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GLOBAL WArminG

• BY: KAUSTUBH VYAS
• STD: IX
Making a Difference
One Watt at a Time
Introduction
• Is the world getting warmer?
• If so, are the actions of mankind to
blame for earth’s temperature
increases...
History of Earth’s Climate
• Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago
• Originally very hot
• Sun’s energy output only 70% of
p...
History of Earth’s Climate
• Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago
• Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years
ago
– Produ...
Earth’s Temperature
Solar

Sun

Energy
Solar
Energy
Earth’s Temperature
Sun

Solar
Energy

Radiation
Cooling
Earth’s Temperature
Sun

Solar

Energy

Radiation
Cooling
Earth’s Temperature
Sun

Solar
Energy

Radiation
Cooling
Sun

Greenhouse Effect
Earth’s Atmospheric Gases
Nitrogen (N2)
Oxygen (O2)

NonGreenhouse
Gases
99%

Water (H2O)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH...
The U.S. emits about 6.4 billion metric
tons of greenhouse gases annually, 25%
of the world’s total.

6.4 billion metric t...
Carbon (109 metric tons)

Worldwide Carbon Emissions
8
7
6
5

Total
Liquid fuel
Solid fuel
Gas fuel

4
3
2
1
0
1750

1800
...
Carbon (109 metric tons)

Annual Carbon Emissions
8
6

Annual carbon emissions
Atmospheric CO2
Atmospheric CO2 average

4
...
Future Carbon Dioxide
Levels
• Increasing CO2 emissions, especially
in China and developing countries
• Likely to double w...
Households are Big Contributors to Climate Change

Of all U.S. greenhouse gas
emissions come from
households:
• Vehicles
•...
So how can each of us slow
global warming now?
Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels
Because greenhouse gas emissions are tied very closely to our
energy consumption, u...
Average Electricity Emission
Factors

Region/State
South Atlantic
North Carolina
Virginia
West Virginia

CO2 lb/kWh CO2 to...
Kitchen Light Fixture

Three 60 Watt Bulbs
How much energy are those bulbs using?
1

Wattage
of the bulbs

(Incandescent
bulbs)

60 W
(CFL bulbs)

18 W

2

# of
bulb...
3 BULB REPLACEMENT EMISSION and COST COMPARISON
INCANDESCENT vs. COMPACT FLUORESCENT

Incandescents
Total kWh for 3 bulb (...
We can make some simple substitutions
Replacing just 1 incandescent light bulb with 1 compact
florescent bulb saves about ...
Small changes really add up

Replace your old refrigerator
with a new Energy Star:
Annual savings:
$90; 700 pounds CO2

Se...
Blowing Up Your World
• 1. How many of you leave your
bedroom light on when you are
not in the room?
• Turning off lights ...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many of you walked, bicycled or
took public transportation to get to
school today, instead of ...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many of you, when you drink a
soft drink, throw the container into the
garbage?
• Throwing awa...
Blowing Up Your World
Blowing Up Your World
How many of you eat fresh vegetables
instead of canned or frozen?
Fresh vegeta...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many of you use a hairdryer or
other energy-consuming convenience
appliance, especially in the...
Blowing Up Your World
• . How many of you, when you go to a store,
get a bag for your purchases, even if you
have only one...
Blowing Up Your World
How many of you carry your lunch to
school in a lunch box or reusable
container?
Making paper and pl...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many of you eat take-out or cafeteria
food that is served in foam or plastic
containers?
• Pol...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many of you use handkerchiefs
instead of tissues and use cloth
towels instead of paper towels?...
Blowing Up Your World
• How many are changing
incandescent bulbs for new compact
fluorescent bulbs?
Changing one bulb coul...
Blowing Up Your World
• 31 - 40 Very good. You're an
environmentalist!
• 21 - 30 Good, you're starting to save
the world.
...
Our take-home message…

Each of us must take steps to protect
our Earth's climate.
About Global Warming
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About Global Warming

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It is about global warming and how it is affecting our health

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  • This is a big picture examination of the earth’s climate 
    The Earth was formed around 4.6 billion years ago 
    And was originally very hot 
    However, the Sun’s energy output was only 70% of what it is presently 
    Liquid water was present on the surface around 4.3 billion years ago
  • In examining global warming, we will be looking at questions such as 
    Is the world getting warmer? 
    If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for earth’s temperature increases? 
    What can or should be done about global warming? 
    Are the potential resolutions to global warming worth the cost to implement them? 
  • In examining global warming, we will be looking at questions such as 
    Is the world getting warmer? 
    If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for earth’s temperature increases? 
    What can or should be done about global warming? 
    Are the potential resolutions to global warming worth the cost to implement them? 
  • The first life forms appeared ~3.8 billion years ago 
    Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years ago, 
    which produced oxygen and removed carbon dioxide and methane, which are greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere 
    As a result, the Earth went through periods of cooling, commonly referred to as “Snowball Earth” and subsequent warming 
    Earth began its current cycles of glacial and interglacial periods around 3 million years ago 
  • The temperature of the earth is directly related to the energy input from the Sun.  Some of the Sun’s energy is reflected by clouds.  Other is reflected by ice. The remainder is absorbed by the earth. 
  •  If amount of solar energy absorbed by the earth is equal to the amount radiated back into space, the earth remains at a constant temperature. 
  •  However, if the amount of solar energy is greater than the amount radiated, then the earth heats up. 
  •  If the amount of solar energy is less than the amount radiated, then the earth cools down. 
  • To a certain degree, the earth acts like a greenhouse.  Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass of a greenhouse and warms the air and objects within the greenhouse. The same glass slows the heat from escaping, resulting in much higher temperatures within the greenhouse than outside it. 
  • Likewise, the earth’s atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Sun’s energy back into space.  Nitrogen and  Oxygen  make up 99% of the earth’s atmospheric gases  and are non-greenhouse gases.  Water,  Carbon Dioxide,  and Methane  make up 1% of the earth’s atmosphere,  but are greenhouse gases, since they cause the earth to retain heat. 
  • This spike is due to the exponential increase in the use of fossil fuels over the last 150 years. Shown here are emissions of carbon from  gas,  solid,  liquid fuels, and  the total carbon emissions. 
  • Despite this rapid increase in  carbon emissions, only about  half the carbon can be detected in the atmosphere. The remainder of the carbon dioxide is being dissolved in the oceans or incorporated into trees. 
  • Future Carbon Emissions 
    will probably increase, especially in China and developing countries 
    This will result in a likely doubling of carbon dioxide levels within 150 years, due to 
    Increased coal usage 
    And increased natural gas usage, 
    although petroleum usage is likely to decrease due to increased cost and decreasing supply 
  • Transcript of "About Global Warming"

    1. 1. GLOBAL WArminG • BY: KAUSTUBH VYAS • STD: IX
    2. 2. Making a Difference One Watt at a Time
    3. 3. Introduction • Is the world getting warmer? • If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for earth’s temperature increases? • What can/should be done about these issues?
    4. 4. History of Earth’s Climate • Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago • Originally very hot • Sun’s energy output only 70% of present • Liquid water present ~4.3 billion years
    5. 5. History of Earth’s Climate • Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago • Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years ago – Produced oxygen and removed carbon dioxide and methane (greenhouse gases) – Earth went through periods of cooling (“Snowball Earth”) and warming • Earth began cycles of glacial and interglacial periods ~3 million years ago
    6. 6. Earth’s Temperature Solar Sun Energy Solar Energy
    7. 7. Earth’s Temperature Sun Solar Energy Radiation Cooling
    8. 8. Earth’s Temperature Sun Solar Energy Radiation Cooling
    9. 9. Earth’s Temperature Sun Solar Energy Radiation Cooling
    10. 10. Sun Greenhouse Effect
    11. 11. Earth’s Atmospheric Gases Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) NonGreenhouse Gases 99% Water (H2O) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Greenhouse Gases 1%
    12. 12. The U.S. emits about 6.4 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases annually, 25% of the world’s total. 6.4 billion metric tons CO2/yr These greenhouse gases last a long time… Carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere for approximately 100 years, methane lasts about 12 years. Other greenhouse gases last even longer. Warming begets more warming… As these gases continue to raise surface temperatures, they trigger the release of even greater quantities of carbon dioxide and methane that are currently trapped in frozen Arctic permafrost and tundra soils, further increasing temperatures. A feedback mechanism ensues… …potentially causing “runaway global warming”.
    13. 13. Carbon (109 metric tons) Worldwide Carbon Emissions 8 7 6 5 Total Liquid fuel Solid fuel Gas fuel 4 3 2 1 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 Year 1950 2000
    14. 14. Carbon (109 metric tons) Annual Carbon Emissions 8 6 Annual carbon emissions Atmospheric CO2 Atmospheric CO2 average 4 2 0 1955 1965 1975 1985 Year 1995 2005
    15. 15. Future Carbon Dioxide Levels • Increasing CO2 emissions, especially in China and developing countries • Likely to double within 150 years: – Increased coal usage – Increased natural gas usage – Decreased petroleum usage (increased cost and decreasing supply)
    16. 16. Households are Big Contributors to Climate Change Of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come from households: • Vehicles • Home Heating • Electricity
    17. 17. So how can each of us slow global warming now?
    18. 18. Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels Because greenhouse gas emissions are tied very closely to our energy consumption, using less fossil fuel based energy puts fewer greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This will help slow global warming. Mountaintop removal for coal mining near Rawl, West Virginia. 50% of electricity in the United States is produced from coal. (
    19. 19. Average Electricity Emission Factors Region/State South Atlantic North Carolina Virginia West Virginia CO2 lb/kWh CO2 tons/MWh CO2 Metric tons/MWh CH4 lbs/MWh NO2 lbs/MWh 1.35 0.674 0.612 0.0127 0.0207 1.24 0.621 0.563 0.0105 0.0203 1.16 0.582 0.528 0.0137 0.0192 1.98 0.998 0.897 0.0137 0.0316
    20. 20. Kitchen Light Fixture Three 60 Watt Bulbs
    21. 21. How much energy are those bulbs using? 1 Wattage of the bulbs (Incandescent bulbs) 60 W (CFL bulbs) 18 W 2 # of bulbs 3 Watts Used (Wattage x number of bulbs) 4 Hours used per day 3 bulbs 180 W Watts hours / year 7 Kilowatt hours / year 10 hours a day (#5 x 365 days) (1000Wh = 1kWh) (divide #6 by 1000) (1800 x 365) (640,800/10 00) 1800 Wh/day 640,800 Wh/ year 640.8 kWh per year 54 x 10 10 hours a day 18 x3 54 W Watts Used (#3) x Total Hours/day (#4) 6 (180 x 10) (60 x 3) 3 bulbs 5 540x365 540 Wh/day 197,100 Wh/day 197,100 1000 197.1 kWh/yr
    22. 22. 3 BULB REPLACEMENT EMISSION and COST COMPARISON INCANDESCENT vs. COMPACT FLUORESCENT Incandescents Total kWh for 3 bulb (#7 from above) 640.8 kWh Cost (kWh #7 x $.18) $115.34 CO2 produced @ 1.16 lbs/kWh 743.3 Compact Fluorescents (CFLs) 197 kWh lbs CO2 not emitted by switching 3 bulbs $35.46 228.52 lbs 514.8 lbs (C O2 of incandescents - C O2 of CFLs) Money saved in energy (Cost incandescents - cost of CFLs) $79.88
    23. 23. We can make some simple substitutions Replacing just 1 incandescent light bulb with 1 compact florescent bulb saves about 150 pounds of carbon dioxide per year! If every American household replaced just 5 high-use incandescent bulbs with compact florescent lights we'd collectively save more than $8 billion each year in energy costs and we would prevent the greenhouse gases equivalent to the emissions from nearly 10 million cars. Source: http://www.energystar.gov
    24. 24. Small changes really add up Replace your old refrigerator with a new Energy Star: Annual savings: $90; 700 pounds CO2 Set your thermostat down a few degrees in the winter Annual savings: $135; 1400 pounds CO2 Drive JUST 10 fewer miles per week Annual savings: $80; 520 pounds CO2 Wash clothes in cold water only Annual savings: $70; 500 pounds CO2 Caulk and weather-strip around doors and windows Annual savings: $80; 650 pounds CO2 Reduce your garbage by 10% through greater recycling or reduced packaging Annual savings: 1200 pounds CO2 These are mid-range estimates from published sources; your savings may vary. *
    25. 25. Blowing Up Your World • 1. How many of you leave your bedroom light on when you are not in the room? • Turning off lights saves energy and money. The more energy used, the more rivers are dammed or more fossil fuel is burned, causing air pollution and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 2 pts d
    26. 26. Blowing Up Your World • How many of you walked, bicycled or took public transportation to get to school today, instead of coming by private automobile? Our reliance on cars that burn fossil fuels is one of the major causes of increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and it is the primary cause of urban smog. 3 pts u
    27. 27. Blowing Up Your World • How many of you, when you drink a soft drink, throw the container into the garbage? • Throwing away containers of any kind wastes energy and resources and adds to our waste problem. Many towns are running out of landfill space. 3 pts d
    28. 28. Blowing Up Your World Blowing Up Your World How many of you eat fresh vegetables instead of canned or frozen? Fresh vegetables cook more quickly and are usually more nutritious than frozen or canned foods. Canned and frozen vegetables are often over-processed, contain additives, contribute to air pollution (transport and packaging) and add to our waste problem. 4 pts u
    29. 29. Blowing Up Your World • How many of you use a hairdryer or other energy-consuming convenience appliance, especially in the morning? • Hairdryers use a lot of energy. In the morning so much energy demand is put on our grids that power companies have to find other sources of energy just to meet the morning rush hour 2 pts d
    30. 30. Blowing Up Your World • . How many of you, when you go to a store, get a bag for your purchases, even if you have only one or two small items to carry? • Making paper and plastic bags uses energy and resources. The bags add to our litter and waste problems, and plastic is not biodegradable. Recycling is not the best answer because collecting and recycling materials requires energy. Instead, carry a reusable cloth bag or a knapsack with you. 3 pts d
    31. 31. Blowing Up Your World How many of you carry your lunch to school in a lunch box or reusable container? Making paper and plastic bags uses energy and resources. 3 pts u
    32. 32. Blowing Up Your World • How many of you eat take-out or cafeteria food that is served in foam or plastic containers? • Polystyrene and other plastic containers are made from precious petrochemicals, do not decompose in landfills, and release toxic gases when they are burned in incinerators. 10 pts d
    33. 33. Blowing Up Your World • How many of you use handkerchiefs instead of tissues and use cloth towels instead of paper towels? • Paper comes from trees. The more of it we use, the more trees that are cut down 2 pts d
    34. 34. Blowing Up Your World • How many are changing incandescent bulbs for new compact fluorescent bulbs? Changing one bulb could save 150 pounds of carbon dioxide per year! 10 pts u
    35. 35. Blowing Up Your World • 31 - 40 Very good. You're an environmentalist! • 21 - 30 Good, you're starting to save the world. • 11 - 20 Lots of room for improvement. • 0 - 10 You're exiled to the town dump!
    36. 36. Our take-home message… Each of us must take steps to protect our Earth's climate.
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