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Kottakkal
 

Kottakkal

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    Kottakkal Kottakkal Presentation Transcript

    • Techniques in commercial cultivation, scientific harvesting and preservation of medicinal plants Dr. Indira Balachandran Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal Kerala
      •  Trees as pure crop
      • Ceasalpinia sappan L. - Chappangam , Pathimukam
      • Myristica fragrans Houtt . - Jati
      • Emblica officinalis Gaertn. - Nelli
      • Gmelina arborea Roxb . - Kumizhu
       Shrubs as pure crop
        • Plumbago indica L. - Chettikkoduveli
        • Adhatoda beddomei Cl. - Chittatalotakam
        • Holostemma ada-kodien Schult . - Atapatiyan
        • Trichosanthes cucumerina L. - Patolam
        • Acorus calamus L. - Vayambu
        • Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel - Brahmi
      CULTIVATION
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Adhatoda beddomei ( Vasa – Chittatalotakam)
      • Parts used – Whole plant
      • In Coconut plantations and for the first four years in Rubber estates
      • 5 tender stem cuttings on each mound at an espacement of 2 ft
      • On hill slopes directly in the soil
      • Harvesting within 2 – 2 ½ years
      • Total expenditure – Rs. 25,000 – 30,000 / acre
      • Yield from intercrop – 6000 Kg – whole plant from 1 acre
      • Yield from pure crop – 8000 Kg
      • Price per Kg. – Rs. 15
      • Net Profit – Rs. 65,000 / acre (in intercropping)
      • Rs. 95,000 / acre (from pure crop)
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Sahachara – Karimkurinji)
      • Parts used: Root and a part of stem
      • Propagation by tender stem cuttings – In Rubber and Coconut plantations
      • Harvesting time – within 2 –3 years
      • Total expenses – Rs. 22,000 – 25,000 / acre
      • Yield per acre – 8,000 – 10,000 Kg (root and stem)
      • Price per Kg. – Rs. 6.50 (Fresh); Rs. 21 (Semi-processed)
      • (Reduction in weight after drying 50%)
      • Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 – 40,000 / acre
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Baliospermum solanifolium (Danti – Nagadanti)
      • Part used - Roots
      • Propagation – Stem cuttings with 3 – 4 nodes
      • 4 cuttings on each mound having one foot diameter and 20 cm height.
      • More economical than planting rooted seedlings in pits
      • Harvesting – within 2 –3 years
      • Yield – 6000 Kg from 1 acre
      • Total expenses – Rs. 30,000 / acre
      • Price - Rs. 18/Kg - Semi-processed (cut into 2 " long pieces) fresh roots
      • Net profit – Rs. 78,000 / acre
      • The leaves and tender aerial portion can be used as green manure to coconut trees
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Plumbago indica (Chitraka – Chettikkoduveli)
      • Part used – Roots
      • Propagation by tender stem cuttings having 3 nodes
      • Planted on raised manured beds without much interspace
      • Alluvial soil with drainage capacity is more suitable
      • Harvesting – within 1 ½ - 2 years
      • Yield – 2 – 2½ tons
      • Total expenses – Rs. 40,000 – 50,000 / acre
      • Price per Kg – Rs. 55
      • Net profit – Rs. 70,000 – 87,500 / acre
      • Additional profit can be made by the sale of seedlings of the above four items from 2 nd year onwards
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Clitoria ternatea (Aparajita – Sankhupushpam)
      • Parts used – Whole plant and roots
      • Propagation through seeds
      • Seedlings planted on raised beds at a distance of 20 cm
      • Bright sunlight is required
      • Harvesting – within 6 months
      • Total expenses – Rs. 10,000 – 15,000 / acre
      • Yield / acre – 2,000 – 2,500 Kg
      • Price – Rs. 20 / Kg (Whole plant)
      • Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 – 35,000 / acre
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Coleus zeylanicus (Valakam – Iruveli)
      • Parts used – root and stem
      • Tender stem cuttings are planted on beds at 15–20 cm distance
      • Harvesting – Within 6 – 9 months
      • Expenses – Rs. 15,000 / acre
      • Yield – 1000 Kg (dried and semi processed root and stem)
      • Price – Rs. 65 – 70 / Kg
      • Net Profit – Rs. 50,000 / acre
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi)
      • Part used : Whole plant
      • Can be cultivated in paddy fields and marshy places using stem cuttings
      • Expenses – Rs. 50,000 / acre
      • Yield – 10,000 – 12,000 Kg
      • Price – Rs. 10 / Kg
      • Net Profit – 50,000 – 70,000 / acre
      • 3 harvests possible in a year
      •  Shrubs as intercrops
      • Pseudarthria viscida (Saliparni – Orila)
      • Desmodium gangeticum (Prisniparni – Moovila)
      • Part used - Roots
      • As a cover crop in Rubber plantations for first 4 years
      • Planting – Simple broadcasting of seeds in ploughed field
      • Harvesting – Within 6 months
      • Expense – Rs. 50,000 / acre
      • Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 / acre
      • Special methods of cultivation
      • Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br.
      • Sans. : Anantamulah, Sariba
      • Mal.: Nannari, Naruneendi
      • Propagation through seeds
      • Usual Practice
      • Planting of 4 leaved seedlings on raised beds at an espacement of 1 inch .
      • Harvesting – Too expensive; wastage is high
    • Wastage during harvesting of H. indicus roots 50 3.200 20 60 4.400 20 40 5.000 20 80 4.800 20 Wastage during harvest (gm) Wt. of roots obtained (Kg) No. plants in one bundle
      • Special method – Cultivation in Bamboo
      • Hemidesmus indicus
      • 2 m long, thick, vertically split bamboo stems
      • Remove nodal partitions except at basal node & make holes on lowest nodal partition
      • Rejoin the two bamboo halves using nylon rope
      • Fill the bamboo stem with potting mixture
      • 2 or 3 rooted seedlings are planted on the top and the bamboo stems are kept erect in the soil
      • Harvest the entire roots after two years by separating the bamboo halves
      • No damage and wastage
      • Yield – 300 g / bamboo bit
    • Propagation of Hemidesmus - stages Splitting of Bamboo
    • Removal of nodal portion
    • Making holes in the last nodal portion
    • Tying split bamboos with nylon rope
    • Filling Bamboo with potting mixture
    • Painting last internode and making hole in the ground for fixing bamboo
    • Overall view
    • Placing seedling on top of bamboo
    • Harvesting
      • Special method – Cultivation in long polybags
      • Holostemma ada-kodien Schult .
      • Sans. Jeevanthi; Mal. Atapathiyan
        • Useful parts – Tuberous roots
        • Propagation – Seeds and roots
      • Usual practice
        • Cultivated either on soil beds or on mounds
        • Harvesting – Too expensive; wastage high
        • Wastage during harvesting of H. ada-kodien
      13.8 540 5 15.1 950 5 10.0 600 5 15.0 875 5 Wastage during harvesting (gm) Fresh wt. of roots obtained (gm) No. of plants in one mound
      • Special method - Holostemma ada-kodien
        • Half of the polybags are filled with potting mixture
        • Keep them in 15 cm deep pits at a distance of 1ft
        • 2 rooted seedlings are planted in each polybag
        • Bamboo splits as support to the polybag and to the plant
        • Organic manuring twice at 6 months interval
        • Harvest after two years
        • Roots are extracted by tearing the polybags
        • No damage and wastage
    • Propagation in polythene bags using bamboo splits as support
    • Propagation in polythene bags Overall view
    • Harvesting of root from polybag
    • Harvesing, Semi-processing & storage Problems in existing practices
      • Harvesting
      • Unscientific harvesting of roots
      • Roots from shrubs
      • Eg.: Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa (Bala – Kurunthotti)
      • Pseudarthria viscida (Saliparni – Moovila)
        • Desmodium gangeticum (Prisniparni – Orila)
        • Collection before seed setting and seed dispersal
        • Wastage due to simple plucking
        • Wastage in harvesting
      • Sustainable method
        • Use iron crowbar for loosening the soil
        • Collection after fruiting season
        • Keep small area untouched for natural regeneration
      2.1 2.95 100 0.9 2.70 100 Wastage (gm) Fresh weight (Kg) No. Sida plants in a bundle
      • Unscientific harvesting of tuberous roots
      • Eg.: Asparagus racemosus Willd.
        • The whole bunch of roots is dug out
        • Large and medium sized roots are taken leaving the small ones as waste
        • Wastage in harvesting
      1.5 3.000 72 1.8 3.450 82 Wastage (Kg) Fresh wt. (Kg) No. of roots from 2 yr old plant Collect only large and stout tuberous roots Allow further growth of the plant Sustainable method
      • Unscientific harvesting of roots from trees
      • Eg.: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.
      • Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz
      • No. of preparations in which used – 77
      • The whole tree is cut down to take the roots!!!
      • Wastage during hervesting
      • Sustainable method
      • Collect only the mature side roots - tap root undisturbed
      • Harvest of leaves 3 times / year, Harvest of fruits once a year
      9.0 61.0 14 O. indicum 9.5 60.0 14 O. indicum 10.0 125.0 14 A. marmelos 20.0 90.0 14 A. marmelos Wastage (Kg) Total raw drug obtained (Kg) Age of the tree (Yrs) Plant species
      • Unscientific extraction of bark
      • Eg.: Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Don
        • By cutting down the entire tree and chopping the main stem and branches
        • Removing the entire bark from the existing tree
        • Wastage during harvesting
        • Sustainable method
          • Remove only 1/3 of the mature bark
          • Remove only the outer and the middle bark leaving the inner bark for regeneration
        • Advantage - Extraction 4 times a year
        • without killing the tree
      5.050 16.0 13 8.000 33.0 18 6.250 28.0 17 5.200 12.5 15 Wastage (Kg) Quantity of bark obtained (Kg) Age of the tree (Yrs)
    • Extraction of bark from Holarrhena pubescens Unscientific method Sustainable method 
      • Unscientific collection of fruits
      • Eg.: Emblica officinalis Gaertn
      • Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb.
        • By cutting down the fruit bearing branches
        • Sustainable method
        • Collect the fruits alone by hand or with hooks (Precaution against mechanical damage)
        • Unscientific extraction of black dammer
        • Canarium strictum Roxb .
        • Make incision on the stem& set fire underneath the tree
        • Collect the exuded resin using chopper after a month
      Avoid fire setting underneath the tree
      • Collection at improper time
        • Nature and quantity of chemical constituent
              • – high seasonal variation
      • Best time of collection
      • – Highest content of active principles in plant parts
      • – Maximum quantity on drying
      • Eg.: Acacia catechu (Heart wood) – November–January
      • Acorus calamus (Rhizome) – May–July
      • Terminalia arjuna (Bark) – February–April
      • Semi-processing
        • Small pieces get wasted while slicing (Roots& heart wood) and wastage will increase when slicing is done after drying (Tuberous roots)
        • Fungal attack due to improper drying methods (Fruits, bark, whole plant etc.)
        • Suggestion
        • Keep the semi-processing yard clean
        • Dry the raw material up to desired moisture content
        • Eg.Gooseberry fruits: dry till fruits attain 65% loss in weight
        • Holarrhena bark - dry till bark attain 67% loss in weight
        • Oroxylum root chips - dry till attain 54% loss in weight
        • Slice the raw material just after harvesting and washing
      • Problems in storage
        • Fungal attack due to insufficient drying
        • Rodent attack and contamination by excreta
        • Attack of insects
        • Decaying due to storage in unhygienic condition
      Suggestions: Proper drying, packing and storage in hygienic, well–ventilated go-downs The required % of driage in various plant species Other remedial measures: Fumigation, treatment using chemicals and radioactive rays ? Further research & documentation is required 67 Holarrhena pubescens 67 Holostemma ada-kodien 65 Emblica officinalis 37 Aegle marmelos Driage (%) Plant species
    • Thank you