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  • 1. MBA Programme A PROJECT REPORT ON “A STUDY OF RATIO ANALYSIS” WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GHATAGE PATIL INDUSTRIES LTD. UCHGAON, KOLHAPUR. SUBMITTED TO “SIBER SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT” KOLHAPUR. (AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTE) IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SUBMITTED BY MS. TRUPTI V. KAMBUJ. (B. Com.) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF MR. G. HARESH. (M.A, Ph. D) THROUGH THE DIRECTOR CHH. SHAHU INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, KOLHAPUR. 416 004 (AN AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTE) (2008-2010) SIBER School of Management 1
  • 2. MBA Programme CONTENTS: Chapter. No. Title of the Chapter Page no. I Introduction and Research Design. II Company Profile. III Conceptual Background. IV Data Analysis And Interpretation. V Findings and suggestions. Bibliography. SIBER School of Management 2
  • 3. MBA Programme CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN SIBER School of Management 3
  • 4. MBA Programme CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Any successful business owner is constantly evaluating the performance of his/her company, comparing it with the company’s historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of company’s effectiveness, however need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets. Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analyst implement plans that helps to improve profitability, liquidity, financial structure, reordering, leverage and interest coverage. Although ratios reports are mostly on past performances, they can be predictive too, and provide lead indications of potential problem areas. Ratio Analysis enables the business owner/manager to spot trends in a business and to compare its performance and condition with the average performance of similar businesses. Therefore, researcher has selected the topic for study relating to Ratio Analysis. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:- The present study is carried out in GHATGE PATIL INDUSTRIES LTD. (KOLHAPUR). The focus of the study was related to Ratio Analysis. The Balance Sheet and Income Statement are essential, but they are only the starting point for successful financial management. Financial Ratio Analysis and Financial Statement to analysis is related to the success, failure, financial trends and progress of company. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:- The present study has been undertaken with the following objectives. • To study the previous Five years Balance Sheet and Financial Statements of company. SIBER School of Management 4
  • 5. MBA Programme • To make comparative analysis of company’s Financial Statements over a certain period of time. • To compare ratios from various fiscal periods of the company, inquire about the types of accounting policies used. • To suggest suitable policy measures, whenever necessary. • To study Financial Trends, Financial position and earning capacity of GHATGE PATIL INDUSTRIES LTD. (KOLHAPUR). METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY:- To attain certain set of objective regarding study of ratio analysis, the researcher has taken into consideration various ratios for analyzing the financial performance of the GHATGE PATIL INDUSTRIES LTD. (KOLHAPUR). The following are the ratios used: CLASSIFICATION OF RATIOS I. LIQUIDITY RATIO: a) Working Capital. b) Current Ratio. c) Quick Ratio. • Turnover Ratios: a) Inventory Turnover Ratio b) Debtors Turnover Ratio c) Creditors Turnover Ratio d) Working Capital Turnover Ratio e) Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio f) Total Asset Turnover Ratio II. CAPITAL STRUCTURE RATIOS 1. Leverage Ratios a) Equity Ratio b) Debt to Equity Ratio c) Debt to Total Assets Ratio d) Proprietary Ratio SIBER School of Management 5
  • 6. MBA Programme 2. Coverage Ratio a) Interest Coverage Ratio III. PROFITABILITY RATIOS: 1. Related to the Sales A. Profit Margin Ratio a) Gross Profit Ratios. b) Net Profit Ratios. A. Expenses Ratios c) Cost of Goods Sold Ratio d) Return on Capital Employed Ratio e) Return on Shareholders Equity Ratio f) Earning Per share Ratio DATA COLLECTION: The data have been collected at the following two levels. 1) Primary Data 2) Secondary Data. 1) Primary Data: - The Study of Ratio Analysis deals with various aspects related to financial Ratio Analysis. It is a widely used tool to financial analysis. Researcher collected the primary data through the following sources. a) Personal Discussion: In this source of data collection researcher has discussed with account department managers and employees. The direct conversation with company management is also giving primary information. b) Observation: The researcher has observed the actual work of the company related to the financial statements and got major information about different policies of the company. SIBER School of Management 6
  • 7. MBA Programme 2) Secondary data: The secondary data on the other hand are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been analyzed through the statistical process. This constituted the major part of the study. The various sources, which were referred, are as follows: a) Published Annual Reports. b) Internet c) Reference Books d) Periodicals e) Journals and f) News Papers etc SCOPE OF THE STUDY: - The study of Ratio Analysis and interpretation of financial statements covers the finance department area of GHATGE PATIL INDUSTRIES Ltd, Kolhapur. The time period covered to study this topic is from 2003-04 to 2007-08. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: - • Researcher could not refer some of the financial documents as they were of confidential in nature from the company point of view. • Study is limited to only five years i.e. 2003-04 to 2007-08. • Study is limited to Ghatge Patil Industries only. SIBER School of Management 7
  • 8. MBA Programme CHAPTER II COMPANY PROFILE SIBER School of Management 8
  • 9. MBA Programme CHAPTER: II COMPANY PROFILE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY 1. HISTORY: Mr. J.B.Patil and Mr. V.M.Ghatage found Ghatge Patil Industries in 1960 as an industrial unit with modest beginning. It was started with a small foundry and machine shop to cater to the needs of the casting for Automobile and Tractor industry and for the needs of agricultural equipment’s, marine gearboxes etc. Mr. Patil and Mr. Ghatage got assistance from noted industrialists Mr. S.L.Kirloskar and Mr. Gujar. The authorized capital of the firm was Rs.25 lakhs. Commercial production first commenced in 1961 with the employment of 12 workers. The only customer of the company was Kirloskar Group. The company supplied gray-iron components to Kirloskar Brothers Ltd. To be used in the production of pumps and tolls. The turnover achieved in the first phase, completed in the year 1960-61 was Rs. 36,757. Over the past three decades, the company has grown to be one of the largest industrial units in Kolhapur district, with fully automated foundry and well equipped production unit with precision and sophisticated machines. A pool of talented and qualified professionals drawn from various parts of the country has been groomed with necessary technical and managerial competence. High standards of quality have been set up right from the beginning which has been appreciated by companies valued SIBER School of Management 9
  • 10. MBA Programme customers. In 1996, Bureau Verties Quality international (BVAI of U.K. certified the company) as ISO 9001 and 9002 COMPANY PROFILE: Name : Ghatage Patil Industries Ltd. Kolhapur. Location : At Post: Uchgaon, Dist: Kolhapur Area : 93384 sq meters Built Up Area : 32590sq. meters Date of Commencement : July 21, 1960 Present Annual Turnover : Rs. 177 Crores (avg.) Ghatage Patil Industries is very well known and established company in western Maharashtra. 2. HUMAN RESOURCE / MANPOWER STRENGTH: • At the top management level there are three dignitaries, namely vice president, associate vice president, and senior manager. • At the middle level management there are six dignitaries, namely deputy manager, assistant manager, senior superintendent, junior superintendent, and senior engineer/senior officer. • At the lower level management, there are six dignitaries, namely engineer/officer, junior engineer/junior officer, supervisor SIBER School of Management 10
  • 11. MBA Programme I/technician I, supervisor I / technician I, supervisor II / technician II, supervisor III/ technician III, and supervisor IV. And rests are workers. There are all together 810 workers. In GPI all together there are 1146 employees. There is no qualified Company Secretary in GPI hence the control over the various returns as required by the Companies Act is not streamlined. 3. A brief look at the Company’s History. 1960 Mr. J.B.Patil and Mr.V.M.Ghatage established the company as a partnership firm with a machine shop for jobbing work. 1962 Small foundry unit was established with hand machine molding facilities. 1966 Workshop enlarged to manufacture clutches and powers take off in technical collaboration with Twin Disc – U.S.A. 1967 Manufacture of Marine Gearboxes in collaboration with M/S Parsons – U.K. 1971 Automatic power take off assemblies in collaboration with M/S Dana Corporation – U.S.A. 1978 • Development of earthmoving equipment assemblies of Komatsu, Japan and Dressers U.S.A., licensed for manufacture by Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. Such as Torque Converters, steering, clutches, main clutches, break assembles etc. • Pneumatic clutches and breaks in collaboration with M/S Bradfield – Italy SIBER School of Management 11
  • 12. MBA Programme • Electro magnetic clutches and break assembly’s collaboration with M/S ZF – Germany. • Export of PTO’s main clutches etc to Kuwait, Mexico, Indonesia, Iran etc. 1979 S.G. Iron Converters installed in collaboration with George Fischer +GF+Switzerland 1980 Foundry was modernized with installation of a fully automatic High Pressure Molding Line supplied by M/S Kunkel Wagner. 1986 Achieved 1000 Tons/month production and ancillary machine shop for matching castings was established. 1987 Small Aluminum Foundry for production of intricate castings was established. 1992 High Pressure Gate and Globe Valves manufactured for American Petroleum Industries. 1995 Phase – wise expansion program was started. 1996 1400 Tons/month production achieved and installation of HMC + Vertical Turret Lathe at Plant V and ISO 9001, 9002 certification from BVRI, U.K. 1997 2400 Tone/month production was achieved. 1998 Medium Frequency Induction Furnace in place of main Frequency Furnace. 2000 Shot Blasting machine (VP18) to increase capacity 2001 Cold box core making machine 80 liters was installed. 2001 HMC-4, VMC-1, VTL – 1, was installed. 4. PRESENT STATUS OF THE CAPACITY SIBER School of Management 12
  • 13. MBA Programme GPI foundry has production capacity of 2500 tons/month. Fully automated Molding Line and sand plant warm blast cupolas, medium frequency converter and fully fledged resting and quality control equipment’s, together have enabled the foundry in achieving the status of one of the largest jobbing foundries in the country. Well equipped machine shop; CNC machine centers, CNC turning centers and various testing units constitute the strength of the products like forque converters, break boosters, fluid couplings, marine gearboxes etc. PRODUCT LICENCING ARRANGEMENT WITH A. Mechanical Clutches and Power take off Twin Disc Inc. U.S.A. [Agreement expired ] B. Automotive PTO Units Dana Corporation U.S.A. [Agreement expired] C. Marine Gear Boxes Parsons Engineering Company, U.K. [Agreement expired] D. Fluid Couplings Trans Fluid Srl, Italy [Agreement expired] E. Electromagnetic Clutches & Breaks Zahnrad Fabric Friendrichshafen Germany. F. Industrial Valves - F. Mechanical / Hydraulic transmission, Break System. Supplied to Bharat Earth Movers as per design of M/S Komatsu, Japan H. High Pressure Gate Under API 6A certification. SIBER School of Management 13
  • 14. MBA Programme Valves 5. EQUIPMENTS IN PRODUCTS DIVISION • JIG Boring Machine • CNC Lathes • Induction Harding Machine • Gear Cutting Machine • Horizontal Machining Center • Broaching Machine • Heat treatment Equipment 6. ESTEEMED CUSTOMERS FOR PRODUCT DIVISION I .Overseas Market • AAREY Products Co. USA. • Funk, USA • UIS System (M) SDN BHD • MEGA Grouplnc. USA • Trras Fuid Srl, Italy II. Domestic Market. • Ashok Leyland Ltd. • Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. • Consolidate Pneumatic (India) Ltd. • HMT Ltd. • INGERSOLL RAND (IND) Ltd. • ONGC SIBER School of Management 14
  • 15. MBA Programme • Oil India Ltd. 7. THE QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY • To provide products and services to achieve increasing level of customer satisfaction. • To earn and enhance reputation as leader in line of product. 8. VISION OF THE COMPANY India is country with an ever-increasing marketing potential for automobiles, tractors and earth moving equipment’s, marine engines among other. Kolhapur has one of the largest networks of ancillary industries in Maharashtra. GPI is one of the biggest units among them. Looking into the future, the company sees as increasing demand for its line products. In view of such growth potential, the company has planned to enhance its capacity in foundry and product division for increases qualitative and quantitative demand. The expansion will. 1. Production of more intrinsic and value added castings. 2. Growing export requirements 3. Additional sophisticated machines for higher production and quality reliability. Simultaneously latest quality control and testing equipment will be added for increasing quality demands. SIBER School of Management 15
  • 16. MBA Programme The company foresees great opportunities in the area of construction equipment’s and earth moving equipment. It plans to set up facilities for manufacture of such equipment’s in coming years. For the realization of these objectives, the company is taking steps in Human Resource Planning and Development programs to generate a dedicated and talented human energy which will enable the organization to achieve its desired level in all fronts of its activities and for this purpose various welfare and social services are provided by GPI to its employees. 8. Turnover of the Company since 1993-94 YEAR RUPEES (crores ) 1993-1994 44.99 1994-1995 56.84 1995-1996 74.66 1996-1997 84.02 1997-1998 60.58 1998-1999 52.88 1999-2000 64.27 2000-2001 94.68 2001-2002 35.41 2002-2003 69.30 2003-2004 110.20 2004-2005 177.07 CHAPTER III SIBER School of Management 16
  • 17. MBA Programme CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND CHAPTER: III CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND Introduction:- Fundamental Analysis has a very broad scope. One aspect looks at the general (qualitative) factors of a company. The other side considers tangible and measurable factors (quantities). This means crunching and analyzing numbers from the financial statements. If used in conjunction with other methods, quantitative analysis can produce excellent results. SIBER School of Management 17
  • 18. MBA Programme Balance sheet gives the financial position on a particular date in terms of the structure of the assets, liabilities and owners equity and so on and the profit and loss account shows the results of the operation during a certain period of time in terms of the revenues obtained and the cost incurred during the year. Thus the financial statements provide a summarized view of the financial position and operations of a firm. Therefore, much can be learnt about a firm from a careful examination of its financial statements is, thus an important aid to financial analysis. The focus of financial analysis is on Key figures in the financial statements and the significant relationship that exist between them. The analysis of financial statement is a process of evaluating the relationship between component parts of financial statements to obtain a better understanding of the company’s position and performance. Ratio analysis is the most widely used technique of financial statement analysis. The Balance Sheet and the Income Statement are essential, but they are only the Income statement are essential, but they are only the starting point for successful financial management. Ratio analysis enables the business manager to spot trends in a company and to compare its performance of similar company. Ratio analysis isn’t just comparing different numbers from the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. It’s comparing the number Against previous years, others companies, the industry, or even the economy in general. Ratios look at the relationships between individual values and relate them to how a company has performed in the past and might perform in future. Various parties interested in them devote the purpose of this chapter to an in –depth analysis of financial statements and its use for decision-making. The focus of the chapter is on the ratio analysis as the most widely used technique of financial statement analysis. FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS: SIBER School of Management 18
  • 19. MBA Programme Financial ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios, which are derived from the information in a company’s financial statements. Financial ratios are calculated from one or more pieces of information from a company’s financial statement. For example, the “Gross Margin” is the gross profit from operations divided from the total assets or revenues of accompany, expressed in percentage terms. In isolation, a financial ratio is a useless piece of information. In context, however a financial ratio can give a financial analyst an excellent picture of a company’s situation and the trends that are developing. Ratio Analysis is a widely used tool of financial analysis. It can be used to compare the risk and return relationships of firms of different sizes. It is defined as a systematic use of ratio to interpret the financial statements so that the strengths and weaknesses of a firm as well as its historical performance and current financial condition can be determined. Ratio Analysis enables analyst to draw conclusion regarding financial operations. The use of ratios as a tool of financial analysis, involves their comparison, for a single ratio, like absolute figures, fails to reveal the true position. If we also know that the historical trends are upwards, for example it has been steadily for the last few years, and this would also been favorable sign that management is implementing effective business policies and strategies. Financial Ratio Analysis groups the ratios in the categories, which tell us about different facets of a company’s finance and operations. Some of the categories of ratios: - Leverage Ratios: - Which show the extent that debt is used in a company’s capital structure Liquidity Ratios: - Which gave a picture of a company’s financial situation or solvency. Operational Ratios: - Which use turnover measures to show how efficient a company is in its operations and use of assets. Profitability Ratios: - Which use margin analysis and show the return on sales and capital employed. Solvency Ratios: - Which give a picture of a company’s ability to generate cash flow and pay its financial obligations. SIBER School of Management 19
  • 20. MBA Programme Using historical data independent of fundamental changes in company’s situation and prospectus would predict very little about future trends. For example, the historical ratios of accompany that has undergone a merger and had a substantive change in its technology and market position would tell very little about the prospects for this company. Credit analyst, those interpreting the financial ratios from the prospects of a lender, focus on the “downside” risk since they gain none of the upside from an improvement in operations. They pay great attention to liquidity and leverage ratios to ascertain a company’s financial risk. Equity analysts look more to the operational and profitability ratios, to determine the future profits that will accrue to the shareholders. SIBER School of Management 20
  • 21. MBA Programme A) LIQUIDITY RATIOS:- The liquidity ratio measures the ability of a firm to meet its short-term (1 year) obligations and reflect the short-term financial strength of a firm. While liquidity ratios are most helpful for short-term creditors /suppliers and bankers, they are also important to financial managers who must meets obligations to suppliers of credit and various government agencies. A complete liquidity ratio analysis can help uncover weakness in the financial position of your business. 1) Current Ratio: - Current ratio is very popular liquidity ratio. It is calculated by dividing current assets by current liability. Current Assets Current Ratio = Current Liabilities SIBER School of Management 21 LIQUIDITY RATIOS: • Working capital • Current Ratio • Quick Ratio Turnover Ratios: • Inventory Turnover • Debtors Turnover Ratio • Creditors Turnover Ratio • Working Capital Turnover Ratio • Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio • Total Asset Turnover Ratio PROFITABILITY RATIOS: • Related to the Sales • Profit Margin Ratio • Gross Profit Ratios. • Net Profit Ratios b) Expenses Ratios: • Cost of Goods Sold Ratio • Return on Capital Employed Ratio • Return on Shareholders Equity Ratio • Earning Per share Ratio CAPITAL STRUCTURE RATIOS: • Leverage Ratios • Equity Ratio • Debt to Equity Ratio • Debt to Total Assets Ratio • Proprietary Ratio • Coverage Ratio: • Interest Coverage Ratio TYPES OF RATIOS
  • 22. MBA Programme The current ratio will disclosed balance sheet changes that net working capital not. The current ratio reveals business’s ability to meet its current obligations. Generally the acceptable current ratio is 2:1. The firm with the higher current ratio has better liquidity/short term solvency. 2) Quick/Acid Test Ratio:- The acid test ratio is the ratio between quick current assets current liability. It is defined as: Quick Assets Acid Test Ratio= Current Liabilities Also known as the “acid test,” this ratio specifies whether current assets that could be quickly converted into cash are sufficient to cover current liabilities. Generally an acid test ratio of 1:1 is considered satisfactory as a firm can easily meet all current claims. • Turnover Ratios: - The liquidity ratios discussed so far related to the liquidity firm as a whole. Another way of examining the liquidity is to determine how quickly certain current assets are converted in to cash. The ratios to measure these are referred to as turnover ratios: 1) Inventory turnover ratios: - The ratio indicates the number of times inventory is replaced during the year. The inventory turnover ratio measures how fast stock is sold. It is defined as: COST OF GOODS SOLD = AVERAGE INVENTORY It is a test of efficient inventory management. A high ratio implies a good inventory management. A very low level of inventory has serious implications. SIBER School of Management 22
  • 23. MBA Programme 2) Debtors Turnover Ratio:- It is determined by dividing the net credit sales by average debtors outstanding during the year. NET CREDIT SALES = AVERAGE DEBTORS The ratio measures how rapidly receivables are collected. A high ratio is indicative of shorter time lag between credit sales and cash collection. A low ratio shows that debts are not being collected rapidly. 2) Creditors turnover ratio : It is a ratio between net credit purchases and the average amount of creditors outstanding during the year. NET CRADIT PURCHASES = AVERAGE CREDITORS Net credit Purchases= Gross credit purchases less returns to suppliers. Average Creditors= Average of creditors (including bills payable) Outstanding at the beginning and the end of the year. A low turnover ratio reflects liberal credit granted by suppliers, while a high ratio shows that accounts are to be settled rapidly. The creditors turnover ratio is an important tool of analysis as affirm can reduce its requirement of current asset by replying on current credit. 4) Working capital turnover ratio: - Working capital turnover is another important ratio in turnover ratio. It is defined as under: NET SALES = WORKING CAPITAL SIBER School of Management 23
  • 24. MBA Programme This ratio shows net sales in relation to working capital. Greater the ratio better will be the efficiency. 5) Fixed asset Turnover Ratio: - This ratio measures the net sales per rupee of investment in fixed assets. It is defined as, NET SALES = FIXED ASSETS This ratio shows the net sales in relation to fixed assets. Greater the ratio better will be the efficiency. This ratio is supposed to measure the efficiency with which fixed assets are employed. A high ratio indicates a high degree of efficiency in assets utilization. 6) Total Assets Turnover Ratio: - The total assets turnover ratio measures the efficiency of a firm in managing and utilizing its assets. It is defined as: NET SALES = TOTAL ASETS This ratio shows net sales in relation to total assets. Greater the ratio higher will be the efficiency. B) CAPITAL STRUCTURE LEVERAGE RATIOS: - This group of ratios calculates the proportionate contributions of owners and creditors to a business, sometimes a point of connection between the two parties. Creditors like owners to participate to secure their margin of safety, while management enjoys the greater opportunities for risk shifting and multiplying return on equity that debt offers. • Leverage Ratios: - The second category of financial ratios is leverage or capital structure ratios. The long-term solvency of a company can be examined by using leverage or capital structure ratios. SIBER School of Management 24
  • 25. MBA Programme 1) Equity Ratios: - The ratio measures the relationship between common stockholders’ equity to total capital of the company. COMMON STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY = TOTAL CAPITAL EMPLOYED The ratio of common stockholders equity to total capital of business shows how much of the total capitalization actually comes from the owners. 2) Debt to Equity Ratio: - The ratio indicates the long-term solvency position of a company. The relationship between borrowed funds and shareholders funds is a popular measure of the long-term financial position of a company. LONG TERM DEBTS (Outsiders funds) = SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY The ratio shows Long-term debts (outsider’s funds) divided by shareholders equity. Shareholders equity consists of equity, preference share capital, reserves and surplus, past accumulated losses and deferred expenditure is excluded from shareholders equity. A high here means the less protection for the creditors. 2) Proprietary Ratio: - The ratio indicates the proportion of total assets financed by owners. It is defined as under SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS (Equity) = TOTAL ASSETS Greater the ratio better will be the financial position good and lower the ratio lower will be the financial position and increase in the liabilities. SIBER School of Management 25
  • 26. MBA Programme Profitability Ratio: - • Profit Margin Ratio: - The profit margin ratio measures the relationship between profit and sales. Here profit may be gross or net. 1) Gross Profit Ratio: This ratio is percentage of sales left subtracting the cost of goods sold from net sales. It is also known as gross profit margin ratio GROSS PROFIT = X 100 NET SALES Gross Profit = Sales – Cost of Goods Sold It is calculated by dividing gross profit by net sales. A high ratio of gross profit implies that the cost of production is low and vice versa. A high ratio reduces the profit earning capacity. 2) Net Profit Ratio: - This ratio provides a primary appraisal of net profits related to investment. Net Profit is the percentage of sales left subtracting the cost of goods sold and all expenses, except income tax from net sales. NET PROFIT (EAT) = X 100 NET SALES This ratio shows the net profit in relation to sales and shows profit earning capacity or net margin. Greater the ratio better will be the profit earning capacity and lower this ratio means decreasing the profit earning capacity. SIBER School of Management 26
  • 27. MBA Programme • Expenses Ratio: - This is another type of profitability ratio related to sales. It computed by dividing expenses by net sales. a) Cost of Goods Sold: - It is defined as: COST OF GOODS SOLD = X 100 NET SALES The cost of goods sold ratio shows that percentage shares of sale is consumed by cost of goods sold. The low ratio is favorable and high ratio is unfavorable. b) Operating Expenses Ratio: - This ratio is defined as under: ADMINISTRATIVE +SELLING EXPENSES = X 100 NET SALES This ratio shows the administration expenses and selling expenses in relation to net sales and this ratio is calculated in percentage. Lower the ratio better will be the operating efficiency and greater the ratio lower will be the efficiency. c) Profitability Ratios related to Investment: - 1) Return on Total Assets: - The ratio may also be called profit-to-asset ratio. It is defined as under: NET PROFIT (EAT) = X 100 TOTAL ASSETS This ratio shows the net profit (EAT) in relation to total assets of the company. This ratio indicates the profit earning capacity of assets in SIBER School of Management 27
  • 28. MBA Programme company. High percentage of return on assets shows the efficient utilization of assets and the efficiency of the management. 2) Return on Capital Employed: - Return on capital employed is similar to the Return on Asset expect in one respect. Here the profits are related to the total capital employed. It is defined as: NET PROFIT (EAT) = X 100 CAPITAL EMPLOYED The ratio measured the relationship between net profit (EAT) and capital employed. The higher the ratio, the more efficient is the use of capital employed. 3) Return on Shareholders Equity: - This ratio reveals how the firm has utilized profitably the owner’s funds. It is defined as under: NET PROFIT after Tax and Interest = X 100 SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS According to this ratio profitability is measured by dividing the net profit after tax and interest by shareholders funds. This ratio indicates the net profit or earning capacity and equity funds invested in the firm. 4) Earning Per Share: - Earning per share is the most widely used ratio. Earning per share is important as a measure of profitability of a firm from the owner’s point of view. NET PROFIT available to equity shareholders (EAT) = NUMBER OF EQUITY SIBER School of Management 28
  • 29. MBA Programme It is calculated by dividing the profits available to the equity shareholders (EAT) by number of equity shares. It measures the profit available to the equity shareholder on a per share basis that is the amount that they can get on every share held. LIMITATIONS OF FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS: - 1. Accounting Information: - • Different Accounting Policies: - The choices of accounting policies may distort inter company comparisons. E.g. different companies use different accounting policies. • Creative Accounting: - The businesses apply creative accounting in trying to show the better financial performance or position, which can be misleading to the users of financial accounting. 2. Information Problems: - • Ratios Are Not Definite Measures: - Ratios are to be interpreted carefully. They can provide clues to the company’s performance or financial situation. But on their own, they can show whether performance is good or bad. Ratios require some quantitative information for an informed analysis to be made. • Outdated Information in Financial Statements: - The figures in the set of accounts are likely to be at least several months out of date, and so might not give proper indication of the company’s current financial position • Historical Cost Not Suitable For Decision Making: IASB conceptual framework recommends business to use historical cost of accounting. W here historical cost convention is used, asset valuations is balance sheet could be misleading. Ratios based this on information will not be very useful for decision-making. SIBER School of Management 29
  • 30. MBA Programme • Financial Ratio Analysis: - Ratios are based on financial statements, which are summaries of the accounting records. Through the summarization some information may leave out which could have been of relevance to the users of accounts. The ratios are based on the summarized year-end information, which may not be a true reflection of the overall years result. • Interpretation of the ratio It is difficult to generalize about whether a particular ratio is ‘good’ or ‘bad’. For example a high current ratio may indicate a strong liquidity position, which is good or excessive cash, which is bad. Similarly Non current assets turnover ratio may denote either a firm that uses its assets efficiently or one that is under capitalized and cannot afford to buy enough assets. 4. Comparison of performance over time: - • Price changes: - Inflation renders comparisons of results over time misleading, as financial figures will not be within the same levels of purchasing power. Changes in results over time may show as if the enterprise has improved its performance and position when in fact after adjusting for inflationary changes it will show the different picture. • Technology changes: - While comparing performance over time, there is need to consider the changes in technology. The movement in performance should be in line with the changes in technology. For ratios to be more meaningful the enterprise should compare its results with another of the same level of technology, as this will be a good basis measurement of efficiency. • Changes in Accounting policy: - Changes in accounting policy may affect the comparison of results between different accounting years as misleading. The problem with this situation is that the directors may be able to manipulate the results through the changes in accounting policy. This would be done to avoid the effects of an old accounting policy or gain the effects of a new one. It is likely to be done in a sensitive period, perhaps when the business profit is low. SIBER School of Management 30
  • 31. MBA Programme • Changes in Accounting standard: - Accounting standards offers standard way of recognizing, measuring and presenting financial transaction. Any change in standard will affect the reporting of an enterprise and its comparison of results over a number of years. 4. Inter firm comparison:- • Different financial and business risk profile: - No two companies are the same, even when they are competitors in the same industry or market. Using ratios to compare one company with another could provide misleading information. One company may be able to obtain bank loans at reduced rates and may show high gearing levels while as another may not be successful in obtaining cheap rates and it may show that it is operating at low gearing level • Different capital structure and size: - Companies may have different capital structures and to make comparison of when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company it may not be a good analysis. • Impact on Government Influence: Selective applications of government incentives to various companies may also distort inter company comparison. SIBER School of Management 31
  • 32. MBA Programme CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS SIBER School of Management 32
  • 33. MBA Programme CHAPTER: IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: 1. Liquidity ratios: - a). Current Ratio: - Current Ratio is also known as working capital ratio. This expresses the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities. Following current ratio is in study period i.e. 2003-04 to 2007-08. = Current Assets Current Liabilities TABLE No 4.1: - Statement showing current ratio analysis (In ‘000) Years Current Assets Current Liabilities Ratios 2003-04 535,880.1 190,466.0 2.81 2004-05 715,135.1 309,414.6 2.31 2005-06 895,498.9 363,749.9 2.46 2006-07 1,248,894.7 693,813.5 1.95 2007-08 1,630,857.3 863,731.3 1.89 GRAPH No. 4.1 Graphical Representation of Current Ratio 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 SIBER School of Management 33
  • 34. MBA Programme INTERPRETATION: - From the above graph and calculation, it is found that the current ratio of Ghatge Patil Industries is fluctuating. For the years 2003-04 to 2005-06 it is satisfactory as per standard norm i.e. 2:1 because in these years the ratio has given the above the standard norm. But after 2005-06 it is decreasing. b) QUICK RATIO: - This ratio measures the liquidity and emphasis on the ability of immediate conversion of assets into cash. Following table shows quick ratio in study period 2003-04 to 2007-08. QUICK ASSETS = CURRENT LIABILITY TABLE NO. 4.2 Statement showing the Quick Ratio Analysis. (In ‘000) YEARS QUICK ASSETS CURRENT LIABILITY RATIOS (In times) 2003-04 401537.9 190446 2.10 2004-05 513913.4 780515.8 1.66 2005-06 694261.8 815759.6 1.90 2006-07 951728.9 851003.4 1.48 2007-08 1191088 886247.1 1.38 GRAPH NO 4.2 Graphical Representation of Quick Ratio 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 34
  • 35. MBA Programme The acid test ratio of GPI is nearly satisfactory as per standard norm 1:1 i.e. which is desirable. It means GPI could meet its some short-term obligations out of its current assets. TURNOVER RATIOS: - a) Debtor’s turnover Ratio:- The liquidity position of a company depends upon the quality debtors to a great extent. This ratio is calculated as under. NET SALES = DEBTORS TABLE NO. 4.3 Statement showing the Debtors Turnover Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET SALES DEBTORS RATIOS(In times) 2003-04 1102002.9 257443.8 4.28 2004-05 1770721.3 322166.4 5.49 2005-06 1772911.2 437305.7 4.05 2006-07 2214747.9 595076.9 3.72 2007-08 2695932.3 769278.2 3.50 GRAPH4.3 Graphical Representation of Debtors Turnover Ratio 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 35
  • 36. MBA Programme The Debtor’s turnover Ratio of GPI implies that the management is efficient to manage its debtors efficiently. The debtors are more liquid. In the years 2004-05 it shows the highest ratio i.e. 5.49. b) WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO: - This ratio shows net sales in relation to working capital. Greater the ratio better will be the efficiency. This ratio is calculated as under. NET SALES = WORKING CAPITAL TABLE NO 4.4 Statement showing the Working Capital Turnover Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET SALES WORKING CAPITAL RATIO (In times) 2003-04 1,102,002.9 345,414.1 0.29 2004-05 1,770,721.3 405,720.4 0.42 2005-06 1,772,911.2 531,749 0.27 2006-07 2,214,747.9 609,081.3 0.27 2007-08 2,695,932.3 767,126 0.12 GRAPH NO 4.4 Graphical Representation of Working Capital Turnover Ratio 0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,45 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 36
  • 37. MBA Programme Working capital turnover ratio indicates the velocity of the utilization of net working capital. This indicates the number of times the working capital is turned over in the course of a year. The high ratio indicates the efficiency in utilization of working capital. In the year 2004-05 ratio is highest and in year 2007-08 it is lowest one. c) FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO: - This ratio measures net sales per rupee of investment in fixed asset. The high ratio indicates efficiency in assets utilization. This ratio is calculated as under. NET SALES = FIXED ASSETS TABLE NO 4.5 Statement showing the Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET SALES FIXED ASSETS RATIOS (In times) 2003-04 1,102,002.9 203,312.5 5.420 2004-05 1,770,721.3 289,006.4 6.127 2005-06 1,772,911.2 327,184.1 5.419 2006-07 2,214,747.9 473,048 4.682 2007-08 2,695,932.3 576,473.7 4.677 GRAPH 4.5 Graphical Representation of Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 37
  • 38. MBA Programme The fixed asset turnover ratio of GPI is high it indicates that the one rupee of investment in fixed is able to generate five rupees for year 2003-04 likewise six, five, four, four for the next concerned years. d) TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO: - The total assets turnover ratio measures the efficiency of firms in managing and utilization of its assets. This ratio is calculated as under. COST OF GOODS SOLD = TOTAL ASSETS TABLE NO 4.6 Statement showing the Total Assets Turnover Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS COST OF GOODS SOLD TOTAL ASSETS RATIOS (In times) 2003-04 958,157.9 634,591.1 1.51 2004-05 155,2950 711,429.4 2.18 2005-06 1,571,907.5 884,432.7 1.78 2006-07 1,984,081.9 1,128,549.8 1.76 2007-08 2,464,800.5 1,381,155 1.78 RAPH NO 4.6 Graphical Representation of Total Assets Turnover Ratio 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 38
  • 39. MBA Programme From the above graph and calculation, it is found that the total assets turnover ratio of GPI is satisfactory. The company is efficient to manage and utilize its assets. IV) CAPITAL STRUCTURE RATIOS a) Debt to Equity Ratio: This ratio measures the financial strength of a company for a long period of a time. This ratio is calculated as under. OUTSIDERS FUNDS = SHARE HOLDERS FUNDS TABLE 4.7 Statement showing the Debt to Equity Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS OUTSIDERS FUNDS SHARE HOLDERS FUNDS RATIOS 2003-04 501,083.2 129,250.2 3.88 2004-05 499,349.2 199,452.2 2.50 2005-06 626,564.9 255,133 2.46 2006-07 799,618.8 328,246.6 2.44 2007-08 1,008,417 355,526.7 2.84 GRAPH 4.7 Graphical Representation of Debt to Equity Ratio 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 East INTERPRETATION: - SIBER School of Management 39
  • 40. MBA Programme After considering the above table and graph, it is noted that total debt (outsider’s funds) are more than the shareholders funds. So every year ratio is high. In the year 2003-04 the ratio is high i.e. 3.88 further its shows the decreasing ratio comparatively. b) Proprietary Ratio: - This ratio establishes relationship between shareholders funds to total assets of firm. This is important ratio to determining long term solvency position of a firm. This ratio is calculated as under SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS = X 100 TOTAL ASSETS TABLE NO 4.8 Statement showing the Proprietary Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS SHAREHOLDERS FUNDS TOTAL ASSETS RATIOS ( IN % ) 2003-04 129,250.2 634,591.1 20.36 2004-05 199,452.2 711,429.4 28.03 2005-06 255,133 884,432.7 28.85 2006-07 328,246.6 1,128,549.8 29.08 2007-08 355,526.7 1,381,155 25.74 GRAPH NO 4.8 Graphical Representation of Proprietary Ratio 0,00% 5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00% 25,00% 30,00% 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-07 INTERPRETATION: - The company is having good long term solvency position. The ratio is slightly fluctuating. It shows that the share of shareholders in total capital of company. III.PROFITABILITY RATIO: - SIBER School of Management 40
  • 41. MBA Programme 1. Related to the sales: A. Profit Margin Ratios: a) Gross Profit Ratio: This ratio shows the gross profit percentage with the sales and this calculated as under GROSS PROFIT = X 100 NET SALES TABLE NO 4.9 Statement showing the Gross Profit Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS GROSS PROFIT NET SALES RATIOS 2003-04 143,845.1 1,102,002.9 13.05% 2004-05 217,771.3 1,770,721.3 12.29% 2005-06 201,003.7 1,772,911.2 11.34% 2006-07 230,666.0 2,214,747.9 10.41% 2007-08 231131.8 2,695,932.3 8.57% GRAPH NO 4.9 Graphical Representation of Gross Profit Ratio 0,00% 2,00% 4,00% 6,00% 8,00% 10,00% 12,00% 14,00% 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - The gross profit indicates the extent to which the selling price of goods per unit may decline without resulting in losses on operation of firm. It reflects the efficiency with which a firm produces its products. There is no standard norm for gross profits. A low gross profit ratio generally indicates high cost of goods sold due to unfavorable purchasing policies. For the years taken here for the study i.e. 2003-04 to 2007-08 the ratio is constantly decreasing. SIBER School of Management 41
  • 42. MBA Programme b) Net Profit Ratio: The Net Profit ratio indicates the efficiency of the management in manufacturing, selling, administrative and other activities of the firm. This ratio is overall measure of firm’s profitability. This is calculated as under. Net Profit after tax = X 100 Net Sales TABLE NO 4.10 Statement showing the Net Profit Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET PROFIT NET SALES RATIOS 2003-04 38098.5 1,102,002.9 3.46% 2004-05 84476.2 1,770,721.3 4.77% 2005-06 69955 1,772,911.2 3.95% 2006-07 89959.7 2,214,747.9 4.06% 2007-08 41926.1 2,695,932.3 1.56% GRAPH NO 4.10 Graphical Representation of Net Profit Ratio 0 1 2 3 4 5 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - The Net Profit is obtained after deducting tax. Higher the ratio better is the profitability. But, while interpreting the ratio, it must be kept in mind that the performance of the profit must also be seen with relation to investment of capital of firm and not only relation with sales. The Net Profit ratio of Company for years 2003-04 to 2006-07 is fluctuating but in year 2007-08 the ratio is decreased from 4.06 to 1.56. B. EXPENSES RATIO: - SIBER School of Management 42
  • 43. MBA Programme A) Cost of Goods Sold Ratio: - The ratio shows the cost of goods sold in relation with net sales, calculated as below. COST OF GOODS SOLD = X 100 NET SALES TABLE 4.11 Statement showing the Cost of Goods Sold Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS COST OF GOODS SOLD NET SALES RATIO 2003-04 958,157.9 1,102,002.9 86.95% 2004-05 1,552,950 1,770,721.3 87.70% 2005-06 1,571,907.5 1,772,911.2 88.66% 2006-07 1,984,081.9 2,214,747.9 89.59% 2007-08 2,464,800.5 2,695,932.3 91.43% GRAPH 4.11 Graphical Representation of Cost of Goods Sold Ratio 84,00% 85,00% 86,00% 87,00% 88,00% 89,00% 90,00% 91,00% 92,00% 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 RATIOS INTERPRETATION: - From the above calculation and graph, it is the found that the Cost of Goods Sold Ratio is constantly increasing. For the year 2007-08 it is the highest one i.e. 91.43%. This ratio shows the relationship between costs of goods sold to net sales. Higher the ratio, lower is the profitability. B) Operating Expenses Ratio: - SIBER School of Management 43
  • 44. MBA Programme The ratio shows the operating expenses in relation with net sales, and it is calculated as below, OPERATING EXPENSES = X 100 NET SALES TABLE NO 4.12 Statement showing the Operating Expenses Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS OPERATING EXPENSES NET SALES RATIO 2003-04 358,978.2 1,102,002.9 32.57% 2004-05 538,642.8 1,770,721.3 30.42% 2005-06 609,092.8 1,772,911.2 34.35% 2006-07 799,812.6 2,214,747.9 36.11% 2007-08 821,142.8 2,695,932.3 30.46% GRAPH NO 4.12 Graphical Representation of Operating Expenses Ratio 26,00% 28,00% 30,00% 32,00% 34,00% 36,00% 38,00% 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - The above graph and calculation shows that the operating expenses ratio of GPI is fluctuating. In the year 2006-07 is very high i.e. 36.11% and in year 2007-08 it was decreased from 36.1% to 30.46%. 2. RELATED TO INVESTMENT: - SIBER School of Management 44
  • 45. MBA Programme a) Return on Capital Employed Ratio: - The return on capital employed is the relationship between net profit and capital employed. This ratio is defined as under: NET PROFIT (EAT) = X 100 CAPITAL EMPLOYED TABLE NO 4.13 Statement showing the Return on Capital Employed Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET PROFIT CAPITAL EMPLOYED RATIO 2003-04 38098.5 609,942.6 6.25 2004-05 84476.2 706,754.8 11.95 2005-06 69955 879,635.1 7.95 2006-07 89959.7 1,125,952.1 7.99 2007-08 41926.1 1,378,783.6 3.04 GRAPH NO 4.13 Graphical Representation of Return on Capital Employed Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION : - The ratio measures the relationship between net profit after tax and capital employed. Higher the ratio, the more efficient is the use of capital employed. In above graph indicates the higher ratio for the year 2004-05, and lowest one for the year 2007-08. b) Return on Equity Capital: - SIBER School of Management 45
  • 46. MBA Programme This ratio reveals how the firm has utilized profitably the owner’s funds. It is defined as: NET PROFIT AFTER TAX – PREFERENCE SH. DIVIDEND = X 100 EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL (Paid up) TABLE NO 4.14 Statement showing the Return on Equity Capital (In ‘000) YEARS NET PROFIT EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL RATIO 2003-04 38098.5 129,250.2 30% 2004-05 84476.2 199,452.2 67% 2005-06 69955 255,133 56% 2006-07 89959.7 328,246.6 72% 2007-08 41926.1 355,526.7 33% GRAPH NO 4.14 Graphical Representation of Return on Equity Capital 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - The ordinary shareholders are the real owners of the company. Thus, ordinary shareholders are more interested in the profitability of the company and the performance of the company should be judged on the basis of return on equity capital. In the year 2006-07 the graph shows the highest return on equity share capital i.e. 72% but in the year 2007-08 it is decreased up to 33%. b) Earning Per Share Ratio: - SIBER School of Management 46
  • 47. MBA Programme Earning per share ratio is a good measure of profitability of a firm from the owner’s point of view. It is defined as: NET PROFIT AFTER TAX – PREFERENCE SH. DIVIDEND = NO. OF EQUITY SHARES TABLE NO 4.15 Statement showing the Earning per Share Ratio (In ‘000) YEARS NET PROFIT NO. OF EQUITY SHARES RATIO 2003-04 38098.5 12,518.5 3.04 2004-05 84476.2 12,518.5 6.75 2005-06 69955 12,518.5 5.59 2006-07 89959.7 12,518.5 7.19 2007-08 41926.1 12,518.5 3.35 GRAPH NO 4.15 Graphical Representation of Earning per Share Ratio 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 INTERPRETATION: - This ratio gives the comparative earning power of a firm. The Earning per share ratio is used to compare with ratio of other companies. It indicates whether the firm has increased its earnings or not. The above graph shoes the highest earning per share in the year 2006-07 i.e. 7.19, but in year 2007-08 it is decreased up to 3.35. SIBER School of Management 47
  • 48. MBA Programme CHAPTER V FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS SIBER School of Management 48
  • 49. MBA Programme CHAPTER V A) FINDINGS: - This chapter deals with findings and suggestions of the study. The following are the major findings and suggestions: • It is found that, the current ratio of Ghatge Patil Industries is satisfactory. For the years 2003-04 to 2005-06 it is as per standard norm i.e. 2:1 because in these years the ratio has given the above the standard norm. • It is noted that, in Debt to equity ratio, total debt (outsider’s funds) are more than the shareholders funds. So every year ratio is high whereas the lower ratio is the sign of the liquidity of the firm. In the year 2003- 04 the ratio is high i.e. 3.88 further its shows the decreasing ratio comparatively. • For the years taken here for the study i.e. 2003-04 to 2007-08 the gross profit ratio of Ghatge Patil Industries is declining constantly, in the years 2003-04 to 2006-07 there was slight decline but in 2007-08 its decline up to 8.57% from 10.41%. It shows the oscillation in the sales as well as expenses. • The Net Profit ratio of Company for years 2003-04 to 2006-07 is fluctuating but in year 2007-08 the ratio is decreased from 4.06% to 1.56%. • It is the found that the Cost of Goods Sold Ratio is constantly increasing. For the year 2007-08 it is the highest one i.e. 91.43% and in the year 2003-04 the ratio was lowest one i.e. 86.95%. • The earning per share ratio gives the comparative earning power of a firm. The highest earning per share ratio is in the year 2006-07 i.e. 7.19 and it decline in year 2007-08 up to 3.35. SIBER School of Management 49
  • 50. MBA Programme • B) SUGGESTIONS: I. The profit can be increased by controlling the expenses like Cost of Goods Sold, Administrative Expenses etc. II. The debt collection can be reduced further by taking extra efforts. III. Company should adopt favorable purchasing policies and extra effort should be maintained to increase the Gross Profit Ratio which would lead to increase the profitability. SIBER School of Management 50
  • 51. MBA Programme BIBLIOGRAPHY SIBER School of Management 51
  • 52. MBA Programme BOOK REFERENCES: 1) Financial Management Khan and Jain. 2) Fundamental of Financial Management by Prasanna Chandra. 3) Financial Management by P. V. Kulkarni. WEB REFERENCES: 1) www.google.com 2) www.altavista.com SIBER School of Management 52