B.Sc. 2nd Year I.D.
Mr. Sandeep Kumar
Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the
unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires.
It involves the study of the behaviour ,
compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation
of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research
and development, production, testing and application of
mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based,
offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are
responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a
design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the
local building code and fire code, which are enforced by
the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the
version of the building code that is in effect when an
application for a building permit is made.
Building inspectors check on compliance of a building
under construction with the building code.
Once construction is complete, a building must be
maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which
is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire
department. In the event of fire emergencies, Firefighters,
fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel
called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the damage
of a fire. Lessons learned from fires are applied to the
authoring of both building codes and fire codes.
Now days , engineers and code officials when referring
only to active and passive fire protection systems, and does
usually not encompass fire detection systems such as fire
alarms or smoke detection.
THREE MAJOR GOALS :
• Continuity of operations - on a public
scale, this is intended to prevent the
interruption of critical services
necessary for the public welfare (e.g., a
911 emergency call center).
• Property protection - on a public scale,
this is intended to prevent area wide
conflagrations. At an individual
building level, this is typically
an insurance consideration (e.g., a
requirement for financing), or a
• Life safety - the minimum standard
used in fire and building codes.
CAUSES OF FIRE
• Careless discarding of lighted ends of
cigarettes , cigars, matches and tobacco ,
• Smoking in unauthorised places ,
• Indifferent maintenance of machinery
including overloading and under or over
lubricating of bearings ,
• General indifference to cleanliness ,
• Incorrect storage of materials ,
• Faulty workmanship and inattention to
electrical installations (this is particularly
evident by the fires which occur during the
• Un-approved equipment and layout ,
• Inattention of persons concerned with
inspection and patrol of the premises under
their jurisdiction , and
• Inattention of fire safety regulations, etc.
Firefighting is the act of
A firefighter fights fires to prevent
loss of life, and/or destruction of
property and the environment.
Firefighting is a highly technical
skill that requires professionals
who have spent years training in
both general firefighting
techniques and specialized areas of
Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is an integral component of the
three components of structural fire protection and fire safety
in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread,
through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst
other examples). PFP systems must comply with the
associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order to
provide the effectiveness expected by building codes .
Fire protection in a building, offshore facility or a ship is a
system that includes:
• Active fire protection, which can include manual or
automatic fire detection and fire suppression.
• Passive fire protection, which
includes compartmentalisation of the overall building
through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors.
Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting of
one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread
of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces,
limiting building damage and providing more time to the
building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach
an area of refuge.
• Fire prevention includes minimizing ignition sources, as
well as educating the occupants and operators of the
facility, ship or structure concerning operation and
maintenance of fire-related systems for correct function,
and emergency procedures including notification for fire
service response and emergency evacuation.
A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection products meet
minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other
applicable legislation. Successful tests in laboratories holding national
accreditation for testing and certification result in the issuance of
a certification listing. The listing is public domain, whereas the test report
itself is proprietary information belonging to the test sponsor.
There are many different types of fire tests apart from those on firestops.
Walls and floors themselves can be tested, closures within them, such as
windows, fire doors, fire dampers, structural steel and more. Fire tests are
conducted both on active fire protection and on passive fire
protectionitems. Each have different test methods and scales. There are full
scale, small scale and bench scale tests. There are tests on systems, such as
the one below, but there are also tests on materials, such as intumescents,
to be sure of components that may be used within a system.
Fire testing must consider all applicable provisions of the intended product
certification. It is also prudent to test products in such a manner as to
ensure ease of use and broad, economical applications with regards
to listing and approval use and compliance.
Ad hoc fire testing
A fire test can also mean an ad hoc test performed to gather information in
order to understand a specific hazard, such as a construction or storage
configuration. Tests can be bench scale (e.g., flammable liquid flash point),
medium scale (e.g., storage commodity classification), or full scale (e.g.,
replication of an entire rack storage configuration).
Typical information gathered from full scale testing is heat release rate vs.
time, smoke production and species composition, radiant heat, and
interaction with fire control or suppression systems.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE
• The material should not disintegrate
under the effect of great heat.
• The expansion of the material due to
heat should not be such that it leads
to instability of the structure of which
it forms a part.
• The contraction of the material due to
sudden cooling with water (during fire
extinguishing process) after it has
been heated to a high temperature
should not be rapid.
In relation to fire, building materials
can be divided into two types:
a) Non-combustible materials: Non-combustible
materials are those which if decomposed by heat
will do so with absorption of heat (i.e.
endothermically ) or if they do oxidise, do so with
negligible evolution of heat. These materials do not
contribute to the growth or spread of fire , but are
damaged and decomposed when high
temperatures are reached. Examples of noncombustible materials are: stones and bricks ,
concrete , clay products, metal, glass etc.
b) Combustible materials: Combustible materials
are those which, during fire, combine
exothermically with oxygen, resulting in evolution
of lot of heat and giving rise to flame or glow. Such
materials burn and also contribute to the growth of
fire. Examples of these materials are: wood and
wood products, fibreboard, straw board etc.
GENERAL FIRE SAFETY
1.All buildings and particularly buildings having more than one storey shall be provided with liberally designed and safe fireproof exits or escapes.
2. The exits shall be so placed that they are always immediately accessible and each is capable of taking all the persons on
that floor, as alternative escape routes may be rendered unusable and/or unsafe due to fire.
3. Escape routes shall be well ventilated as persons using the escapes are likely to be overcome by smoke and/or fumes
which may enter from the fire.
4. Fire-proof doors shall conform rigidly to the fire safety requirements.
5. Where fire-resisting doors are employed as cut-offs or fire breaks, they shall be maintained in good working order so that
they may be readily opened to allow quick escape of persons trapped in that section of the building, and also, when
necessary, prompt rescue work can be expeditiously carried out.
6. Electrical and/or mechanical lifts, while reliable under normal conditions may not always be relied on for escape purposes
in the event of a fire, as the electrical supply to the building itself may be cut-off or otherwise interrupted, or those relying on
mechanical drive may not have the driving powder available.
7. Lift shafts and stairways invariably serve as flues or tunnels thus increasing the fire by increased drought and their design
shall be such as to reduce or avoid this possibility and consequent spread of fire.
8. False ceiling, either for sound effects or air-conditioning or other similar purpose shall be so constructed as to prevent
either total or early collapse in the event of fire so that persons underneath are not fatally trapped before they have the time
to reach the exits; this shall apply to cinemas, and other public or private buildings where many people congregate.
9. To a lesser extent, the provisions of clause (8) above shall apply to single-storey buildings which may be used for residence
or an equivalent occupancy. Whatever be the class or purpose of the building, the design and construction shall embody the
fire retardant features for ceilings and/or roofs.
10.Floors. Floors are required to withstand .the effects of fire for the full period stated for the particular grading. The design
and construction of floors shall be of such a standard that shall obviate any replacement, partial or otherwise , because
experience shows that certain types of construction stand up satisfactorily against collapse and suffer when may first be
considered as negligible damage, but in practice later involves complete stripping down and either total or major
replacement. This consideration shall also be applied to other elements of structure where necessary.
11.Roofs. Roof for the various fire-grades of the buildings shall be designed and constructed to withstand the effect of fire for
the maximum period for the particular grading, and this requires concrete or equivalent construction. It
is, however, important that maximum endurance is provided for as stated above.
12.Basements. Where basements are necessary for a building and where such basements are used for storage, provision shall
be made for the escape of any heat arising due to fire and for liberating and smoke which may be caused. It is essential that
fire resistance of the basement shall conform to the highest order and all columns for supporting the upper structures shall
have a grading not less than laid down in types 1 to 3.
13.Smoke extraction from basements: The following requirements shall be provided for
a) Unobstructed smoke extracts having direct communication with the open air shall be provided in or adjoining the external
walls and in positions easily accessible for firemen in an emergency.
b) The area of smoke extracts shall be distributed, as tar as possible, around the perimeter to encourage flow of smoke and
gases where it is impracticable to provide a few large extracts, for example, not less than 3 m2 in area, a number of small
extracts having the same gross area shall be provided.
c) Covers to the smoke extracts shall, where practicable, be provided in the stall board and or pavement lights at pavement
level, and be constructed of light cast iron frame or other construction which may be readily broken by fire-men in
emergency. The covers shall be suitably marked.
d) Where they pass through fire resisting separations, smoke extracts shall in all cases be completely separated from other
compartments in the building by enclosures of the appropriate grade of fire resistance. In other cases, steel metal ducts may
e) Where these are sub-basements, the position of the smoke extracts from sub-basements and basements shall be suitably
indicated and distinguished on the external faces of the building.
Fire prevention is a function of
many fire departments. The goal of
fire prevention is to educate the
public to take precautions to
prevent potentially harmful fires,
and be educated about surviving
them. It is a proactive method of
reducing emergencies and
the damage caused by them. Many
fire departments have a Fire
LESSONS OF FIRE
Fire prevention education can take the form of videos, pamphlets, and banners. Often, the
messages and lessons are simple tips. Effective and important lessons and messages include:
Stop, drop and roll
If one's clothing catches on fire, the most effective method of extinguishing the fire is to stop, drop to the
ground, and roll back and forth to smother the flame. Running around will simply fan the flames.
Smoke detectors save lives
Working smoke detectors reduce the chances of death in a fire by half.
Nearly 900 lives could be saved annually if every home had working smoke detectors.
Even just one smoke detector reduces the chances of death by almost half.
Nearly half of all fire survivors remember hearing their smoke alarm.
Deaths due to fire have decreased by half since the invention of the smoke detector.
Most deaths due to fire occur at night when people are sleeping.
Smoke detector maintenance
The most common cause of smoke detector failure is missing or disconnected batteries.
Nuisance alarms are the most common reason for deliberately disconnecting batteries.
Missing, disconnected, or dead batteries account for 73% of smoke detector failures.
There are more homes with no working smoke detectors than there are homes without any smoke
detectors at all. There are millions of homes in each category.
Smoke detectors should be installed on every level of your home.
Change your batteries twice a year.
Clean your detectors also.
Replace the entire unit every ten years.
Disconnecting your batteries, for any reason, is dangerous and illegal.
Smoke detectors are just a start
Smoke detectors only wake you up.
Never assume that someone has already called the fire department, or that it was automatically notified.
Know tonight what you will do if you are ever woken up by your smoke detectors.
Make sure your family and friends know also.
If you change your batteries, wake up and evacuate immediately you are a hero to your family, friends,
Don't Just Leave to Do Something Else
One of the most common reasons for fires is how people often leave stoves, ovens, toasters, clothing irons,
barbecues, and candles unattended. Therefore one must always be aware when using the aforementioned
Get out and stay out
Each year, many people are injured or killed because they re-enter their burning homes. If you are lucky enough
to have escaped, stay out.
Fire-fighters are your friends
One of the most critical jobs of a fire-fighter is search and rescue. For young children, it is important that firefighters are seen as people they can follow and trust. A fire-fighter in firefighting gear breathing with an air
tank can be scary.
Don’t play with fire
Playing with fire causes many unnecessary emergencies, and hurts and kills many people, and is a leading cause
of forest fires.
False alarms kill
False alarms waste valuable manpower and resources, which may be needed desperately at a real emergency.
Also, any time fire-fighters ride trucks, they are at risk. Eighteen percent of fire-fighter deaths occur while
responding to calls.
An automatic fire alarm system is
designed to detect the unwanted
presence of fire by monitoring
environmental changes associated with
combustion. In general, a fire alarm
system is classified as either
automatically actuated, manually
actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm
systems are intended to notify the
building occupants to evacuate in the
event of a fire or other emergency, report
the event to an off-premises location in
order to summon emergency
services, and to prepare the structure and
associated systems to control the spread
of fire and smoke.
A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke,
typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial, industrial,
and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm
system, while household detectors, known as smoke
alarms, generally issue a local audible or
visual alarm from the detector itself .
Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped
plastic enclosure about 150 millimetres (6 in) in
diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick, but the shape
can vary by manufacturer or product line. Most smoke
detectors work either by optical detection
(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while
others use both detection methods to increase
sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to
detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is
banned such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in
large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings
are usually powered by a central fire alarm system,
which is powered by the building power with a battery
backup. However, in many single family detached and
smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often
powered only by a single disposable battery.
A fire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply
an extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to
extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one
which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no
escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise
requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire
extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure
vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to
extinguish a fire.
There are two main types of fire extinguishers:
Stored Pressure and Cartridge-Operated.
In Stored Pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same
chamber as the fire-fighting agent itself. Depending on the
agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical
extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam
extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire
extinguishers are the most common type.
Cartridge-Operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a
separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge,
exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is
not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial
facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They
have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing
an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and
return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time.
• Manual Fire Extinguishing Equipment:
These devices are useful for extinguishing fire as soon as it starts . They
are not so useful when once the fire has spread . Under this category
comes the portable extinguishers of carbon-dioxide type or foam
generation type etc. The discharge from a portable fire extinguisher
lasts only for a short duration of 20 to 120 seconds . In some cases ,
especially in small buildings buckets of water , sand and asbestos
blanket may be kept ready at all times to extinguish fire . These
buckets are installed at convenient locations for taking care of fire of
• Fire Hydrants:
These fire hydrants are provided on a ring main of 150 mm diameter in
the ground around the building periphery . The ring main gets water
from underground tank with pressure , so that available pressure at
each hydrants is of the order of about 3.5 to 4 kg/cm.
• Wet Riser System:
The system consists of providing 100 to 150 mm dia. vertical G.I. pipes
(risers) at suitable locations in the building. A fire pump is used to feed
water from underground tank to these pipes, to ensure a pressure of 3
kg/cm2 at uppermost outlet.
• Automatic Sprinkler System:
This arrangement is adopted for important structures like textile mills,
paper mills etc. The system consists of a network of pipes 20 mm dia.
Fixed to the ceiling of the room. These pipes are spaced at 3 m centre
to centre. Heat actuated sprinkler heads are fixed to these pipes at
regular interval. The pipes get supply from a header.