Fire Protection
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  • 1. Made By Kaveri Narang B.Sc. 2nd Year I.D. Submitted To Mr. Sandeep Kumar
  • 2. FIRE PROTECTION • • • • • • Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour , compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. Building inspectors check on compliance of a building under construction with the building code. Once construction is complete, a building must be maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire department. In the event of fire emergencies, Firefighters, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the damage of a fire. Lessons learned from fires are applied to the authoring of both building codes and fire codes. Now days , engineers and code officials when referring only to active and passive fire protection systems, and does usually not encompass fire detection systems such as fire alarms or smoke detection.
  • 3. GOALS THREE MAJOR GOALS : • Continuity of operations - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent the interruption of critical services necessary for the public welfare (e.g., a 911 emergency call center). • Property protection - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent area wide conflagrations. At an individual building level, this is typically an insurance consideration (e.g., a requirement for financing), or a regulatory requirement. • Life safety - the minimum standard used in fire and building codes.
  • 4. CAUSES OF FIRE • Careless discarding of lighted ends of cigarettes , cigars, matches and tobacco , • Smoking in unauthorised places , • Indifferent maintenance of machinery including overloading and under or over lubricating of bearings , • General indifference to cleanliness , • Incorrect storage of materials , • Faulty workmanship and inattention to electrical installations (this is particularly evident by the fires which occur during the monsoon , • Un-approved equipment and layout , • Inattention of persons concerned with inspection and patrol of the premises under their jurisdiction , and • Inattention of fire safety regulations, etc.
  • 5. FIRE FIGHTING Firefighting is the act of extinguishing fires. A firefighter fights fires to prevent loss of life, and/or destruction of property and the environment. Firefighting is a highly technical skill that requires professionals who have spent years training in both general firefighting techniques and specialized areas of expertise.
  • 6. Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes .  Fire protection in a building, offshore facility or a ship is a system that includes: • Active fire protection, which can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression. • Passive fire protection, which includes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. • Fire prevention includes minimizing ignition sources, as well as educating the occupants and operators of the facility, ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire-related systems for correct function, and emergency procedures including notification for fire service response and emergency evacuation.
  • 7. FIRE TEST • • • A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. Successful tests in laboratories holding national accreditation for testing and certification result in the issuance of a certification listing. The listing is public domain, whereas the test report itself is proprietary information belonging to the test sponsor. There are many different types of fire tests apart from those on firestops. Walls and floors themselves can be tested, closures within them, such as windows, fire doors, fire dampers, structural steel and more. Fire tests are conducted both on active fire protection and on passive fire protectionitems. Each have different test methods and scales. There are full scale, small scale and bench scale tests. There are tests on systems, such as the one below, but there are also tests on materials, such as intumescents, to be sure of components that may be used within a system. Fire testing must consider all applicable provisions of the intended product certification. It is also prudent to test products in such a manner as to ensure ease of use and broad, economical applications with regards to listing and approval use and compliance. Ad hoc fire testing • • A fire test can also mean an ad hoc test performed to gather information in order to understand a specific hazard, such as a construction or storage configuration. Tests can be bench scale (e.g., flammable liquid flash point), medium scale (e.g., storage commodity classification), or full scale (e.g., replication of an entire rack storage configuration). Typical information gathered from full scale testing is heat release rate vs. time, smoke production and species composition, radiant heat, and interaction with fire control or suppression systems.
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE RESISTING MATERIAL • The material should not disintegrate under the effect of great heat. • The expansion of the material due to heat should not be such that it leads to instability of the structure of which it forms a part. • The contraction of the material due to sudden cooling with water (during fire extinguishing process) after it has been heated to a high temperature should not be rapid.
  • 9. In relation to fire, building materials can be divided into two types: a) Non-combustible materials: Non-combustible materials are those which if decomposed by heat will do so with absorption of heat (i.e. endothermically ) or if they do oxidise, do so with negligible evolution of heat. These materials do not contribute to the growth or spread of fire , but are damaged and decomposed when high temperatures are reached. Examples of noncombustible materials are: stones and bricks , concrete , clay products, metal, glass etc. b) Combustible materials: Combustible materials are those which, during fire, combine exothermically with oxygen, resulting in evolution of lot of heat and giving rise to flame or glow. Such materials burn and also contribute to the growth of fire. Examples of these materials are: wood and wood products, fibreboard, straw board etc.
  • 10. GENERAL FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 1.All buildings and particularly buildings having more than one storey shall be provided with liberally designed and safe fireproof exits or escapes. 2. The exits shall be so placed that they are always immediately accessible and each is capable of taking all the persons on that floor, as alternative escape routes may be rendered unusable and/or unsafe due to fire. 3. Escape routes shall be well ventilated as persons using the escapes are likely to be overcome by smoke and/or fumes which may enter from the fire. 4. Fire-proof doors shall conform rigidly to the fire safety requirements. 5. Where fire-resisting doors are employed as cut-offs or fire breaks, they shall be maintained in good working order so that they may be readily opened to allow quick escape of persons trapped in that section of the building, and also, when necessary, prompt rescue work can be expeditiously carried out. 6. Electrical and/or mechanical lifts, while reliable under normal conditions may not always be relied on for escape purposes in the event of a fire, as the electrical supply to the building itself may be cut-off or otherwise interrupted, or those relying on mechanical drive may not have the driving powder available. 7. Lift shafts and stairways invariably serve as flues or tunnels thus increasing the fire by increased drought and their design shall be such as to reduce or avoid this possibility and consequent spread of fire. 8. False ceiling, either for sound effects or air-conditioning or other similar purpose shall be so constructed as to prevent either total or early collapse in the event of fire so that persons underneath are not fatally trapped before they have the time to reach the exits; this shall apply to cinemas, and other public or private buildings where many people congregate. 9. To a lesser extent, the provisions of clause (8) above shall apply to single-storey buildings which may be used for residence or an equivalent occupancy. Whatever be the class or purpose of the building, the design and construction shall embody the fire retardant features for ceilings and/or roofs. 10.Floors. Floors are required to withstand .the effects of fire for the full period stated for the particular grading. The design and construction of floors shall be of such a standard that shall obviate any replacement, partial or otherwise , because experience shows that certain types of construction stand up satisfactorily against collapse and suffer when may first be considered as negligible damage, but in practice later involves complete stripping down and either total or major replacement. This consideration shall also be applied to other elements of structure where necessary. 11.Roofs. Roof for the various fire-grades of the buildings shall be designed and constructed to withstand the effect of fire for the maximum period for the particular grading, and this requires concrete or equivalent construction. It is, however, important that maximum endurance is provided for as stated above. 12.Basements. Where basements are necessary for a building and where such basements are used for storage, provision shall be made for the escape of any heat arising due to fire and for liberating and smoke which may be caused. It is essential that fire resistance of the basement shall conform to the highest order and all columns for supporting the upper structures shall have a grading not less than laid down in types 1 to 3. 13.Smoke extraction from basements: The following requirements shall be provided for smoke extraction: a) Unobstructed smoke extracts having direct communication with the open air shall be provided in or adjoining the external walls and in positions easily accessible for firemen in an emergency. b) The area of smoke extracts shall be distributed, as tar as possible, around the perimeter to encourage flow of smoke and gases where it is impracticable to provide a few large extracts, for example, not less than 3 m2 in area, a number of small extracts having the same gross area shall be provided. c) Covers to the smoke extracts shall, where practicable, be provided in the stall board and or pavement lights at pavement level, and be constructed of light cast iron frame or other construction which may be readily broken by fire-men in emergency. The covers shall be suitably marked. d) Where they pass through fire resisting separations, smoke extracts shall in all cases be completely separated from other compartments in the building by enclosures of the appropriate grade of fire resistance. In other cases, steel metal ducts may be provided. e) Where these are sub-basements, the position of the smoke extracts from sub-basements and basements shall be suitably indicated and distinguished on the external faces of the building.
  • 11. FIRE PREVENTION Fire prevention is a function of many fire departments. The goal of fire prevention is to educate the public to take precautions to prevent potentially harmful fires, and be educated about surviving them. It is a proactive method of reducing emergencies and the damage caused by them. Many fire departments have a Fire Prevention Officer.
  • 12. LESSONS OF FIRE PREVENTION  Fire prevention education can take the form of videos, pamphlets, and banners. Often, the messages and lessons are simple tips. Effective and important lessons and messages include: Stop, drop and roll • If one's clothing catches on fire, the most effective method of extinguishing the fire is to stop, drop to the ground, and roll back and forth to smother the flame. Running around will simply fan the flames.  Smoke detectors save lives • • • • • • Working smoke detectors reduce the chances of death in a fire by half. Nearly 900 lives could be saved annually if every home had working smoke detectors. Even just one smoke detector reduces the chances of death by almost half. Nearly half of all fire survivors remember hearing their smoke alarm. Deaths due to fire have decreased by half since the invention of the smoke detector. Most deaths due to fire occur at night when people are sleeping.  Smoke detector maintenance • • • • • • • • • The most common cause of smoke detector failure is missing or disconnected batteries. Nuisance alarms are the most common reason for deliberately disconnecting batteries. Missing, disconnected, or dead batteries account for 73% of smoke detector failures. There are more homes with no working smoke detectors than there are homes without any smoke detectors at all. There are millions of homes in each category. Smoke detectors should be installed on every level of your home. Change your batteries twice a year. Clean your detectors also. Replace the entire unit every ten years. Disconnecting your batteries, for any reason, is dangerous and illegal.  Smoke detectors are just a start • • • • • Smoke detectors only wake you up. Never assume that someone has already called the fire department, or that it was automatically notified. Know tonight what you will do if you are ever woken up by your smoke detectors. Make sure your family and friends know also. If you change your batteries, wake up and evacuate immediately you are a hero to your family, friends, and fire-fighters.  Don't Just Leave to Do Something Else One of the most common reasons for fires is how people often leave stoves, ovens, toasters, clothing irons, barbecues, and candles unattended. Therefore one must always be aware when using the aforementioned appliances.  Get out and stay out Each year, many people are injured or killed because they re-enter their burning homes. If you are lucky enough to have escaped, stay out.  Fire-fighters are your friends One of the most critical jobs of a fire-fighter is search and rescue. For young children, it is important that firefighters are seen as people they can follow and trust. A fire-fighter in firefighting gear breathing with an air tank can be scary.  Don’t play with fire Playing with fire causes many unnecessary emergencies, and hurts and kills many people, and is a leading cause of forest fires.  False alarms kill False alarms waste valuable manpower and resources, which may be needed desperately at a real emergency. Also, any time fire-fighters ride trucks, they are at risk. Eighteen percent of fire-fighter deaths occur while responding to calls.
  • 13. FIRE ALARMS An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.
  • 14. SMOKE DETECTOR A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial, industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself . Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure about 150 millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick, but the shape can vary by manufacturer or product line. Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection (photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup. However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered only by a single disposable battery.
  • 15. FIRE EXTINGUISHER A fire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply an extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. There are two main types of fire extinguishers: Stored Pressure and Cartridge-Operated. In Stored Pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the fire-fighting agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. Cartridge-Operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time.
  • 16. FIRE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENTS • Manual Fire Extinguishing Equipment: These devices are useful for extinguishing fire as soon as it starts . They are not so useful when once the fire has spread . Under this category comes the portable extinguishers of carbon-dioxide type or foam generation type etc. The discharge from a portable fire extinguisher lasts only for a short duration of 20 to 120 seconds . In some cases , especially in small buildings buckets of water , sand and asbestos blanket may be kept ready at all times to extinguish fire . These buckets are installed at convenient locations for taking care of fire of minor size. • Fire Hydrants: These fire hydrants are provided on a ring main of 150 mm diameter in the ground around the building periphery . The ring main gets water from underground tank with pressure , so that available pressure at each hydrants is of the order of about 3.5 to 4 kg/cm. • Wet Riser System: The system consists of providing 100 to 150 mm dia. vertical G.I. pipes (risers) at suitable locations in the building. A fire pump is used to feed water from underground tank to these pipes, to ensure a pressure of 3 kg/cm2 at uppermost outlet. • Automatic Sprinkler System: This arrangement is adopted for important structures like textile mills, paper mills etc. The system consists of a network of pipes 20 mm dia. Fixed to the ceiling of the room. These pipes are spaced at 3 m centre to centre. Heat actuated sprinkler heads are fixed to these pipes at regular interval. The pipes get supply from a header.