Calrg2015 2015 06-15

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Jordan, K. (2015) Characterising the structure of academics’ personal networks on academic social networking sites and Twitter. Presentation at the Computers and Learning Research Group (CALRG) annual conference, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 17th June 2015.

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  • Figure x.2.2: Examples of 50-node undirected random graphs generated using Gephi to illustrate a range of network densities from zero to one. (0, 0.05, 1)
  • LEFT: Twitter. No sig diffs, nearly for job, not for discipline, though shows same trend as for academic SNS (Arts & Humanities higher median reciprocity).
    RIGHT: academic SNS, no sig diffs job position, but sig diffs discipline
  • LEFT: Twitter. No sig diffs, nearly for job, not for discipline, though shows same trend as for academic SNS (Arts & Humanities higher median reciprocity).
    RIGHT: academic SNS, no sig diffs job position, but sig diffs discipline
  • Calrg2015 2015 06-15

    1. 1. Characterising the structure of academics’ personal networks on academic social networking sites and Twitter Katy Jordan katy.jordan@open.ac.uk CALRG Conference 2015
    2. 2. Background • Stems from my previous experience in e-learning research in Higher Education • Research context: Digital scholarship and how the internet is changing Higher Education (Weller, 2011) • Social networking sites (SNS) are so popular that they are synonymous with internet use for some (Rainie & Wellman, 2012) • First academic SNS in 2007, 3 years after Facebook founded (Nentwich & Konig, 2012)
    3. 3. Why look at networks? • Social network structure linked to social capital • Network size affects how wide a pool ego can draw upon for advice, and how widely information can be transmitted (Prell, 2012) • Granovetter (1973) – the strength of weak ties • Burt (2005) – structural holes and brokerage • Link between online social networking and bridging and bonding social capital (Ellison et al. 2014) • Network structure of academic social networking sites has not been examined • -> What can we learn about the role that online social networks are playing in (re)defining academic roles and relationships?
    4. 4. Pilot study • Pilot study sampled networks of OU academics on Academia.edu, Mendeley and Zotero • Found trends in network structure which stood across platforms; influence of job position on positions of individuals, and subject areas influential on community structure (Jordan, 2014) • But: Academic SNS are only one of many types of social media and online platforms • Differences according to discipline and position suggest a role in academic identity development -> ego-networks
    5. 5. Scope of main study • 54 academics • Sampled to reflect a range of positions and perspectives • 2 ego-networks collected per participant: an academic SNS, and Twitter • Exploratory analysis considered a range of metrics in terms of network size and network structure • Differences according to job position and discipline • -> 54 academic SNS collected, 38 full Twitter networks
    6. 6. Key terms: What is an ego- network?
    7. 7. Network size: Number of nodes, in-degree, out-degree Twitter Academic SNS
    8. 8. Network size: Number of communities
    9. 9. Network structure: Density
    10. 10. Network structure: Reciprocity
    11. 11. Network structure: Reciprocity Text
    12. 12. Network structure: Betweenness centrality Betweenness centrality approximates structural holes in the context of ego- networks
    13. 13. Network structure: Brokerage roles Coordinator Itinerant broker Representative Gatekeeper Liaison Broker is part of a community and mediates between other members of the same community Broker mediates between members of the same community without being a member herself. Broker mediates flow of information out of a community. Broker mediates flow of information into a community. Broker mediates between two different groups, neither of which she belongs to.
    14. 14. Network structure: Brokerage roles
    15. 15. Conclusions • Gain insights into network structure • Academic SNS ego-networks smaller and more dense than Twitter • Average number of communities slightly higher on Twitter than academic SNS • Greater variation in betweenness centrality (structural holes) on academic SNS • Brokerage types differ by site: ‘liaisons’ prevalent on Twitter, ‘representatives’ on academic SNS • Reciprocity may exhibit different disciplinary characters • Network size and direction of relationships differs according to seniority – but contrasting trends on Twitter and academic SNS
    16. 16. Future work • Pairwise comparisons of academic SNS and Twitter networks • Para-academics • How accurately do these networks reflect academics’ offline networks? • What defines communities within the networks? • -> Plan to conduct online cointerpretive interviews
    17. 17. References Borgatti, S.P., Everett, M.G., & Johnson, J.C. (2013) Analyzing social networks. London: SAGE. Burt, R.S. (2005) Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DeJordy, R. & Halgin, D. (2008) Introduction to ego network analysis. Boston College and the Winston Center for Leadership and Ethics, Academy of Management PDW. Ellison, N.B., Vitak, J., Gray, R. & Lampe, C. (2014) Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19(4), 855–870. Granovetter, M.S. (1973) The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 78, 1360– 1380. Jordan, K. (2014) Academics and their online networks: Exploring the role of academic social networking sites. First Monday, 19(11), http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i11.4937 Nentwich, M. & König, R. (2012) Cyberscience 2.0: Research in the age of digital social networks. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag. Prell, C. (2012) Social network analysis: History, theory and methodology. London: SAGE. Rainie, L. & Wellman, B. (2012) Networked: The new social operating system. Cambridge: MIT Press. Weller, M. (2011) The Digital Scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice. London: Bloomsbury.

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