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  • 1. The Tuskegee Experiment By Kim Augustine
  • 2. The Tuskegee Experiment
    • 1895 TU president Booker T. Washington plans for black economic development
    • Gains support from philanthropist Julius Rosenwald
    • Treatment for syphilis with known remedies begin at Tuskegee
  • 3. Tuskegee Experiment
    • 1929 Stock Market Crash & Great Depression
    • Rosenwald funding ceases
    • Doctors continue to care for participants
    • Oslo Study & Government funding
  • 4. The Tuskegee Legacy
    • Public Health Service Study began in 1932, Tuskegee, Alabama
    • 399 African American Males infected with Syphilis
    • 201 African American Males without disease (control group)
  • 5. Study Sample & Setting
    • Participants were impoverished, illiterate, farmers
    • Macon County, Alabama chosen due to high incidence syphilis
    • Tuskegee Institute served as clinic for treatments
  • 6. The Tuskegee experiment
    • Research now funded by government PHS
    • Dr. Clark of PHS credited for study origin
    • Nurse Rivers played Key role
  • 7. The Tuskegee Experiment
    • Study purpose was to observe the progression of syphilis in the black male
    • Compare to 1928 Oslo Study on untreated caucasian males with syphilis
    • Theories
  • 8. The Tuskegee Experiment
    • Participants told they had “Bad Blood”term used to describe several ailments-syphilis, anemia, fatigue
    • Offered free medical treatment, rides, meals,burial insurance
  • 9. The Tuskegee Experiement
    • 1947 penicillin become standard treatment of syphilis
    • Tuskegee scientists continue study withholding penicillin treatment to participants
    • 1972 Press leak results in termination of Study
  • 10. Reform in Research Laws & Regulations
    • 1946 Nuremberg Code
    • Declaration at Helsinki
    • National Research Act 1974
    • 1979 Belmont Report
  • 11. The Tuskegee Experiment
    • End of Experiment 28 men died directly form syphilis
    • 100 dead of related complications
    • 40 wives infected
    • 19 children born with congenital syphilis
  • 12. Public Apology
    • May 6, 1997, President Clinton apologizes on behalf of the United States
    • 2004 CDC 10 million dollar to continue research at TU National Center for Bioethics
  • 13. The Tuskegee Experiment
    • 2004 The last U.S. PHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee participant Herman Shaw dies
    • 2009 Last widow receiving benefits dies
    • Known as longest non-therapeutic study lasting forty years