(HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY IN DUAL
COMBUSTION IC ENGINE)
KAVIN RAJA G
MOHAMMED HASHIQ M
III YEAR MECHANICAL
SRI KRISHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY.
• All these years fuel has been confined to be in the form of
• Recent study predicts by the end of 2080 the conventional
resources will almost run dry.
1,386 billion barrels
860,938 million tonnes
187.1 trillion cubic metres
AIR POLLUTION DUE TO FOSSIL FUELS:
• The use of automobiles contributes to serious environmental
problems including global warming, depletion of resources, air
pollution and so on.
• We are all aware of the fact of how our environment consisting
of various flora and fauna around us is getting affected by the
emission of harmful gases which are a by-product of the
combustion process taking place in the internal combustion
engines. To name a few are carbon monoxides and nitrous
HYDROGEN AS FUEL:
• Two available power units for hydrogen vehicles are hydrogen
FCVs and hydrogen ICE.
• Hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles present
much of the same promise as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles
(FCVs): reduced reliance on imported oil and reduced carbon
• But hydrogen ICE has advantage over hydrogen FCV’s since
hydrogen can power a normal 4 stroke petrol engine with some
WHY USE HYDROGEN IN IC ENGINES?
Low ignition temperature
High flame speed
Hydrogen can be obtained as a by-product of electrolysis of
• Since the availability of water as a source is never a problem,
hydrogen is available in abundance.
• Hydrogen is the cleaner and greener fuel as compared to other
forms of fuels that are available today.
• Two combustion chambers
– separate intake, exhaust
and ignition system
• Primary fuel – H2 (lower
• Secondary fuel – Gasoline or
Diesel (upper chamber).
• The strokes of the upper
and the lower chamber are
designed to take place
WORKING & STROKE SEQUENCE:
• The engine is equipped with variable valve timing.
• The valve timing in both the chambers is adjusted such that the
power delivery is linear.
• In VVT the ECU monitors the condition of the engine to
decide when to switch to a different camshaft profile.
• Using variable valve timing further increases the efficiency,
torque and drivability of the engine.
Bore = 68.5 mm
Mass flow rate of H2 = 0.00175 kg/s
Stroke = 72 mm
Fuel Power = 78.4 KJ/s
RPM = 3500
Torque produced by the engine =
Compression Ratio of H2 = 21:1
Clearance volume for H2 = 0.001935
Gear ratio 1:1
Efficiency = 23 km/kg of H2
Fuel tank capacity = 50 Litres
Let us consider the engine as a 4 cylinder inline engine.
FLUCTUATIONS IN FLYWHEEL:
• The temperature produced on
the upper and lower part of the
pistons are approximately 4000oC
• So, the piston is made of suitable
alloy to withstand high
• To prevent the leakage of petrol
into the lower chamber, a ring is
designed to drain the fuel and is
removed by means of vacuum
• Hydrogen is injected by Constant Volume Injection
which is a method of direct injection using Constant
• Direct injection eliminates pre ignition and backfire
• Direct injection
also increases the
of the engine as
FLEXIBILITY OF OUR CONCEPT:
• Our engine involves the usage of either gasoline or diesel as the
secondary fuel subject to need.
• The working of the hydrogen chamber is independent of the
secondary fuel used.
• Hence the lower chamber can be either be compression
ignited or spark ignited.
• The absence of one fuel does not affect the functioning of the
engine since the engine can run using one fuel also.
• The engine has a compact design and has more power to
• The piston is exposed to varying temperatures in its upper and
lower part and so, a suitable alloy material for the piston should
• Improvement can also be done in selecting the suitable
compression ratio for the hydrogen chamber such that it can
provide more power.
• In today’s world of depleting
energy resources, hydrogen seems
to be a more promising fuel.
• This idea of using hydrogen as
one of the fuel in modified IC
Engine, can certainly make a leap
in automotive technology.
• Another important factor to be
considered is that we can
CONSERVE the Resources that
we have today for the Generation