Ppt final 1

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Ppt final 1

  1. 1. ECO IC (HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY IN DUAL COMBUSTION IC ENGINE) BY KAVIN RAJA G KARTHIK R MOHAMMED HASHIQ M III YEAR MECHANICAL SRI KRISHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: • All these years fuel has been confined to be in the form of crude oil. • Recent study predicts by the end of 2080 the conventional resources will almost run dry. Fuel Reserves Years left Oil 1,386 billion barrels 46.2 Coal 860,938 million tonnes 118 Gas 187.1 trillion cubic metres 58.6
  3. 3. AIR POLLUTION DUE TO FOSSIL FUELS: • The use of automobiles contributes to serious environmental problems including global warming, depletion of resources, air pollution and so on. • We are all aware of the fact of how our environment consisting of various flora and fauna around us is getting affected by the emission of harmful gases which are a by-product of the combustion process taking place in the internal combustion engines. To name a few are carbon monoxides and nitrous oxides.
  4. 4. HYDROGEN AS FUEL: • Two available power units for hydrogen vehicles are hydrogen FCVs and hydrogen ICE. • Hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles present much of the same promise as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs): reduced reliance on imported oil and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. • But hydrogen ICE has advantage over hydrogen FCV’s since hydrogen can power a normal 4 stroke petrol engine with some modifications.
  5. 5. WHY USE HYDROGEN IN IC ENGINES? PROPERTIES: • • • • • Lean mixture Low ignition temperature High diffusivity High flame speed Hydrogen can be obtained as a by-product of electrolysis of water. • Since the availability of water as a source is never a problem, hydrogen is available in abundance. • Hydrogen is the cleaner and greener fuel as compared to other forms of fuels that are available today.
  6. 6. OUR CONCEPT: • Two combustion chambers – separate intake, exhaust and ignition system • Primary fuel – H2 (lower chamber). • Secondary fuel – Gasoline or Diesel (upper chamber). • The strokes of the upper and the lower chamber are designed to take place alternatively. UPPER AND LOWER COMBUS TION CHAMBE RS HYDROGEN INJECTOR
  7. 7. WORKING & STROKE SEQUENCE: PETROL CHAMBER HYDROGEN CHAMBER Intake Exhaust Compression Intake Power Compression Exhaust Power SPARK PLUG H2 INJECTOR
  8. 8. VALVES SEQUENCE: CHAMBER STROKE 1 STROKE 2 STROKE 3 STROKE 4 PETROL INLET VALVE OPEN INLET VALVE CLOSE EXHAUST VALVE OPEN EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE HYDROGEN EXHAUST VALVE CLOSE INLET VALVE OPEN INLET VALVE CLOSE EXHAUST VALVE OPEN
  9. 9. VALVE OPERATION: • The engine is equipped with variable valve timing. • The valve timing in both the chambers is adjusted such that the power delivery is linear. • In VVT the ECU monitors the condition of the engine to decide when to switch to a different camshaft profile. • Using variable valve timing further increases the efficiency, torque and drivability of the engine.
  10. 10. CALCULATIONS: • Bore = 68.5 mm • Mass flow rate of H2 = 0.00175 kg/s • Stroke = 72 mm • Fuel Power = 78.4 KJ/s • RPM = 3500 • Torque produced by the engine = • Compression Ratio of H2 = 21:1 • Clearance volume for H2 = 0.001935 • Gear ratio 1:1 • Efficiency = 23 km/kg of H2 • Fuel tank capacity = 50 Litres 962.7 Nm
  11. 11. ENGINE BALANCING: Let us consider the engine as a 4 cylinder inline engine. Cylinder 1 Cylinder 2 Cylinder 3 Cylinder 4 Power Compression Exhaust Power Suction Exhaust Compression Suction Suction Exhaust Compression Suction Power Compression Exhaust Power Exhaust Power Suction Exhaust Compression Suction Power Compression Compression Suction Power Compression Exhaust Power Suction Exhaust
  12. 12. FLUCTUATIONS IN FLYWHEEL: Petrol Hydrogen Turning moment Crank angle Turning moment Crank angle
  13. 13. PISTON DESIGN: • The temperature produced on the upper and lower part of the pistons are approximately 4000oC and 2300oC. • So, the piston is made of suitable alloy to withstand high temperatures. • To prevent the leakage of petrol into the lower chamber, a ring is designed to drain the fuel and is removed by means of vacuum pressure.
  14. 14. INJECTION METHODS: • Hydrogen is injected by Constant Volume Injection which is a method of direct injection using Constant Volume Injector. • Direct injection eliminates pre ignition and backfire problems. • Direct injection also increases the thermal efficiency of the engine as shown.
  15. 15. FLEXIBILITY OF OUR CONCEPT: • Our engine involves the usage of either gasoline or diesel as the secondary fuel subject to need. • The working of the hydrogen chamber is independent of the secondary fuel used. • Hence the lower chamber can be either be compression ignited or spark ignited. • The absence of one fuel does not affect the functioning of the engine since the engine can run using one fuel also. • The engine has a compact design and has more power to weight ratio.
  16. 16. FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS • The piston is exposed to varying temperatures in its upper and lower part and so, a suitable alloy material for the piston should be selected. • Improvement can also be done in selecting the suitable compression ratio for the hydrogen chamber such that it can provide more power.
  17. 17. CONCLUSION: • In today’s world of depleting energy resources, hydrogen seems to be a more promising fuel. • This idea of using hydrogen as one of the fuel in modified IC Engine, can certainly make a leap in automotive technology. • Another important factor to be considered is that we can CONSERVE the Resources that we have today for the Generation tomorrow.
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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