABLE: 2.1.6 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- EXPERIENCE WISE No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Up to 5 yrs 6 6 2 6-10 Yrs 9 9 3 11-15 Yrs 11 11 4 16-20 Yrs 15 15 5 >20 Yrs 59 59 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.6 DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS- EXPERIENCE WISEINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table 6% of the respondent belongs up to 5years’ experience level, 9% of the respondents between 6-10 years experience level, 11%of the respondents between 11-15 years, 15% of the respondents between 16-10 yearslevel and 59% of the respondents above 20 years experience level. 39
    • TABLE: 2.1.7 AWARE OF THE SAFETY SYSTEM No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 100 100 2 No 0 0 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.7 AWARE OF THE SAFETY SYSTEMINFERENCE: 100% of the respondents are aware of the safety system prevailing in factory. 40
    • TABLE: 2.1.8 WORK PERMIT SYSTEM No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 52 52 2 No 48 48 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.8 WORK PERMIT SYSTEMINFERENCE: 58% of the respondents are satisfied with their work permit systems and 42% ofthe respondents are unsatisfied with their work permit systems. 41
    • TABLE: 2.1.9 SAFETY IN TOOL BOX MEETING No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 90 90 2 No 10 10 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.9 SAFETY TOOL BOX MEETINGINFERENCE: 90% of the respondents have agreed with their tool box meeting and 10% of therespondents have disagreed with their tool box meeting. 42
    • TABLE: 2.1.10 CONTROL MEASURE TO ENSURE SAFETY No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 86 86 2 No 14 14 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.10 CONTROL MEASURE TO ENSURE SAFETYINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table 86% of the respondents have agreed with theirproper control systems and 14% of the respondents have disagreed with their propercontrol systems. 43
    • TABLE: 2.1.11 IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY IS COMMUNICATED TO THE EMPLOYEES No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage Observance of the safety 1 weeks 76 76 2 Safety competitions 78 78 3 Talks on safety 82 82 Booklet in 4 Boards/Slogans 69 69 5 Booklets 14 14 6 House Magazines 14 14 7 Visual Displays 33 33 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.11 IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY IS COMMUNICATED TO THE EMPLOYEESINFERENCE: 76% they agree with safety weeks, 78% they agree with safety competitions, 82%they agree with talks on safety, 69% they agree with bullet in boards, and each 14% theyagree with booklets, house magazines and 33% they agree with visual displays.TABLE: 2.1.12 REDUCE THE RISK OF HAVING ACCIDENTS 44
    • No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Strongly agree 7 7 2 Agree 82 82 3 Disagree 5 5 4 Strongly Disagree 6 6 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.12 REDUCE THE RISK OF HAVING ACCIDENTSINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 7% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their reduce the accidents, 82% of the respondents have agree, 5% of therespondents have disagree and 6% of the respondents have strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.13 ASSES THE RISK RATING IN WORK 45
    • No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 81 81 3 Disagree 9 9 4 Strongly disagree 4 4 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.13 ASSES THE RISK RATING IN WORKINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their asses the risk rating in work , 81% of the respondents have agree, 9%of the respondents have disagree and 4% of the respondents have strongly disagree. 46
    • TABLE: 2.1.14 ADEQUATE NUMBER OF TRAINING PROGRAMS No. Of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 77 77 3 Disagree 13 13 4 Strongly disagree 4 4 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.14 ADEQUATE NUMBER OF TRAINING PROGRAMSINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their adequate number of training programs on safety , 77% of therespondents have agree, 13% of the respondents have disagree and 4% of therespondents have strongly disagree. 47
    • TABLE: 2.1.15 PROGRAMS CONDUCTED ON SAFETY No. Of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 76 76 3 Disagree 14 14 4 Strongly disagree 4 4 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.15 PROGRAMS CONDUCTED ON SAFETYINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their programs conducted on safety, 76% of the respondents have agree,14% of the respondents have disagree and 4% of the respondents have strongly disagree. 48
    • TABLE: 2.1.16 TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFIED FOR THE EMLOYEES No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 83 83 3 Disagree 8 8 4 Strongly disagree 3 3 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.16 TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFIED FOR THE EMLOYEESINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their training needs, 83% of the respondents have agree, 8% of therespondents have disagree and 3% of the respondents have strongly disagree. 49
    • TABLE: 2.1.17 SAFETY RULES, INSTRUCTIONS HAVE BEEN DISPLAYED No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 80 80 3 Disagree 9 9 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.17 SAFETY RULES, INSTRUCTIONS HAVE BEEN DISPLAYEDINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their safety rules, instructions have been displayed, 80% of the respondentshave agree, 9% of the respondents have disagree and 5% of the respondents havestrongly disagree. 50
    • TABLE: 2.1.18 LAY OUT OF WORK PLACE No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 83 83 3 Disagree 8 8 Strongly 4 disagree 3 3 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.18 LAY OUT OF WORK PLACEINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their layout of work place have been properly designed to avoid theaccidents, , 83% of the respondents have agree, 8% of the respondents have disagree and3% of the respondents have strongly disagree. 51
    • TABLE: 2.1.19a INTEGRATED SAFETY SYSTEM No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 35 35 2 No 65 65 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.19a INTEGRATED SAFETY SYSTEMINFERENCE: 35% of the respondents have agreed with their integrated safety system and 65%of the respondents have disagreed with their integrated safety system. 52
    • TABLE: 2.1.19b ADHERENCE TO THE SYSTEM IS GOOD No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 5 14 2 Agree 20 57 3 Disagree 6 17 4 Strongly disagree 4 11 Total 35 100CHART: 2.1.19b ADHERENCE TO THE SYSTEM IS GOODINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 14% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their adherence system, 57% of the respondents have agree, 17% of therespondents have disagree and 11% of the respondents have strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.20a FIRST AID BOXES ARE AVAILABLE 53
    • No. Of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Yes 31 31 2 No 69 69 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.20a FIRST AID BOXES ARE AVAILABLEINFERENCE: 31% of the respondents have agreed with their first aid boxes are available at thework place and 69% of the respondents have disagreed.TABLE: 2.1.20b ADEQUATE MEDICINES AVAILABLE 54
    • No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 4 13 2 Agree 10 32 3 Disagree 13 42 4 Strongly disagree 4 13 Total 31 100CHART: 2.1.20b ADEQUATE MEDICINES AVAILABLEINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 13% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their adequate medicines are available in work place, 32% of therespondents have agree, 42% of the respondents have disagree and 13% of therespondents have strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.21 LIGHTING FACILITIES PROVIDED TO THE WORKPLACE 55
    • No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 85 85 3 Disagree 5 5 4 Strongly disagree 4 4 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.21 LIGHTING FACILITIES PROVIDED TO THE WORKPLACEINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their adequate lighting facilities provided to the work place, 85% of therespondents have agree, 5% of the respondents have disagree and 4% of the respondentshave strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.22 SAFETY VALVES HAVE BEEN PROVIDED 56
    • No. of S. No Particulars responsibility Percentage 1 Strongly agree 7 7 2 Agree 84 84 3 Disagree 5 5 4 Strongly disagree 4 4 Total 100 100TABLE: 2.1.22 SAFETY VALVES HAVE BEEN PROVIDEDINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 7% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their safety valves provided at the pressure vessels, 84% of the respondentshave agree, 5% of the respondents have disagree and 4% of the respondents havestrongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.23 NOISE LEVEL MONITORED 57
    • No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Strongly agree 6 6 2 Agree 24 24 3 Disagree 64 64 4 Strongly disagree 6 6 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.23 NOISE LEVEL MONITOREDINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 6% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their noise level is regularly monitored and controlled at the work place,24% of the respondents have agree, 64% of the respondents have disagree and 6% of therespondents have strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.24 FULL FLEDGED MEDICAL CENTRE S. No Particulars No. of Percentage 58
    • respondents 1 Strongly agree 4 4 2 Agree 25 25 3 Disagree 65 65 4 Strongly disagree 6 6 Total 100 100TABLE: 2.1.24 FULL FLEDGED MEDICAL CENTREINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 4% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their full fledged medical centre, 25% of the respondents have agree, 65% ofthe respondents have disagree and 6% of the respondents have strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.25 ALL ACCIDENTS AND NEAR-MISSES ARE FORMALLY INVESTIGATED 59
    • No. of S. No Particulars respondents Percentage 1 Strongly agree 9 9 2 Agree 91 91 3 Disagree 0 0 4 Strongly disagree 0 0 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.25 ALL ACCIDENTS AND NEAR-MISSES ARE FORMALLY INVESTIGATEDINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 9% of the respondents have stronglyagreed with their accidents and near-misses are formally investigated, 91% of therespondents have agree, 0% of the respondents have disagree and 6% of the respondentshave strongly disagree.TABLE: 2.1.26 OPENION ABOUT SAFETY FACILITIES ARE PORVIDED S. No Particulars No. of Percentage 60
    • respondents 1 Highly satisfied 7 7 2 Satisfied 86 86 3 Dissatisfied 5 5 4 Highly Dissatisfied 2 2 Total 100 100CHART: 2.1.26 OPENION ABOUT SAFETY FACILITIES ARE PORVIDEDINFERENCE: It is inferred from the above table that 7% of the respondents are highly satisfiedwith their safety measures provided by the company, , 86% of the respondents haveagree, 5% of the respondents have disagree and 2% of the respondents have stronglydisagree. 2.2.1 CHI-SQUARE TEST 61
    • TABLE 2.2.1 AGE AND FIRST AID BOXESNull Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significant relationship between age and first aid boxes.Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is a significant relationship between age and first aid boxes.Age and Up to 20 21-30 31-40 41-50 >50 TotalFirst AidBoxesStrongly 0 2 0 1 3 6AgreeAgree 0 3 5 8 9 25Disagree 0 2 7 39 17 65Strongly 0 1 0 2 1 4DisagreeTotal 0 8 12 50 30 100 Observed Expected (Oi-Ei)2/Ei Frequency(Oi) Frequency(Ei) 0 0 0 2 0.48 4.8 0 0.72 0.72 62
    • 1 3 1.3 3 1.8 0.8 0 0 0 3 2 0.5 5 3 1.3 8 12.5 1.62 9 7.5 0.83 0 0 0 2 5.2 1.97 7 7.8 0.08 39 32.5 1.3 17 19.5 0.32 0 0 0 1 0.32 1.4 0 0.48 0.48 2 2 0 1 1.2 0.03CHI - SQUARE TESTThe formula for Ψ2 = Σ (Oi-Ei) 2 / EiCalculated χ2 value = 17.45Degree of Freedom = (R-1) (C-1) = (4-1) (5-1) = 12Table value χ2 = 21.03 Result = Calculated χ2 value 17.45 < Table value χ2 21.03 at 5% level of significant. 63
    • INFERENCE It is found from the above table that calculated value is less than thetable value at 12 degree of freedom. Hence, Null hypothesis (H 0) accepted. Itconcluded that there is no significant relationship between age and first aidboxes.TABLE 2.2.2 EXPERIENCE AND NOISE LEVELNull Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significant relationship between experience and noise level.Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is a significant relationship between experience and noise level.Experience Up to 5 6-10 Yrs 11-15 Yrs 16-20 Yrs >20 Yrs Totaland Noise YrsLevel 64
    • Strongly 1 1 0 0 2 4AgreeAgree 3 3 4 8 10 28Disagree 1 5 6 7 46 65Strongly 1 0 1 0 1 3DisagreeTotal 6 9 11 15 59 100 Observed Expected (Oi-Ei)2/Ei Frequency(Oi) Frequency(Ei) 1 0.24 2.41 1 0.36 1.14 0 0.44 0.44 0 0.6 0.6 2 2.36 0.5 3 1.68 1.04 3 2.52 0.09 4 3.08 0.27 8 4.2 3.44 10 16.5 2.57 1 3.9 2.16 5 5.85 0.12 6 7.2 0.18 7 9.8 0.78 46 38.4 1.53 1 0.18 3.74 65
    • 0 0.27 0.27 1 0.33 1.36 0 0.45 0.45 1 1.77 0.34CHI - SQUARE TESTThe formula for Ψ2 = Σ (Oi-Ei) 2 / EiCalculated χ2 value = 23.43Degree of Freedom = (R-1) (C-1) = (4-1) (5-1) = 12Table value χ2 = 21.03 Result = Calculated χ2 value 23.43 > Table value χ2 21.03 at 5% level of significant.INFERENCE It is found from the above table that calculated value is greater thanthe table value at 12 degree of freedom. Hence, Null hypothesis (H 0) rejected. Itconcluded that there is significant relationship between experience and noiselevel. 66
    • TABLE 2.2.3 TRAINING AND SATISFACTIONNull Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significant relationship between training and satisfaction.Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is a significant relationship between training and satisfaction.Experience Up to 5 6-10 Yrs 11-15 Yrs 16-20 Yrs >20 Yrs Totaland Noise YrsLevelStrongly 1 1 0 0 2 4AgreeAgree 3 3 4 8 10 28Disagree 1 5 6 7 46 65Strongly 1 0 1 0 1 3Disagree 67
    • Total 6 9 11 15 59 100 Observed Expected (Oi-Ei)2/Ei Frequency(Oi) Frequency(Ei) 1 0.24 2.41 1 0.36 1.14 0 0.44 0.44 0 0.6 0.6 2 2.36 0.5 3 1.68 1.04 3 2.52 0.09 4 3.08 0.27 8 4.2 3.44 10 16.5 2.57 1 3.9 2.16 5 5.85 0.12 6 7.2 0.18 7 9.8 0.78 46 38.4 1.53 1 0.18 3.74 0 0.27 0.27 1 0.33 1.36 0 0.45 0.45 1 1.77 0.34CHI - SQUARE TEST 68
    • The formula for Ψ2 = Σ (Oi-Ei) 2 / EiCalculated χ2 value = 23.43Degree of Freedom = (R-1) (C-1) = (4-1) (5-1) = 12Table value χ2 = 21.03 Result = Calculated χ2 value 23.43 > Table value χ2 21.03 at 5% level of significant.INFERENCE It is found from the above table that calculated value is greater thanthe table value at 12 degree of freedom. Hence, Null hypothesis (H 0) rejected. Itconcluded that there is significant relationship between experience and noiselevel. CHAPTER III 69
    • 3.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGSThis chapter deals with the main findings which are mainly drawn from the previouschapter (Analysis and Interpretations). These main findings are very important for thisstudy to come out with the appropriate suggestions. The followings are main findingsdrawn from the study.MAIN FINDINGS • Majority(50%) of the respondents working in Caterpillar age between 41-50 • Majority (65%) of the respondents are operator. • Majority (40%) of the respondents are under come loader assembly department. • More than three fourth of the employees (82%) were married. • 100% of the respondents working in Caterpillar were male. • Majority of the respondents (34%) educational status were +2. • Majority of employees (59%) had served at caterpillar for more than twenty years. • 100% of the respondents are aware of safety system prevailing n the factory • Nearly half of the employees (52%) have been provided with work permit systems in their factory • Majority of the respondents (90%) are provided with priority for safety in Tool box meeting. • 86% of the respondents say that they have been provided with proper control measure to ensure safety in their work place. • Nearly half of the employees (82%) of respondents the importance of safety is communicated through talks on safety. • Nearly three fourth (82%) of the employees agree that safety measures will reduce the Risk of having accidents. • Nearly half of the respondents (81%) accepted that there is a system in a place to asses the risk rating in their day to day work. • 77% of the respondents feel that they have been given adequate number of training programs in Caterpillar. 70
    • • Three fourth of the respondents (76%) say’s that the programs conducted on safety is very effective.• Majority of the respondents (83%) think that the training programs as per identified training needs.• 80% of the respondents agree that safety rules, instructions have been displayed everywhere in the factory permanently.• Nearly three fourth (83%) of the employees accepted that the layout of the work place have been properly designed to avoid accidents.• 65% of the employees feel that there is no integrated safety systems provided in machines and they suggested that company can adhere to a system which is good.• More than half of the respondent (69%) says that there is adequate number of first aid boxes available in the factory.• 85% of the respondents are agreed with their lighting facilities provided to the employees at work place.• More than half of the respondents agree that the safety valves have been provided with pressure vessels.• Nearly three fourth of the employees strongly disagree that the noise level is regularly monitored and controlled in the factory.• Nearly three fourth of the employees (65%) feels that the company do not have the full fledged first aid provision.• Majority of the employees (91%) agree that all accidents and all near misses are formally investigated.• 86% of the respondents are satisfied with the overall safety provisions provided in the factory. 3.2 SUGGESTIONS 71
    • • Adequate number of first aid boxes should be provides in every department and also provides an adequate number of medicines in the work place.• The companies try to provide different way of awareness programs on safety.• Full fledged first aid centre should be improved and maintained.• Noise level should be control and monitor regularly.• Safety valves should be providing to pressure vessels.• Electric circuit and electric wires should be checked, maintained properly.• The integrated safety system of the machines should be improved.• Work permit system to be implemented.• Company should asses the equipments used by every employees. 72
    • 3.3 CONCLUSION A study was conducted on the safety management system at CIPL. A majority of 86% of the respondents were found to be satisfied with thesafety measures at CIPL, 7% were highly satisfied, and only 5% were dissatisfied , 2% ofthem highly dissatisfied.Most of the employees feel company should improve their first aid centre and adequatemedicines are easily available in all work place Employees also feel noise level should bemonitored and controlled.The company should be given improved work permit system to employees. 73
    • BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS: • Industrial Safety - J. Nagaraj and V.Ramachandra Rao • Industrial Relations -ArunMonapa • Human Resource and Personnel Management Fourth Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing -K. Aswathappa • Organization Behaviour - L.M. Prasad • Personnel Management - Dr. Guptawebsites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_culture http://www.theiplgroup.com/safety culture-review http://safetyatworkblog.wordpress.com 74
    • APPENDIX “A STUDY ON SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WITH REFERENCE TO CATERPILLAR INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED” QUESTIONNAIREPersonal DetailsAge : [ ] up to 20 [ ] 21-30 [ ] 31-40 [ ] 41-50 [ ]>50Designation :Department :Martial Status : [ ] Single [ ] MarriedGender : [ ] male [ ] femaleEducational Level : [ ] 10th [ ] 12th [ ] Diploma [ ] UG [ ] PG [ ] OthersLength of Service : [ ] up to 5 Yrs [ ] 6-10 Yrs [ ] 11-15 Yrs [ ] 11-15 Yrs [ ] >20 Yrs 1. Are you aware of the safety system prevailing in your factory? [ ] Yes [ ] No 2. Do you have any work permit systems in your factory? [ ] Yes [ ] No 3. Is there any priority for safety in Tool Box Meeting? 75
    • [ ] Yes [ ] No4. Is there any proper control measure to ensure safety at your work place? [ ] Yes [ ] No5. How the importance of safety is communicated to the employees? Please tick the appropriate answer. • Observance of the safety weeks • Safety competitions • Talks on Safety • Bullet in Boards/Slogans • Pamphlets • Booklets • House Magazines • Visual Displays6. A safety measures reduce the risk of having accidents in your work place. [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree7. There is a system/method in place to asses the risk rating in your day to day work. [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree8. Adequate number of training programs on safety is conducted for the employees of caterpillar. 76
    • [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree9. The programs conducted on safety are very effective. [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree10. Training programs are conducted as per training needs identified for the employees [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree11. A safety rules, instructions have been displayed everywhere in the factory permanently [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree12. The layouts of the workplace have been properly designed to avoid accidents. [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree13. Has any integrated safety system been provided in the machines? [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, adherence to the systems is good [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree14. Adequate numbers of first Aid boxes are available at the work place. [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, adequate numbers of medicines are available [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree15. Adequate lighting facilities have been provided at the workplace. 77
    • [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree16. Safety valves have been provided at the pressure vessels? [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree17. Company have a full-fledged medical centre [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree18. Noise level is regularly monitored and controlled at the work place [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree19. All accidents and all near-misses are formally investigated [ ] Agree [ ] Strongly Agree [ ] Disagree [ ] Strongly Disagree20. Are you satisfied with the safety measures provided by your company? [ ] Highly Satisfied [ ] Satisfied [ ] Dissatisfied [ ] Highly Dissatisfied 78