• Save
Towards Hybrid Informal Learning Spaces: Designing for Digital Encounters in Physical Environments
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Towards Hybrid Informal Learning Spaces: Designing for Digital Encounters in Physical Environments

on

  • 970 views

PhD Final Seminar by Mark Bilandzic ...

PhD Final Seminar by Mark Bilandzic
Urban Informatics Research Lab

Friday 20 Feb 2013, 1 – 2pm
Z2 The Terrace, Room 306, Creative Industries Precinct
Queensland University of Technology
Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove QLD 4059

Towards Hybrid Informal Learning Spaces: Designing for Digital Encounters in Physical Environments

The knowledge economy of the 21st century requires skills such as creativity, critical thinking, problem solving and collaboration – skills that cannot easily be learnt from books, but rather through learning-by-doing and social interaction. Big ideas and disruptive innovation often result from collaboration between individuals from diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. Public libraries, organisations and co-working spaces have been continuously seeking for means to facilitate social encounters and peer collaboration to nurture cross-pollination of skills, creativity and innovation.

This PhD thesis aims to inform design strategies for smart space technology to enhance opportunities for social learning and collaboration in free-choice learning environments such as public libraries or co-working spaces. The design thinking is based on the idea of Commons 2.0 spaces, i.e. spaces that recognise and promote the user themself as an asset and resource for knowledge, information and inspiration to other, co-present users.

The thesis reports results from five months of ethnographic user observations and 18 months of participatory action design research (PADR) at a case study at The Edge – a bookless library space at the State Library of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia that is explicitly dedicated to social learning, co-working, peer collaboration, and creativity around digital culture and technology.

Based on observations and over 50 interviews with users and staff members of The Edge, the study identifies challenges and barriers for social learning and collaboration as perceived and experienced by everyday users.

Four design strategies for ambient media are presented towards overcoming these challenges and improving the interfaces for social learning in library buildings, co-working spaces and other collaboration and learning spaces. The strategies are implemented and evaluated in a pilot study of ‘Gelatine’ – a custom developed system that facilitates shared encounters between co-workers by allowing them to digitally ‘check in’ at a work space. Gelatine displays skills, areas of interest, and needs of currently present co-workers on a public screen.

The results indicate that the system ‘amplifies’ users’ sense of place and awareness of other co-workers, and serves as an interface for social learning through exploratory, opportunistic and serendipitous inspirations, as well as through helping users identify like-minded peers for follow-up face-to-face encounters. The discussion sheds light on how Gelatine is perceived by users with different pre-entry motivations, and reports users’ ch

Statistics

Views

Total Views
970
Views on SlideShare
619
Embed Views
351

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

4 Embeds 351

http://kavasmlikon.wordpress.com 345
http://plus.url.google.com 4
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1
http://visionarymeetings.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Towards Hybrid Informal Learning Spaces: Designing for Digital Encounters in Physical Environments Towards Hybrid Informal Learning Spaces: Designing for Digital Encounters in Physical Environments Presentation Transcript

  • Towards Hybrid Informal LearningSpaces: Designing for DigitalEncounters in Physical Environments! ! Mark Bilandzic! ! Urban Informatics Research Lab! Supervisors:! Queensland University of Technology! Assoc. Prof. Marcus Foth! PhD Final Seminar! Dr Daniel Johnson! 20 February, 2013! Dr Ronald Schroeter! Queensland  University  of  Technology,  Urban  Informa:cs  Research  Lab  
  • LibraryHack 2011 @The Edge!
  • Learning Environments! WHAT (Objectives) Institution Learner Institution Formal! Formal Nonformal! Nonformal Learning! Learning Learning Learning! HOW(Means) Learner Informal! Informal Self-Directed! Self-Directed Learning! Learning Learning Learning! (Mocker and Spear, 1982)!
  • Learning Environments! WHAT (Objectives) Institution Learner Institution Formal! Formal Nonformal! Nonformal Learning! Learning Learning Learning! HOW(Means) Learner Informal! Informal Self-Directed! Self-Directed Learning! Learning Learning Learning! 70%! ! (Grebow, 2002)! (Tough, 1979)!
  • !Social Learning! (Vygotsky, 1978)!
  • (Thomas and Brown, 2011)!Technology Enhanced Learning!
  • !Personal! !Physical!Socio-Cultural! (Falk and Dierking, 2002)!Context?!
  • How can informal!? ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !???!???! learning environments!?????? !support !the
 ! ! !?! !!!! !?? social side ! ! !? ! ? ! ! of! ??? ! ! ! learning?! ! ! ! ?! !!!!!!!
  • How can smart space? !!!!!!! ! ! ! !???! technology
??? be designed to enhance
! !?! !!!!!!!!?? social learning! !? ! !!! 
 among users?!
  • Physical + Digital =
Embodied Hybrid Space! Embodied Architecture Social Media Media EmbodiedPhysical Space Social Space Hybrid Space (Bilandzic & Foth, 2013, forthcoming)!
  • Library as Place - SWOT!Place of Scholarship 
 Marginalised Groups 
(Fisher, Saxton, Edwards, & Mai, 2007)!! > General Public 
 (Aabo, Audunson, & Varheim, 2010; 
Public Space / Diversity
 Hunsucker, 2012; Varheim, Steinmo, & Ide, 2008)!(Leckie & Hopkins, 2002; Audunson, 2005)! !! S!W Socio-Cultural 
Social Capital & Trust 
(Cox, 2000; Johnson, 2010; Varheim, 2007)! Context 
 (Falk & Dierking, 2002; Björneborn, 2010)!ICT, “Library w/out Walls” 
 T!O! Commons 2.0 Space 
 (McDonald, 2006; Niegaard, 
 Lauridsen, & Schulz, 2009)!(Lawson, 2008; Pomerantz & Marchionini, 2007)!! !Other Third Places
 Hybrid Space 
(Lawson, 2008; Pomerantz & Marchionini, 2007)! (Lawson, 2008; McDonald, 2006; Weise, 2004)!
  • Aims! 1.  Understand the User! 2.  Inform Design Strategies! 3.  Design & Develop Innovative Tech! 4.  Evaluate Design Artefact!
  • Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interactionUnderstand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning 1 2Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environmentsInform Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social LearningAim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and SocialDesign, Library LearningDevelop& Evaluate 5 8
  • Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interactionUnderstand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning 1 2Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environmentsInform Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social LearningAim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and SocialDesign, Library LearningDevelop& Evaluate 5 8
  • Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interactionUnderstand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning 1 2  Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of  Inform Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environments Design Science Research Methods for   Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning    Aim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel   Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and SocialDesign, LibraryUnderstand!5 LearningDevelop& Evaluate 8
  • Case Study!5 Months Ethnography! 18 Staff Interviews! 20 User Interviews!
  • 1. Use of Infrastructure!
  • 1. Use of Infrastructure!
  • 2. Social Learning! @Workshops   Robowars  Workshop,  2011  
  • 2. Social Learning! @Workshops   Stop-­‐Anima9on  Workshop,  January  2011  
  • 2. Social Learning! @Workshops   Smart  Ci9es  Master  Class,  October  2010  
  • 3. Third Place for Co-working!
  • Library with no Agenda =! ! ! ! !Co-Working?! Social Barriers! ! (Aabo & Audunson, 2012; Goffman, 1966) !
  • 5 Personas! !
  •  Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction  Understand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning   1 2Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environmentsInform Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning    Aim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Directed Social Learning in the Making Co-Working Spaces Gel for Better Collaboration and SocialDesign,   LibraryInform! LearningDevelop& Evaluate 5 8
  • Place / 3. Urban Urban Environment Informatics!1. Social!s 3 2. Ubiquitous! USciences! Computing! Human Computer Interaction 1 2 People Artifact Technology Artifact
  • 1. Theory!
  • 2. Design ! (& Development)
  • 3. Action Research!
  • PADR
 Place / Urban Environments Participatory Action Design Research ! 3 U Human Computer Action Interaction Design 1 Research! 2 Research! People Artifact Technology Artifact Participatory Action Design Research!tion Research (Bilandzic & Venable, 2011)! Design Res
  •  Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction  Understand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning   1 2 Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environments Inform Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning   Aim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and Social   Design, Library Learning   Develop     & Evaluate 5 8
  • Self-Directed Learning! Focus Groups! 2 Groups
 14 & 5 Participants!
  • Work, Play & Learn! !
  • Hybrid Personal Learning Environments! Hybrid Personal Learning Environments [HPLE] Technology - blogs - computers [HPLE] 1 Technology
 - wikis - websites - tablets - smart phones e.g. blogs, wikis - forums - podcasts ! - social media Place - libraries - office Place
 - museums - studio - zoos - desk [HPLE] 2 e.g. museum, cafe,! - universities - bed library, hackerspace - schools ! People - social - colleagues People
 networks - meetup - family - aquaintences e.g. friends, meetups,! groups - neighbours [HPLE] 3 online collectives! - friends ! (Caldwell, Bilandzic, & Foth, 2012)!
  •  Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction  Understand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning   1 2 Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environments Inform Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning   Aim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and Social   Design, Library Learning   Develop     & Evaluate 5 8
  • Social Learning! Interviews
 @ 13 Meetup Groups! @ 5 Hacker Spaces! @ 3 Co-Working Spaces!
  • Hackerspaces!
  • Meetup Groups! http://meetup.com!
  • Co-working Spaces!
  • Socio-Spatial Facilitators ! Technical facilitate
 Facilitation faci low-intensive! litat e lo mee w-inte ting nsiv Social Facilitation meetings! s e OpenRegions Hospitality attract
 at tra ct hhigh-intensive m igh Spatial Infrastructure ee - meetings! tin int gs en s iv e Location (Audunson, 2005)!
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Games Engines Photographic Society SNAP Shut up & Writehigh IxDA Brisbane Jellylow Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Brisbane Jellylow Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Brisbane Jellylow Social Facilitation Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Brisbane Jelly Unconferences Barcamp Co-Working Spaceslow Hub Melbourne Social Facilitation Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Technical Facilitation Brisbane Jelly Unconferences Barcamp Co-Working Spaceslow Hub Melbourne Social Facilitation Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Technical Facilitation Brisbane Jelly Unconferences Barcamp Thought Fort Salt House Shared Office Co-Working Spaces Spaceslow Hub Melbourne Social Facilitation Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • Intensity of the Meeting Meetup Groups Hackerspaces Games Engines Photographic HS Brisbane Society HS Sydney SNAP HS Melbourne Shut up & Write HS Adelaidehigh IxDA Gold Coast Techspace Technical Facilitation Brisbane Jelly Unconferences Barcamp Thought Fort Salt House Shared Office Co-Working Spaces Spaceslow Hub Melbourne Public Libraries Social Facilitation Partipants a few many (ca. 5 - 30) (ca. 30 - 100)
  • facilitate
 low-intensive! Technical Facilitation meetings! faci l itat e lo mee w-inte Social ting nsiv s e FacilitationOpenRegions
  • Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction UnderstandDesign, Develop & Evaluate! Perceived Barriers to Social Learning 1 2  Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Research: Adapting Action Research and Towards visualising people’s ecology of hybrid personal learning environments  Inform Design Science Research Methods for   Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning Aim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and Social Design, Library Learning Develop & Evaluate 5 8
  • Hack The Evening! 70+ Meetups – Ethnography! 3x Focus Groups! 10 In-depth Interviews!
  • Diversity of Users!
  • No Agenda!
  • Individual Work!
  • Collaboration!
  • Exploration &Experimentation!
  • Incidental Learning @Dinner!
  • + High Diversity
Incidental Learning!Social Learning!Low-intensive Encounters!+ No Agenda
Self-directed Learning!Intrinsic Motivation!Exploration & Experimentation! = Self-Directed
 Social Learning!
  • 4 Implications
for Learning Spaces
! 1.  Increase Awareness 
 & Social Learning Opportunities! 2.  Facilitate Social Encounters/Interactions! 3.  Provide Access to Learning Material! 4.  Support Informal Socialisation!
  •  Aim 1: Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction  Understand Perceived Barriers to Social Learning       1 2    Aim 2: Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environments  Inform Design Science Research Methods for   Urban Informatics 3 7 Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social LearningAim 3 & 4: Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and SocialDesign, Library LearningDevelop& Evaluate 5 8
  • facilitate
 low-intensive! Technical Facilitation meetings! faci l itat e lo mee w-inte Social ting nsiv s e FacilitationOpenRegions
  • Information Retrieval! Divergent! Exploratory, opportunistic, serendipitous! Convergent! Goal-directed, focused, explicit! (Björneborn, 2010)!
  • Library !Book ! Resource!Bookshelf! Divergent!Catalogue! Convergent!Low Barrier! Access!
  • Commons 2.0!Resource! Human!Divergent!Convergent!Access! ? High Barrier!
  • Commons 2.0!Resource!Divergent!Convergent!Access! ? DQ1! DQ2!
  • Design Question 1! How can the physical environment of a collaboration space better reflect the ? community of co-present users as a resource for information? !
  • Design Question 2! How can collaboration spaces facilitate shared encounters and conversations, hence nourish
 ? an interactive, engaging, and collaborative culture amongst its users? !
  • Gelatine 
Checkin-System!
  • User The Edge / Checkin-Point physical presence real-time update RFID user card load user profile public screen web user profile - skills (how can I help other users?) thermal printer - needs (how can other users help me?) - interests user profile ticketWebsite /Database
  • Observations along the
“Audience Funnel”! 4%! 16%! 80%! (Michelis & Müller, 2011)!
  • 80% Passing By!Why?! Mostly regulars (12 of 13)! Pre-entry motivations! !Established routines! “Screen-blindness”!
  • 16% Viewers! Many First-Time Visitors!Effect?! Amplified Sense of Place! Amplified Sense of 
 Other Users!
  • 4% Interactors!Purpose?! Find like-minded
 and 
 more knowledgeable
 other users!
  • Recap Libraries as Co-working Spaces: A review of locative media, mobile and Understanding User Motivations and embodied spatial interaction Perceived Barriers to Social Learning 1 2 Towards Participatory Action Design Towards visualising people’s ecology of Research: Adapting Action Research and hybrid personal learning environments Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics 3 7 ! Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces Learning Beyond Books - Technology and Co-working – Some Socio- Strategies for Ambient Media to Spatial Insights From Where Improve Libraries and Social Learning Takes Place Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces People 4 6 for Social Learning Hacking, Making, and Self- Making Co-Working Spaces Gel Directed Social Learning in the for Better Collaboration and Social Library Learning 5 8
  • Hybrid Tool for Placemaking! (Bilandzic, Schroeter, & Foth, 2013, in review)!
  • Mark Bilandzic
 
 @kavasmlikon
 mark.bilandzic@qut.edu.au! ! Urban Informatics Research Lab! Queensland University of Technology!Queensland  University  of  Technology,  Urban  Informa:cs  Research  Lab  
  • References I!Aabo, S., & Audunson, R. (2012). Use of library space and the library as place. Library& Information Science Research, 34, 138-149.!Aabo, S., Audunson, R., & Varheim, A. (2010). How do public libraries function asmeeting places? Library & Information Science Research, 32, 16-26.!Audunson, R. (2005). The public library as a meeting-place in a multicultural anddigital context: The necessity of low-intensive meeting-places. Journal ofDocumentation, 61(3), 429-441.!Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2013, forthcoming). Learning Beyond Books - Strategies forAmbient Media to Improve Libraries and Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces for SocialLearning. Special Issue on Ambient Media Applications Linking the Digital Overlaywith the Real Physical World.!Bilandzic, M., Schroeter, R., & Foth, M. (2013, in review). Gelatine: Making Co-Working Spaces Gel for Better Collaboration and Social Learning. Theme Issue onDesigning Collaborative Interactive Spaces in the Journal of Personal and UbiquitousComputing.!Bilandzic, M., & Venable, J. (2011). Towards Participatory Action Design Research:Adapting Action Research and Design Science Research Methods for UrbanInformatics. Journal of Community Informatics. Special Issue: Research in Action:Linking Communities and Universities, 7(3).!
  • References II!Björneborn, L. (2010). Design dimensions enabling divergent behaviour acrossphysical, digital, and social library interfaces. Paper presented at the Proceedings ofthe 5th international conference on Persuasive Technology. !Caldwell, G., Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2012). Towards visualising people’s ecology ofhybrid personal learning environments. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4thMedia Architecture Biennale Conference: Participation. !Cox, E. (2000). A safe place to go – Libraries and Social Capital. Sydney.!Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (2002). Lessons without limit: how free-choice learning istransforming education. Walnut Creek, CA Oxford: AltaMira Press.!Fisher, K. E., Saxton, M. L., Edwards, P. M., & Mai, J.-E. (2007). Seattle Public Libraryas Place: Reconceptualizing Space, Community, and Information at the CentraiLibrary. In J. Buschman & G. J. Leckie (Eds.), The library as place: History,community, and culture (pp. 135-160). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.!Freeman, G. T. (2005). The library as place: changes in learning patterns, collections,technology, and use. Library as place: Rethinking roles, rethinking space, 1-10.!Goffman, E. (1966). Behavior in public places : notes on the social organization ofgatherings. New York: Free Press.!
  • References III!Grebow, D. (2002). At the water cooler of learning. Transforming Culture: AnExecutive Briefing on the Power of Learning, Batten Institute, Darden GraduateSchool of Business, University of Virginia, 55ñ57.!Hunsucker, R. L. (2012). Local Public Libraries Serve Important Functions as MeetingPlaces, but Demographic Variables Appear Significant, Suggesting a Need forExtensive Further Research (Vol. 7).!Johnson, C. A. (2010). Do public libraries contribute to social capital?: A preliminaryinvestigation into the relationship. Library & Information Science Research, 32(2),147-155.!Lawson, K. (2008). Libraries as hybrid space. 36th annual conference of the CanadianAssociation for Information Science (CAIS).!Leckie, G. J., & Hopkins, J. (2002). The public place of central libraries: Findings fromToronto and Vancouver. The Library Quarterly, 326-372.!McDonald, A. (2006). The ten commandments revisited: the qualities of good libraryspace. LIBER quarterly, 16(2), 104-119.!Michelis, D., & Müller, J. (2011). The audience funnel: Observations of gesture basedinteraction with multiple large displays in a city center. Intl. Journal ofHuman‚ÄìComputer Interaction, 27(6), 562-579.!
  • References IV!Mocker, D. W., & Spear, G. E. (1982). Lifelong Learning: Formal, Nonformal, Informal,and Self-Directed. Information Series No. 241.!Niegaard, H., Lauridsen, J., & Schulz, K. (2009). Library space: inspiration forbuildings and design: Danmarks Biblioteksforening.!Pomerantz, J., & Marchionini, G. (2007). The digital library as place. Journal ofDocumentation, 63(4), 505-533.!Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating theImagination for a World of Constant Change: CreateSpace.!Tough, A. (1979). The Adults Learning Projects. A Fresh Approach to Theory andPractice in Adult Learning.!Varheim, A. (2007). Social capital and public libraries: The need for research. Library& Information Science Research, 29(3), 416-428.!Varheim, A., Steinmo, S., & Ide, E. (2008). Do libraries matter? Public libraries and thecreation of social capital. Journal of Documentation, 64(6), 877-892.!Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society.!Weise, F. (2004). Being there: the library as place. Journal of the Medical LibraryAssociation, 92, 6-13.!!
  • Publications I ! Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2013, forthcoming). Libraries as Co-working Spaces: Understanding User Motivations and Perceived Barriers to Social Learning. Library Hi Tech.! ! ! Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2012). A review of locative media, mobile and embodied spatial interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70(1), 66-71.! ! ! !
  • Publications II ! Bilandzic, M., & Venable, J. (2011). Towards Participatory Action Design Research: Adapting Action Research and Design Science Research Methods for Urban Informatics. Journal of Community Informatics. Special Issue: Research in Action: Linking Communities and Universities, 7(3).! Bilandzic, M. & Foth, M. (2013, being written) Meetup Groups, Hackerspaces and Co-working – Some Socio-Spatial Insights From Where Social Learning Takes Place. Society and Space - Environment and Planning D.! Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2013, forthcoming). Learning Beyond Books - Strategies for Ambient Media to Improve Libraries and Collaboration Spaces as Interfaces for Social Learning. Special Issue on Ambient Media Applications Linking the Digital Overlay with the Real Physical World.! Caldwell, G., Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2012). Towards visualising people’s ecology of hybrid personal learning environments. Proceedings of the 4th Media Architecture Biennale Conference: Participation.!
  • Publications III! Bilandzic, M. (2013, in review). Hacking, Making, and Self- Directed Social Learning in the Library. Learning Environments Research.! ! ! Bilandzic, M., Schroeter, R., & Foth, M. (2013, in review). Gelatine: Making Co-Working Spaces Gel for Better Collaboration and Social Learning. Theme Issue on Designing Collaborative Interactive Spaces in the Journal of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing.!