1CONTENTSI. VOLTAGE REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY ({+/-}5 V DC)1. Introduction………………………………………………………………3a) Definition of power ...
24. Conclusion………………………………………………………………20III. DESIGN OF SECOND ORDER ACTIVE LOW PASS, HIGH PASSAND BAND PASS FILTER.1. Intr...
3I. VOLTAGE REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY ({+/-}5VDC)INTRODUCTIONDefinition of Power SupplyPower Supply is an electrical devic...
4DESIGNING OF CIRCUITS:Circuit Diagram:
5Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board are horizontal, i.e the coppercladding runs from le...
6Components used and their specifications:1. Transformer2. Diode3. Capacitor4. IC-7805 & IC-79055. Resistance6. Verro-boar...
7By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternatingcurrent (AC) voltage to be "stepp...
8Applications:Energy storage:1) A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so itca...
9Advantages:1)78xx series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant, regulatedsource of power, making...
10Veroboard:Stripboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1inch (2.54 mm) regular...
11OBSERVATIONS:The output across the two resistances, measured by a multi-meter, gave a reading of 5 VDC.CONCLUSION:The ex...
12II. MULTI-VIBRATOR USING NE 555 (ASTABLE ANDMONOSTABLE)INTRODUCTION:Definition of Multi-vibrator:Commonly known as Timer...
13Uses of Multi-vibrators:Timer circuits have been in vogue since a past few decades as these are extensivelyused in vario...
14Circuit Diagram:
15Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board is vertical, i.e the coppercladding runs from top ...
16Components used and their specifications:1) IC NE 555:The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit used in a variety of tim...
17Function of each component:IC NE 555:The IC design was proposed in 1970 by Hans R. Camenzind and Jim Ball. Afterprototyp...
185 CTRL- "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC).6 THR- The interval ends when the voltage...
194) Terminal 8 and 4 of the astable multivibrator is connected to +Vcc. Terminals 2, 5 and6 are connected to ground throu...
20Theoretical values obtained: Practical Values obtained:Ton = 1.07 x 10-3 sec Ton = 1.2 x 10-3 secTOff = 6.9 x 10-4 sec T...
21III. DESIGN OF SECOND ORDER ACTIVE LOW PASS, HIGH PASSAND BAND PASS FILTERSINTRODUCTIONDEFINITION OF FILTERElectronic fi...
22High-Pass Filter – A High-Pass filter is an Linear Time-Invarient filter that passeshigh frequency well but attenuates (...
23DESIGNING OF CIRCUITS:Circuit diagram:
24Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board are vertical, i.e the coppercladding runs from top...
25Components used and their specifications:1) Bread Board2) Wires3) Cutter and wire stripper4) Twizzer5) Funtion Generator...
26ii. Then, we place the components at the lines which vertically connected to eachother as the circuit diagram. Before th...
27OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS:For Low-Pass filter :Rf = 15kΩ, R’ = 15kΩ;R1 = R2 = R=1.6kΩ ;C1...
28Gain(ABPF) = ALPF + AHPF = 4Low Pass filter slope = 40 dB/decade;High Pass filter slope = 40 dB/decade;Bandwidth= 9KHz.R...
2920 11k 1.6 1.6 4.0821 12k 1.4 1.4 2.9222 15k 1.0 1.0 023 18k 0.7 0.7 – 3.0924 20k 0.6 0.6 – 4.4425 25k 0.36 0.36 – 8.872...
3015 5k 2 2 6.0216 4k 2 2 6.0217 3k 2 2 6.0218 2k 2.2 2.2 6.8519 1.5k 2.2 2.2 6.8520 1k 1.8 1.8 5.1021 900 1.6 1.6 4.0822 ...
3113 2k 4 4 12.0414 3k 4 4 12.0415 4k 4 4 12.0416 5k 4 4 12.0417 6k 4 4 12.0418 7k 4 4 12.0419 8k 4 4 12.0420 9k 3.6 3.6 1...
32HIGH PASS FILTERPARAMETER THEORETICAL VALUE PRACTICAL VALUECut-off Frequency 1 KHz 860 HzSlope 40 dB/decade 29 dB/decade...
33CONCLUSION:In this project the used electronic components does not possess perfect effective value orquality. So there r...
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Project body(powersupply+timer+filter7thsem)

  1. 1. 1CONTENTSI. VOLTAGE REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY ({+/-}5 V DC)1. Introduction………………………………………………………………3a) Definition of power supplyb) Aim of the project.2. Designing of Circuits…………………………………………………….4a) Circuit diagramb) Layout diagramc) Components used and their specificationsd) Function of each component.e) Designing Procedure3. Observations…………………………………………………………….114. Conclusion………………………………………………………………11II. MULTI-VIBRATOR USING NE 555 ( ASTABLE ANDMONOSTABLE)1. Introduction………………………………………………………………12a) Definition of Multi-vibratorb) Types of Multi-vibratorc) Uses of Multi-vibratord) Aim of the project2. Designing of circuits……………………………………………………..13a) Circuit Diagramb) Layout diagramc) Components used and their specificationsd) Function of each componente) Designing Procedure3. Observations and Calculations…………………………………………….19
  2. 2. 24. Conclusion………………………………………………………………20III. DESIGN OF SECOND ORDER ACTIVE LOW PASS, HIGH PASSAND BAND PASS FILTER.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………..21a) Definition of Filterb) Types of Filterc) Uses of Filterd) Aim of the project2. Designing of Circuits……………………………………………………23a) Circuit diagramsb) Layout diagramsc) Components used and their specificationsd) Designing Procedure3. Observations and Calculations………………………………………….274. Results…………………………………………………………………..28.5. Discussions……………………………………………………………...316. Conclusion………………………………………………………………337. Graphs
  3. 3. 3I. VOLTAGE REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY ({+/-}5VDC)INTRODUCTIONDefinition of Power SupplyPower Supply is an electrical device which supplies power to one or more electricalloads. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to aspecific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite of variations in eitherload current or the voltage supplied by the power supplies energy source.Types of Power SupplyThere are various types of Power supply such as:1) Battery2) DC Power supply3) AC Power supply4) Switched Mode Power Supply5) Programmable Power Supply6) Uninterrupted Power Supply7) High Voltage Power Supply, etc.Aim of the ProjectTo design a Voltage regulated DC Power Supply of rating +/- 5 Volts DC..
  4. 4. 4DESIGNING OF CIRCUITS:Circuit Diagram:
  5. 5. 5Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board are horizontal, i.e the coppercladding runs from left to right.
  6. 6. 6Components used and their specifications:1. Transformer2. Diode3. Capacitor4. IC-7805 & IC-79055. Resistance6. Verro-boardNAME TYPE QUANTITYTransformer (9-0-9)V 1Diode 1N4007 4Capacitor 1000µF,50V &100µF,50V22IC-7805 - 1IC-7905 - 1Resistors 10KΩ,1/2W 2Veroboard - 1Function of each component:Transformer:A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from onecircuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformers coils. Avarying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in thetransformers core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. If aload is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary windingand electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformerto the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) isin proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the of turns in thesecondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:Vs/Vp=Ns/Np
  7. 7. 7By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternatingcurrent (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "steppeddown" by making Ns less than Np.Application:1. A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmittingelectrical energy over long distances through wires.2. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with thesupply voltage.3. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to matchdevices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. Audiotransformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a singlepair of wires.Diodes:The 1N4001 series (or 1N4000 series) is a family of popular 1.0 amp general purposesilicon rectifier diodes commonly used in AC adapters for common householdappliances. Blocking voltage varies from 50 to 1000 volts. This diode is made in an axial-lead DO-41 plastic package. These are fairly low-speed rectifier diodes, being inefficientfor square waves of more than 15 kHz. The series was second sourced by manymanufacturers.Applications:These are fairly low-speed rectifier diodes, being inefficient for square waves of morethan 15 kHz. The series was second sourced by many manufacturers, popular series forhigher current applications, up to 3 A.Capacitors:A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electricalcomponent used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitorsvary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric(insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a staticelectric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plateand negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An idealcapacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio ofcharge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:C=Q/V
  8. 8. 8Applications:Energy storage:1) A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so itcan be used like a temporary battery.2) Pulsed power and weapons:Groups of large, specially constructed, low-inductance high-voltage capacitors(capacitor banks) are used to supply huge pulses of current for many pulsed powerapplications. These include electromagnetic forming, Marx generators, pulsed lasers(especially TEA lasers), pulse forming networks, radar, fusion research, and particleaccelerators.3) Power conditioning:Reservoir capacitors are used in power supplies where they smooth the output of a fullor half wave rectifier.4) Signal processing:The energy stored in a capacitor can be used to represent information, either inbinary form, as in DRAMs, or in analogue form, as in analog sampled filters and CCDs.5) Tuned circuits:Capacitors and inductors are applied together in tuned circuits to select information inparticular frequency bands. For example, radio receivers rely on variable capacitors totune the station frequency. Speakers use passive analog crossovers, and analog equalizersuse capacitors to select different audio bands.IC-7805 & IC-7905:The 78xx (sometimes LM78xx) is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltageregulator integrated circuits. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuitsrequiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs withinthe family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example,the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx line arepositive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a commonground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negativevoltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive andnegative supply voltages in the same circuit. 78xx ICs have three terminals
  9. 9. 9Advantages:1)78xx series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant, regulatedsource of power, making them easy to use, as well as economical and efficient uses ofspace.2)78xx series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too much power.They have protection against overheating and short-circuits, making them quite robustin most applications. In some cases, the current-limiting features of the 78xx devices canprovide protection not only for the 78xx itself, but also for other parts of the circuit.Disadvantage:The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimumamount (typically 2 volts).This can make these devices unsuitable for powering somedevices from certain types of power sourcesAs they are based on a linear regulator design, the input current required is always thesame as the output current. As the input voltage must always be higher than the outputvoltage, this means that the total power (voltage multiplied by current) going into the78xx will be more than the output power provided. The extra input power is dissipated asheat. This means both that for some applications an adequate heat sink must be provided,and also that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted during the process,rendering them less efficient than some other types of power supplies. When the inputvoltage is significantly higher than the regulated output voltage (for example, powering a7805 using a 24 volt power source), this inefficiency can be a significant issue.Resistance:A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implementselectrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in directproportion to the voltage across the resistors terminals. This relation is represented byOhms law: R=V/IApplications:1) Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and areubiquitous in most electronic equipment.2) Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices,and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.
  10. 10. 10Veroboard:Stripboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of coppercladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board. It is usuallyknown by the name Veroboard, which is a trademark, in the UK, of British companyVero Technologies Ltd, & Pixel Print LTD Canada. In using the board, breaks are madein the tracks, usually around holes, todivide the strips into multiple electrical nodes. With care, it is possible to break betweenholes to allow for components that have two pin rows only one position apart such astwin row headers for IDCs. Stripboard holes are drilled on 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) centers.This spacing allows components having pins with a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) spacing to beinserted. Compatible parts include DIP ICs, sockets for ICs, some types of connectors,and other devices.Applications:This spacing allows components having pins with a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) spacing to beinserted.Designing Procedure:1) A vero board is taken where we make one row as positive AC, one as Ground andanother as negative AC, all these three connections are derived from the stepdown transformer.2) A bridge rectifier is constructed on the board from wher we get positive DC andnegative DC( both these potentials are with respect to each other).3) We connect capacitors C1 and C2 as shown in the circuit diagram4) Transistors 7805 and 7809 are placed on the board as per connections shown in thecircuit diagram.5) Capacitors C3 and C4 are connected as shown in the circuit diagram.6) Resistors R1 and R2 are connected across the above mentioned capacitors to get thepotential differences between the terminals.
  11. 11. 11OBSERVATIONS:The output across the two resistances, measured by a multi-meter, gave a reading of 5 VDC.CONCLUSION:The experiment performed was successful. Objective to produce a regulated +/-5 V DCPower Supply was realized.
  12. 12. 12II. MULTI-VIBRATOR USING NE 555 (ASTABLE ANDMONOSTABLE)INTRODUCTION:Definition of Multi-vibrator:Commonly known as Timer, a timer is a specialized type of a clock that can be used tocontrol the sequence of an event or process. Timers can be mechanical, electro-mechanical, electrical as well as software based. We use IC NE 555 to realize themultivibrator.Types of Multi-vibrator:1) Monostable multi-vibrator: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulsegenerator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefreeswitches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.2) Astable multi-vibrator: free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator.Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tonegeneration, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. Selecting athermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: theperiod of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of amicroprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature,linearize it and even provide calibration means.3) Bistable multi-vibrator or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if theDIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce freelatched switches.
  13. 13. 13Uses of Multi-vibrators:Timer circuits have been in vogue since a past few decades as these are extensivelyused in various electronic devices. Pertaining to Biomedical Engineering field, timersfind extreme application in timing the X-Ray machine firing.Aim of the Project:To design a multivibrator circuit using IC NE 555 which displays Astable andMonostable characteristics.DESIGNING OF CIRCUITS:Circuit diagram, Layout diagram and other details are thoroughly discussed in thesubsequent pages.
  14. 14. 14Circuit Diagram:
  15. 15. 15Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board is vertical, i.e the coppercladding runs from top to bottom.
  16. 16. 16Components used and their specifications:1) IC NE 555:The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit used in a variety of timer, pulse generationand oscillator applications. The IC 555 has widespread use, because of its ease ofuse, low price and good stability.These specifications apply to the NE555. Other 555 timers can have differentspecifications depending on the grade (military, medical, etc).Supply voltage (VCC) 4.5 to 15 VSupply current (VCC = +5 V) 3 to 6 mASupply current (VCC = +15 V) 10 to 15 mAOutput current (maximum) 200 mAMaximum Power dissipation 600 mWPower Consumption (minimum) 30 mW@5V, 225 mW@15VOperating temperature 0 to 70 degree C2) Non-polar capacitors:Two capacitors of rating 0.1 uF , 0.01 uF each.3) Resistance:Two resistances of 10k ohm and one of 5.6k ohm.
  17. 17. 17Function of each component:IC NE 555:The IC design was proposed in 1970 by Hans R. Camenzind and Jim Ball. Afterprototyping, the design was ported to the Monochip analogue array, incorporatingdetailed design by Wayne Foletta and others from Qualidyne Semiconductor.Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin minidual-in-line package.The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 °C to +70 °C, and the SE555part number designated the military temperature range, −55 °C to +125 °C. Thesewere available in both high-reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxyplastic (V package) packages. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V, NE555T,SE555V, and SE555T. It has been hypothesized that the 555 got its name from thethree 5 kΩ resistors used within Low-power versions of the 555 are also available,such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555. The 7555 is designed to cause less supplyglitching than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does notrequire a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decouplingcapacitor on the power supply. Such a practice should nevertheless be avoided,because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage mightinterfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages. The pindiagram is given below:Pin Name Purpose1 GND- Ground, low level (0 V)2 TRIG- OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC.3 OUT- This output is driven to +VCC or GND.4 RESET- A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND.
  18. 18. 185 CTRL- "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC).6 THR- The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL.7 DIS- Open collector output; may discharge a capacitor between intervals.8 VCC - Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V.In the monostable mode, the 555 timer acts as a ―one-shot‖ pulse generator. The pulsebegins when the 555 timer receives a signal at the trigger input that falls below a third ofthe voltage supply. The width of the output pulse is determined by the time constant of anRC network, which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). The output pulse endswhen the voltage on the capacitor equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. The output pulsewidth can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjustingthe values of R and C.In astable mode, the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses havinga specified frequency. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7)and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger(pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. Hence the capacitor ischarged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2, since pin 7 has lowimpedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle, therefore discharging thecapacitor.Applications:This timer IC can be used for triggering applications.It can also be used as a square wave generator.It can be used as astable multi-vibrator and monostable multi-vibrator.Designing Procedure:1) A vero board is taken. We make one row of the board to be the +Vcc, one row to bethe ground.2) The components are gradually placed as shown in the circuit diagram. First we placethe 2 ICs having a gap of 3 points between them. This is done so that connectionsother than ground can be established.3) Interconnections between various terminals of the IC are made as shown in thecircuit diagram.
  19. 19. 194) Terminal 8 and 4 of the astable multivibrator is connected to +Vcc. Terminals 2, 5 and6 are connected to ground through capacitors and terminal 1 is directly connectedto the ground.5) Similar procedure is followed for the mono stable multivibrator. Here the inputterminal is connected to the output terminal of astable multivibrator.6) Terminals 4 and 8 are connected to +Vcc.7) Interconnections between various terminals are made according to the circuitdiagram.8) Terminals 5 and 6 are connected to the ground via capacitors and terminal 1 isdirectly connected to the ground.9) The final output is obtained from terminal 3.OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:Astable:Relevant equations:TTotal = Ton + TOffTon = 0.69( RA + RB )TOff = 0.69( RA + 2RB )Duty Cycle = TON / TTotal X 100%Frequency = 1/ TTotalwhere RA = 5.6 k ohm, RB = 10 k ohm, C = 0.1 uF.
  20. 20. 20Theoretical values obtained: Practical Values obtained:Ton = 1.07 x 10-3 sec Ton = 1.2 x 10-3 secTOff = 6.9 x 10-4 sec TOff = 7 x 10-4 secTTotal = 1.76 x 10-3 sec TTotal = 1.9 x 10-3 secDuty Cycle = 60.7% Duty Cycle = 63.16%Frequency = 568.18 Hz. Frequency = 526.32 HzMonostable:Ton = 1.1R x C, where R = 10 k ohm, C = 0.1 uF .Theoretical Value obtained: Practical Value obtained:Ton = 1.1 x 10-3 sec Ton = 1.4 x 10-3 secCONCLUSION:.The experiment performed was successful. The objective to realize a Monostablemultivibrator from a astable multivibrator was fully realized.
  21. 21. 21III. DESIGN OF SECOND ORDER ACTIVE LOW PASS, HIGH PASSAND BAND PASS FILTERSINTRODUCTIONDEFINITION OF FILTERElectronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functionsspecifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhancewanted ones, or both.TYPES OF FILTER:Electronic filters can be classified as – a) Active Filter, b) Passive Filter.Active Filters – Active filters are implemented using a combination of passive andactive (amplifying) components, and require an outside power source. Operationalamplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high Q factor, andcan achieve resonance without the use of inductors. However, their upper frequency limitis limited by the bandwidth of the amplifiers used.Passive Filters – These are basic electronic filters comprised of passive elementslike Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor. These do not have active components and havelimited application. But these are the fundamental part of constructing an active filter.In other way, electronic filters can be classified as – i) Low-Pass Filter, ii) High-Pass Filter, iii) Band-Pass Filter, iv) Band-Reject Filter.Low-Pass Filter – A Low-Pass filter is a filter that passes low-frequency signalsbut attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cut-offfrequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter.It is sometimes called a High-Cut filter, or Treble-Cut filter when used in audioapplications. A Low-Pass filter is the opposite of a High-Pass filter and a band-pass filteris a combination of a low-pass and a High-Pass filter.
  22. 22. 22High-Pass Filter – A High-Pass filter is an Linear Time-Invarient filter that passeshigh frequency well but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) frequencies lower than thecut-off frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency is a designparameter of the filter. It is sometimes called a Low-Cut filter. the terms Bass-Cut filterand Rumble filter are also used in audio applications.Band-Pass Filter – A Band-Pass filter is a filter that passes frequencies within acertain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside the range. An example of ananalogue electronic band-pass filter is a RLC circuit (a resistor-inductor-capacitorcircuit). These filters can also be created by combining a Low-Pass filter with a High-Pass filter.Band-Reject Filter – A Band-Reject filter circuit is used to block the passage ofcurrent for a narrow band of frequencies, while allowing current to flow at all frequenciesabove or below this band. This type of a filter is also known as a Band-Suspension orBand-Stop filter.USES OF FILTERS :Low-pass Filter – Electronic Low-Pass filters are used to drive subwoofers and othertypes of loudspeakers. Radio-transmitters use Low-Pass filters to block harmonicemissions. The tone knob found on many electric guitars is a Low-Pass filter used toreduce the amount of treble in the sound.High-Pass Filter – Electronic High-Pass filters could be used as a part of an audiocrossover to direct to a tweeter. High-Pass filters are also used for AC coupling at theinput and the output of amplifiers. Rumble filters are High-Pass filters which removes theunwanted sounds near the lower end of the audible range.Band-Pass Filter – Outside the electronics and signal processing, one example of the useof Band-Pass filters is in the atmospheric sciences.AIM OF THE PROJECT:To design Second order Active Low Pass, High Pass and Band Pass Filters.
  23. 23. 23DESIGNING OF CIRCUITS:Circuit diagram:
  24. 24. 24Layout Diagram:The connections on the opposite side of the vero board are vertical, i.e the coppercladding runs from top to bottom.
  25. 25. 25Components used and their specifications:1) Bread Board2) Wires3) Cutter and wire stripper4) Twizzer5) Funtion Generator6) CRO7) MultimeterCOMPONENTS No. PURPOSES SPECIFICATIONSResistance 8 For High-Pass and Low-Passfilter and amplifier0.25 watt, 1% tolerance,180k for High-Pass and 18kfor Low-Pass filter, 10kCapacitance 4 For High-Pass and Low-Passfilter0.01 microfaradFunction Generator 1 For input 230 volt, 50Hz, 13 VAOscilloscope 1 For output 230 volt, 50Hz, 25mHz 2channel, 4 traceDual Power Supply 1 For power supply 30 volt, 3 AMultimeter 1 For measuring the value ofresistances and capacitances200 ohm to 2000 ohm, 200mv to 200 v, 2 nfarad to 20microfaradIC 741 2 amplifier Input offset voltage 5 volt,CMRR 70Designing Procedure:i. First we take the vero board. The vero board has two terminal strips, four busstrips and three binding posts. Each bus strips has two rows of contacts. Eachof the two rows of contacts on the bus strips are a node. That is, every contactalong a row on a bus strip is connected together, inside the vero board. Busstrips are used primarily for power supply connections but are also used forany node requiring a large number of connections. Each terminal strip has 60rows and 5 columns of contacts on each side of the center gap. Each row of 5contacts is a node.
  26. 26. 26ii. Then, we place the components at the lines which vertically connected to eachother as the circuit diagram. Before this we measure resistance andcapacitance by a multimeter.iii. The two IC’s 741 has 2 inputs ( pin 2 for inverting terminal and 3 for non-inverting terminal) and 1 output(pin 6). Pin 7 and pin 4 are usually connectedto +vcc and –vcc.iv. The ground connection from pin 2 and pin 3 are done by placing one terminalof resistance to the vertically connected region of the bread board and thevertically connected region is connected to the ground of dual power supplysource by a wire.v. The +vcc and –vcc connection of pin 7 and 4 are done by the respective wireswhich are connected to the +vcc and –vcc of power supply source.vi. The output of the High-Pass filter is totally connected by a wire to the input ofLow-Pass filter to make a High-Pass filter.vii. We apply an input from function generator to the input terminal of the High-Pass filter where both of them are connected with each other by a wire and weget an output pulse from the oscilloscope.viii. From the pulse that we get from oscilloscope we measure the gain withrespect to the frequency and we plot the gain with respect to the frequency inthe graph. From the graphs we get the cut-off frequency of Band-Pass filter.
  27. 27. 27OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS:For Low-Pass filter :Rf = 15kΩ, R’ = 15kΩ;R1 = R2 = R=1.6kΩ ;C1 = C2 = C=0.01µF ;High cut-off frequency= 1/[2π√(R1R2C1C2 )] = 1/2πRC= 1/(2π×1.6×103×0.01×10-6) = 9947.2Hz; which can be approximated as 10kHz.Gain(ALPF) = 1 + Rf/R’ = 2;Filter slope = 40 dB/decade;Bandwidth= 10 KHzFor High-Pass filters :Rf = 15kΩ ; R’ = 15kΩ;R1 = R2 = R=1.6kΩ;C1 = C2 =C= 0.01µF ;Low cut-off frequency= 1/[2π√(R1R2C1C2 )] = 1/2πRC= 1/(2π×1.6×103×0.01×10-6) = 994.72Hz; which can be approximated as 1KHz.Gain(AHPF) = 1 + Rf/R’ = 2;Filter slope = 40 dB/decade;Bandwidth= 1KHz;For Band-Pass filters :Low cut-off frequency= fCH = 1KHz;High cut-off frequency= fCL = 10 KHz;
  28. 28. 28Gain(ABPF) = ALPF + AHPF = 4Low Pass filter slope = 40 dB/decade;High Pass filter slope = 40 dB/decade;Bandwidth= 9KHz.RESULTS:Frequency Response of Low-Pass filterVin = 1 Vp-pSL. NO. FREQUENCY(Hz)OUTPUT VOLTAGEVout (volts)GAIN = Vout/Vin GAIN(in Db)1 100 2 2 6.022 200 2 2 6.023 300 2 2 6.024 400 2 2 6.025 500 2 2 6.026 600 2 2 6.027 700 2 2 6.028 800 2 2 6.029 900 2 2 6.0210 1k 2 2 6.0211 2k 2 2 6.0212 3k 2 2 6.0213 4k 2 2 6.0214 5k 2 2 6.0215 6k 2 2 6.0216 7k 2 2 6.0217 8k 2 2 6.0218 9k 1.9 1.9 5.5719 10k 1.8 1.8 5.10
  29. 29. 2920 11k 1.6 1.6 4.0821 12k 1.4 1.4 2.9222 15k 1.0 1.0 023 18k 0.7 0.7 – 3.0924 20k 0.6 0.6 – 4.4425 25k 0.36 0.36 – 8.8726 30k 0.24 0.24 – 12.3927 40k 0.14 0.14 – 17.0828 50k 0.10 0.10 – 2029 60k 0.07 0.07 – 23.0930 70k 50mv 0.05 – 26.0231 80k 40mv 0.04 – 27.9632 90k 35mv 0.035 – 29.1233 100k 30mv 0.030 – 30.4634 150k 20mv 0.020 – 33.9835 200k 12mv 0.012 –38.42Frequency Response of the High-Pass filterVin = 1 Vp-pSL. NO. FREQUENCY(Hz)OUTPUT VOLTAGEVout (volts)GAIN = Vout/Vin GAIN(in Db)1 100k 2 2 6.022 90k 2 2 6.023 80k 2 2 6.024 70k 2 2 6.025 60k 2 2 6.026 50k 2 2 6.027 40k 2 2 6.028 30k 2 2 6.029 20k 2 2 6.0210 10k 2 2 6.0211 9k 2 2 6.0212 8k 2 2 6.0213 7k 2 2 6.0214 6k 2 2 6.02
  30. 30. 3015 5k 2 2 6.0216 4k 2 2 6.0217 3k 2 2 6.0218 2k 2.2 2.2 6.8519 1.5k 2.2 2.2 6.8520 1k 1.8 1.8 5.1021 900 1.6 1.6 4.0822 800 1.4 1.4 2.0223 700 1.2 1.2 1.5824 600 0.8 0.8 – 1.9225 500 0.6 0.6 – 4.4426 400 0.4 0.4 – 7.9627 300 0.3 0.3 – 10.4628 200 0.16 0.16 – 15.9229 150 0.12 0.12 – 18.4230 100 0.06 0.06 – 24.4431 50 0.03 0.03 – 30.46Frequency Response of the Band-Pass filterVin = 1 Vp-pSL. NO. FREQUENCY(Hz)OUTPUT VOLTAGEVout (volts)GAIN = Vout/Vin GAIN(in Db)1 50 0.05 0.05 – 26.022 100 0.12 0.12 – 18.423 200 0.32 0.32 – 9.894 300 0.60 0.60 – 4.445 400 0.9 0.9 – 0.916 500 1.2 1.2 1.587 600 1.8 1.8 5.108 700 2.2 2.2 6.859 800 2.8 2.8 8.9410 900 3.2 3.2 10.1011 1k 3.6 3.6 11.1312 1.5k 4.4 4.4 12.87
  31. 31. 3113 2k 4 4 12.0414 3k 4 4 12.0415 4k 4 4 12.0416 5k 4 4 12.0417 6k 4 4 12.0418 7k 4 4 12.0419 8k 4 4 12.0420 9k 3.6 3.6 11.1321 10k 3.6 3.6 11.1322 20k 1.1 1.1 0.8323 30k 0.5 0.5 – 6.0224 40k 0.28 0.28 – 11.0625 50k 0.20 0.20 – 13.9826 60k 0.16 0.16 – 15.9227 70k 0.10 0.10 – 2028 80k 0.08 0.08 –21.9429 90k 0.06 0.06 – 24.4430 100k 0.05 0.05 –26.0231 150k 0.03 0.03 –30.46DISCUSSIONS:LOW PASS FILTER:PARAMETER THEORETICAL VALUE PRACTICAL VALUECut-off Frequency 10 KHz 12 KHzSlope 40 dB/decade 36 dB/decadeBandwidth 10 KHz 12 KHz
  32. 32. 32HIGH PASS FILTERPARAMETER THEORETICAL VALUE PRACTICAL VALUECut-off Frequency 1 KHz 860 HzSlope 40 dB/decade 29 dB/decadeBandwidth 1 KHz 0.86 KHzBAND PASS FILTERPARAMETER THEORETICAL VALUE PRACTICAL VALUELow Cut-off Frequency 1 KHz 520 HzHigh Cut-off frequency 10 KHz 17.5 KHzHigh Pass filter slope 40 dB/decade 29 dB/decadeLow Pass filter slope 40 dB/decade 36 dB/decadeBandwidth 9 KHz 16.98 KHz
  33. 33. 33CONCLUSION:In this project the used electronic components does not possess perfect effective value orquality. So there remains the lack of perfect value in the filter output. Thus, we can saythat the project of designing of 2ndorder active Low-Pass, High-Pass and Band-Passfilters is successful.

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