SUMMARY/FOCUS What is Quality, Quality Planning and Quality Planning Process ? Quality gurus Contemporary Quality Concepts Framework: Project QM: ISO ,TQM, Six Sigma, DMAIC, PDCA CEO’s perspective on Six Sigma Companies Core Project Quality Concepts Project Quality Management Plan Project Quality Tools Cost of Quality (COC) Project Kickoff and Kickoff Meeting Agenda Baseline and Communication for Project Management Plan Questions References
QualityWhat is “QUALITY”?• "Quality is fitness for use" - J.M. Juran• "Quality is meeting or exceeding customer expectations at a cost that represents a value to them." - H. James Harrington• "Quality should be defined as surpassing customer needs and expectations throughout the life of the product." - Howard Gitlow and Shelley Gitlow• Layman’s definition: Make sure whatever is delivered is within the quality expectations of the organization.• “Quality is a continuously improving process where lessons learned are used to enhance future products and services in order to retain existing customer, win back lost customers and win new customers.” - PM workbook and PMP study guide.
Quality PlanningWhat is Quality Planning ?• Quality planning – “the process of identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them.” PMBOK® Guide• Satisfy project deliverables.• Quality Planning is often performed simultaneously with other aspects of project planning.
Quality Planning Process Video • What is Quality Planning Process? Source: PMP Exam Preparation: Rev 3, Quality Planning: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhCUiiLWlwI
Quality Planning Process VideoSummary:• Quality planning process tells us what do we need for our project, how can we achieve information/resources and finally how can we satisfy requirements.• Quality planning process runs simultaneously with project planning.• Quality means delivering what is expected.• Project Team’s aim is to complete project on time, within budget and satisfy scope requirements.
Project Quality Management Process• Quality Planning: Identify which quality standards are relevant.• Quality Assurance: Applying planned systematic quality to ensure process meets requirements• Quality Control: Monitoring specific progress results to determine whether they comply with standards.
Quality Gurus: Deming• Deming proposed that Quality suffered because management was preoccupied with “today” rather than future.• He postulated that 85% of all quality problems require management initiative to change the system and only 15% of quality problems could be controlled by operators.• Developed Deming cycle for improvement which is based on Shewhart’s PDCA cycle.
Quality Gurus: Deming Deming Profound Knowledge System• Appreciation of a system: understanding the overall processes involving suppliers, producers, and customers (or recipients) of goods and services (explained below);• Knowledge of variation: the range and causes of variation in quality, and use of statistical sampling in measurements;• Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining knowledge and the limits of what can be known (see also: epistemology);• Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human nature.
Quality Gurus: J.M.Juran Juran’s Management theory: Added the human dimension to quality management. Resistance to change: root cause of quality issues Provided guidance on planning, controlling and improving quality.
Frameworks for Project Quality Management • Most organizations use the following frameworks to define and organize their quality initiatives. • ISO (International Organization for Standardization) • TQM (Total Quality Management) • SIX SIGMA
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Quality Framework was developed in Europe. Describes fundamentals of quality management system. ISO 9000 denotes quality management standard 2000 denotes the latest revision of the standards ISO 9000 three part continuous cycle: • Planning- Objectives, goals, authority, responsibility and relationships are defined and understood • Controlling- Goals and objectives are met, problems are anticipated/ averted through corrective actions. • Documentation: Used mostly for feedback about performance of quality management system.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)Advantages of ISO Implementation: Create a more efficient, effective operation Increase customer satisfaction and retention Reduce audits Enhance marketing Improve employee motivation, awareness, and morale Promote international trade Increases profit Reduce waste and increases productivity.
TQM/Malcolm Baldrige: Total quality management (TQM) is a business management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. Quality Framework developed in US Came into picture in late 1980’s TQM forms core values of Malcolm bridge award. TQM has customer first orientation. Source: Advanced Quality Engineering – Dr. John W. Sutherland, MTU, Notes
Six Sigma Sigma stands for standard deviation. (σ). A statistical term for amount of variation in data. Six Sigma Quality means quality problems are measured in parts per million opportunities (PPM). Six Sigma was first developed at Motorola.
Six Sigma: DMAIC It uses DMAIC methodology. DMAIC: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. DMAIC is continuous improvement of processes and it is used to manage and control improvement projects.
Six Sigma: PDCA/Deming cycle PLAN: Select needed improvement, understand process and reasons of problems and create plan. DO: Try changes on small scale and collect data. CHECK: Compare results after change with those before improvement. ACT: If results are good implement them otherwise repeat the cycle. SOURCE: http://elsmar.com
A CEO’s Perspective on Six Sigma Companies Video on Six Sigma Companies Six Sigma Perspective- Jack Welch Learning’s: “Variation is Evil” Customer Centric/ Customer Focus Drive out variation Leadership from top-down Not just Six Sigma name tag, prove through results.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Stakeholder Satisfaction Identify Stakeholder* 1. People who work on the project 2. Provide people or other resources 3. Have their routines disrupted Prioritize Stakeholder* 1. Prioritize stakeholder on basis of Proximity, Power, Urgency Level. *Reference from Chapter 5: Stakeholder Analysis and Communication Planning, Kloppenborg
Core Project Quality Concepts:Stakeholder Satisfaction Understand Stakeholder requirements. Develop quality standards to ensure requirements are met. ― Involve stakeholders actively in developing quality standards. Make tradeoff decisions
Core Project Quality Concepts: StakeholderAnalysis Stakeholder analysis is a technique you can use to identify and assess the importance of key people, groups of people, or institutions that may significantly influence the success of your activity or project. Why do we use Stakeholder Analysis ? — To identify people, groups, and/or institutions that will influence either positively or negatively. — To anticipate the kind of influence whether it is positive or negative. — To develop strategies for getting the most effective support possible and reduce any obstacles towards successful development of quality standards. Stakeholder Analysis is used during early stages of planning.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Stakeholder Satisfaction Sayings Old carpenter advice “ Measure twice, cut once” approach for stakeholder satisfaction. Meet requirements but try to exceed expectations. Smart Project Manager develops capable customers.
Core Project Quality Concepts: ProcessManagement Process: “ A set of inter-related actions and activities performed to achieve a specified set of products, results or services. Process Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to define, visualize, measure, control and improve processes with the goal to meet customer requirements profitably, while maintaining the developed quality standards.
Core Project Quality Concepts: ProcessManagementUnderstanding Process with SIPOC (Supplier-input-process-output-customer)Model: Source: www.isixsigma.com
Core Project Quality Concepts: ProcessManagement Process Control: Control is comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives and recommending appropriate corrective actions. Types of control — Steering Control- Continual comparison of project progress against project plan. — Go/No-Go control- Generally conducted at milestones. If a key deliverable is acceptable the project continues, if unacceptable work needs to be redone. — Post-control: They are applied after the fact. Steering and Go/no-go controls are directed towards accomplishing goals of an ongoing project while post control is directed towards improving chances of future projects.
Core Project Quality Concepts: ProcessManagement Process Control with PDCA Model: Processes improvement can be continuous or breakthrough. SME’s and core team should be thinking of little ways of improvement. Slow and Steady improvement is a good policy but a breakthrough is needed for substantial improvement. Organizations focused on long term improvement and short term results thrive better than organizations focused “only” on short-term results.
Process Improvement Example-PDCA Source: www.wikipedia.org
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Decisions made based on facts are sensible but difficult to implement because: —Different opinions come into picture. —Hard to collect useful data —Projects operate under time & pressure and decisions need to be made quickly.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Fact Based Management Includes: • Monitoring key facts – descriptive, financial, logistical • Setting and adjusting tactics, schedules, resources, control points to align with known facts • Achieving a continuously updated plan • Defining and tracking the operational and financial metrics of success • Communicating status and results to stakeholders and implementation teams
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based managementUnderstanding Variation: Need to understand common and special cause variation. Common Cause: Variation in system which is predictable. Special Cause: Variation or faults in process. Also termed as local faults. Special cause are not predictable.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management What to measure: Project Managers know what to measure as they become more experienced. r Project Manager also want to avoid either measuring nothing or measuring everything. s With the good charter a milestone schedule usually has acceptance criteria attached to it. r Lessons learned is good source to identify what needs to be measured. i Involvement of sponsor ensures a highly specific project agreement which in turn means useful data will be collected.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Working Correctly with Data and using information correctly a. It is important while working with data to know that how it has been collected, handled and stored. b. Efforts should be directed towards collecting complete, correct and timely data. c. Data collection techniques vary from looking for simple patterns and trends in small projects to using advanced statistical tools for complex projects. d. Encourage truth and transparency in communications e. Use available data to challenge opinions and decisions.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Empowered performance: Empowered performance means: — To have capable and willing workers at every function. — To allow some decision making authority to those lower in the organization so that they can take some risk. — To treat risk events as learning opportunities.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Empowered performance: b. Recognize individuality c. Leaders should promote inclusiveness; treat diversity as a tool for project development. d. Leaders should ask the team members what “they” want from the project apart from the success of the project. e. Capitalizing on individual strengths f. Leaders should create opportunities according to talents of individuals so the employee would recognize this and will be motivated to excel. This will result in his/her best performance.
Core Project Quality Concepts:Fact-based management Empowered performance: Emphasize individual responsibilities Use appropriate collaboration a. Cross-functional teams are most effective and help promote individual and team development. Also help flourish organizational learning. b. Develop lessons learned at the completion of project milestones and at project closure.
Project Quality Management Plan Quality Policy Quality Baseline Quality Assurance Quality Control
Project Quality Management PlanQuality Policy Document that is typically created by quality experts and fully supported by top management. Quality policy should contain: a. Quality objectives b. Level of quality acceptable to organization c. Responsibility of members for executing and implementing quality policy in the organization. Quality policy creates organization’s reputation and image.
Project Quality Management Plan Quality Policy…continued Implementation of quality policy is responsibility of top management. Good Quality policy will: a. Include what needs to be done and not how it can be done. b. Promote consistency throughout the organization c. Provide explanation to outsiders that how organization views quality d. Provide guidelines for important quality matters. e. Provide provisions for changing/updating the policy.
Project Quality Management PlanQuality Baseline: A metrics that defines precisely what needs to be measured and how it can be measured. Developing a Quality baseline is performing an analysis/study to determine the current level of performance in a specific activity. A baseline needs to be established for two reasons: 1. To identify perceived quality problems 2. To establish Quality improvement objectives through the baseline and to measure improvements in quality. Quality baseline sets a benchmark from where progress can be tracked. It includes target value for achieving each objective so people stay focused.
Project Quality Management PlanQuality Assurance Quality Assurance is the collective term for formal activities and managerial processes to ensure products and services meet required quality level. It is one way to simultaneously improve quality and manage stakeholder relationships. Primary methods of Quality Assurance includes: 1. Quality Audit: Which is an independent evaluation performed by qualified personnel to ensure products meet quality requirements. 2. Process improvement: which is used to improve both quality and productivity.
Project Quality Management PlanQuality Assurance…continuedGood Quality Assurance system: 1. Identify objectives and standards 2. Be multi-functional and prevention oriented 3. Plan for collection and use of data in cycle of continuous improvement. 4. Plan for establishment and maintenance of performance measures. 5. Include quality audits.
Project Quality Management Plan Quality Control: “Monitoring specific results to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results.” PMBOK® Guide. Quality control involves use of statistical process control to reduce variability and increase efficiency of processes. It certifies that the organization’s quality goals/objectives are met. Picture Courtesy: Bryan Lester
Project Quality Management Plan Quality Control: A good quality control system will: a. Select what to control b. Set standards for decisions regarding possible corrective actions c. Establish measurement methods used. d. Compare actual results to standards. e. Monitor and calibrate measuring devices. f. Include detailed documentation for all processes.
IN CLASS EXERCISE• Please take 5 minutes to go through the handout.• Answer: Potential Issues 1. Rework 2. Higher maintenance and support costs 3. Client dissatisfaction 4. Missed deadlines and budget 5. Poor morale. Possible Remedies 7. Detailed Criteria for completeness and correctness 8. Revamp the Quality Control Process 9. Set up a Quality Assurance Process
Project Quality Tools Used to help organizations manage the quality of their processes/projects To better understand the use of these tools in project quality management, the DMAIC model has been used to classify where each tool is used
Project Quality Tools – Define Phase The Project Charter ― Sets expectations and scope of the Project Communication Plan – To keep stakeholders in the loop about project progress Voice of the customer • Used to capture the requirements/feedback from the customer to provide the customer with the best service/product quality. • Can be captured in a variety of ways: − Direct Discussion/Interviews − Surveys − Field Reports − Warranty Data
Project Quality Tools – Define Phase Stakeholder Analysis – Used to identify affected parties and their position on the project SIPOC (Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer) – Used to help with scoping and boundaries
Project Quality Tools – Measure Phase Critical to Quality (CTQ) − Used to identify qualities of the service/process which are critical to the customer needs − Example: Car door sound when closing may be critical to the customer so the dimensional tolerances and cushioning needed to produce those conditions are CTQs for the auto maker. Data Collection Plan (Define Measures) — Used to collect data for root cause analysis. — Tells where to store data nd how much data is needed
Project Quality Tools – Measure Phase Flow Chart(Process Map) • Shows sequence of activities or information travel • Used for identifying bottlenecks, decision points, responsibilities.
Project Quality Tools – Analyze Phase FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) − Helps understand potential failure causes. − Used for prioritizing risk, suggesting abatements, and adjust the scores after abatements. Source: www.wikipedia.org
Project Quality Tools – Analyze Phase Histogram – Vertical bar graph to view performance and tendencies of the current process Pareto Chart • Vertical bar chart to rank and identify key reasons for defects and to identify which critical areas need improvement NO. OF DEFECTS TYPES OF DEFECTS HISTOGRAM PARETO CHARTSource: www.wikipedia.org
Project Quality Tools – Analyze Phase Run Chart − It is a line graph which shows the process performance over time Root Cause Analysis – It is a technique to determine the root cause of a problem. – It helps to identify which problems should be focused on before others Source: Run Chart, www.wikipedia.org
Project Quality Tools – Improve Phase Pilot – A pilot project means to run a project solution on a small scale. – Helpful in finding out if any improvements are needed Brainstorming – Tool to quickly generate many ideas – Can help identify current process issues, potential roadblocks and potential solutions.
Project Quality Tools – Improve Phase Cause and Effect Diagram( Ishikawa/Fishbone) – This tool helps discover many potential causes of problems and also helps identify their causes. Source: Fishbone Diagram - www.envisionsoftware.com
Project Quality Tools – Control Phase Control Charts – Help understand variation over time – Shows how much variation is in a process over time The above chart is called a X-Bar Chart There are other types of charts also which are used depending on what needs to be checked Source: Control Charts – www.omnilingua.com
Project Quality Tools – Control Phase Dashboards (Scorecards) – They contain a few measures which summarize performance Shows how much variation is in a process over time. – They are used to baseline current performance metrics and to measure improvement after changes have been made to the process. Lessons Learned – It is the knowledge from the captured and shared experience. – Useful for recognizing best practices for future Projects.
Project Quality Tools – Control Phase Change Management – It is a structured approach to overcome resistance. – It is a support for gaining and maintaining buy-in and acceptance of any changes. Project Review – It is the assessment of project progress and problems for continuation. – It helps keep project on track in terms of budget/schedule/milestones and requirements of stakeholders
Cost of Quality (COQ) COQ is the total price of all efforts to achieve product or service that conforms to requirements. “Quality Management for Projects and Programs, Lewis R. Ireland, Fellow PMI”. Moral: “Build it right the first time”. Otherwise the non- conformance costs can be greater than conformance costs. Cost of Quality ("COQ") advantages: 1. Measurement used for assessing the waste or losses from some defined process. 2. Track changes over time for one particular process, or can be used as a benchmark for comparison of two or more different processes (eg. two machines, different production lines, sister plants, two competitor companies, etc.).
Cost of Quality (COQ) Most COQ systems are defined by 4 categories of costs:Table Source: 1] http://www.pqa.net/ProdServices/Qtools/COQ.htm#Why is COQ Important; 2] 20.8 COQ, Project Management systems approach, Harold Kerzner, PHD.
Project Kickoff- Project Kickoff MeetingsKickoff meetings are excellent communication and team building opportunities. The principle purpose is to get the project started on right foot and should have all or most of the following objectives:
Kickoff Meeting Agenda The following items should be included in kickoff meeting agenda:
Baseline and Communication for ProjectManagement Plan A project plan becomes officially ready when all project related details are available for key stakeholders and when the plan supports the baseline. It is important to communicate the project management plan in accordance with the communications plan. Baseline is the approved time phased plan, plus or minus approved project changes defined by PMBOK® Guide.
References: Project Management- A contemporary approach, Kloppenborg ISO www.iso.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9000#2000_version Kerzner, Harold, Project Management- A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling. DMAIC, Six Sigma overview http://www.asq.org/learn-about-quality/six-sigma/overview/dmaic.html Deming PDCA: http://elsmar.com/pdf_files/DemingPDCA.gif http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kao1K30LXEk&feature=related http://www.sset-platform.org/@api/deki/files/159/=stakeholder_analysis.jpg Project Quality Planning: http://www.projectperfect.com.au/info_project_quality_planning.php Deming: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming Juran’s Trilogy: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~vardeman/IE361/f02mini/kroh.pdf COQ Quality Management for Projects and Programs, Lewis R. Ireland Fellow, PMI”
References:Stakeholder Analysis: http://erc.msh.org/quality/ittools/itstkan.cfmProject Quality Management ProcessA Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)Fact-Based management contents: http://www.consultingindetail.com/fb_proj_mgnt.htmlProcess Control: Project Management- A Managerial approach, Jack.R.Meredith, Samuel J.Mantel,Jr.Quality Policy Project Management-A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling; Harold Kerzner, PHD.Quality Baseline: http://conceptfortheday.blogspot.com/2007/10/quality-baseline.html
References:• Project Management – A Contemporary Approach; Timothy J. Kloppenborg•Quality Control and Assurance Project Management-A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling;Harold Kerzner, PHD.•Cost of Quality: http://www.pqa.net/ProdServices/Qtools/COQ.htm#Why is COQ Important•Project Management-A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling;Harold Kerzner, PHD.• Project Management Workbook to accompany Project Management-A systemsapproach to planning, scheduling and controlling; Harold Kerzner, PHD.