Motivation & Communication


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Motivation & Communication

  2. 2. MOTIVATION <ul><ul><li>Is the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The force that causes and individual to behave in a specific way. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. MOTIVATION <ul><li>According to various theories, motivation maybe be rooted in the basic need to minimized physical pain and maximized pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Resting </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking (water) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>i-a. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself. </li></ul><ul><li>not only makes people perform well and more accurately, but the people do not expect anything for doing it- the activity in itself is the reward. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>INTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of competency </li></ul><ul><li>Personal development </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>i-b. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>comes from outside of the performer. </li></ul><ul><li>they are valued outcomes given to someone by another person. </li></ul><ul><li>(supervisor or higher level manager) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>> pay bonuses </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Time off </li></ul><ul><li>Special Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Award </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal praise </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SELF-CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>A person may be highly intelligent to a more conservative definition, yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to a certain task. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES: <ul><li>THE INCENTIVE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>NEED THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>REINFORCEMENT THEORY </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>THE INCENTIVE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action ( behavior ) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Oneself (intrinsic motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Other people (extrinsic motivation) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>NEED THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>(ABRAHAM MASLOW) </li></ul><ul><li>ii-a. Need Hierarchy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence, satisfied needs do not. </li></ul><ul><li>since needs are many, they are arranged in order or importance, from the basic to the complex. </li></ul><ul><li>the person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is a least minimally satisfied. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>( LOWEST (basic) to HIGHEST (most complex) ) </li></ul>NEEDS: To satisfy, offers: Physiological needs > rest and refreshment breaks   > physical comfort on the job   > reasonable work hours       Safety needs > safe working conditions   > job security   > base compensation and benefits       Social needs / Belongingness > friendly workers   > interaction with customers   > pleasant supervisors       Esteem needs > responsibility of an important job   > promotion to higher status job   > praise and recognition from boss       Self-actualization needs > creative and challenging work   > participation in decision making   > job flexibility and autonomy      
  14. 14. <ul><li>ii-b. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>(FREDERICK HERZBERG) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators or Satisfiers </li></ul><ul><li>gives positive satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging work </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Growth opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>ii-b. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Do not motivate if present, but if absent, result in demotivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational policies </li></ul><ul><li>Technical quality of supervision </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>COGNITIVE THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>iii-a. Goal-setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, this end state is a reward in itself. </li></ul><ul><li>A goal’s efficiency is affected by 3 features: </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>PROXIMITY </li></ul><ul><li>An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFICULTY </li></ul><ul><li>A goal should be moderate; not too hard or not too easy. </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICITY </li></ul><ul><li>The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Douglas Vermeeren states that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ That unless an individual can clearly identify their motivating factors or their significant and meaningful reasons why they wish to attain the goal, they will never have the power to attain it. The failure is directly attributed to motivating factors.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Reinforcement Theory </li></ul><ul><li>(based on E.L. THORNDIKE’S LAW) </li></ul><ul><li>simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory focuses on modifying an employee’s on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of one of the following four techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement rewards desirable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance is an attempt to show and employee what the consequences of improper behavior will be. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction is basically ignoring the behavior of a subordinate and not providing either positive of negative reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment (threats, suspension) is an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior recurring by applying negative consequences. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communication <ul><ul><li>Discussion Outline: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Significance of Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and the Manager’s Job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Communication Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Communication Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating During Turbulent Times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Organizational Communication </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What is communication? <ul><li>process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why is communication significant to management? <ul><li>Communication is a linking process to management. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is the primary means by which people obtain and exchange information. </li></ul><ul><li>The most consuming activity the manager engages. </li></ul><ul><li>Information and communication represent power in organizations. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Manager as Communication Champion External Information Internal Information Manager as Communication Champion <ul><li>Purpose-directed </li></ul><ul><li>Direct attention to vision, values, desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Influence employee behavior </li></ul>Source: Adapted from Henry Mintzberg, The Nature Of Managerial Work(New York:Harper & Row, 1973),72. <ul><li>Strategic Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Open Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Rich Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Upward, downward, and horizontal channels </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Personal networks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Model of Communication Process
  25. 25. <ul><li>Methods of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue/Verbal Communication (Oral) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Written/Visual Communication </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Elements for Effective Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul><ul><li>- making sense of what is heard and requires paying attention, interpreting, and remembering sound stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>- managers often do poor jobs of providing employees with performance feedback. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Messages sent through human actions and behavior rather through words. </li></ul><ul><li>Most nonverbal communication is unconscious or subconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs mostly face-to-face. </li></ul><ul><li>Three factors in message interpretation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Impact: 7 percent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal Impact: 38 percent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Impact: 55 percent. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Pyramid of Channel Richness 13-
  29. 29. Organizational Communication: Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication SOURCE: Adopted from Richard L. Daft and Richard M. Steers, Organizations; A Micro-Macro Approach, 538 Copyright 1986 by Scott, Foresman and Company, Used by permission.
  30. 30. Downward Communication <ul><li>Messages sent from top management down to subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Most familiar and obvious flow of formal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Major problem is drop off . </li></ul><ul><li>Another concern, distortion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Upward Communication <ul><li>Messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Upward communications mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Suggestion boxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Employee surveys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. MIS reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Face to face conversations. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Horizontal Communication <ul><li>lateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>may occur across departments </li></ul><ul><li>purpose is not only to inform but also to request support and coordinate activities </li></ul>
  33. 33. Personal Communication Channels <ul><li>Communication channels that exist outside the formally authorized channels and do not adhere to the organization’s hierarchy of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Personal Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Management By Wandering Around </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul>
  34. 34. Personal Networks <ul><li>refers to the acquisition and cultivation of personal relationships that cross departmental, hierarchical and even organizational boundaries </li></ul>
  35. 35. Management by Wandering Around <ul><li>Mingle and develop positive relationships with employees and learn directly from them about their department, division or organization </li></ul><ul><li>Managers have chance to describe key ideas and values and in turn learn about the problems and issues confronting employees </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Grapevine <ul><li>An informal person to person communication network of employees that is not officially sanctioned by the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be more active during periods of change. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of topics are business related. </li></ul><ul><li>About 70-90% of details of grapevine are accurate. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Communicating During Turbulent Times <ul><li>Open Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and Learning </li></ul>
  38. 38. Communication Barriers & Ways to Overcome Them Active Listening Selection of appropriate channel Knowledge of other’s perspective MBWA Climate status of trust, Dialogue Development and use of formal channels Encouragement of multiple channels, formal and informal Changing organization or group structure to fit communication needs Feedback and learning Individual Interpersonal Dynamics Channels and Media Semantics Inconsistent Cues Organizational Status and power differences Departmental needs and goals Lack of formal channels Communication channels not suited to task Poor coordination Barriers How to Overcome
  39. 39. References: <ul><li>Richard L. Daft, Management, Seventh Edition (Thomson Asian Edition), Chapter 17, Communication, p.622-657 </li></ul><ul><li>,articleId-8847.html </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Back-up </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ten Keys to Effective Listening SOURCE: Adapted from Sherman K. Okum, “How to Be a Better Listener,” Nation’s Business (August 1975), 62 and Philip Morgan and Kent Baker, “Building a Professional Image; Improving Listening Behavior,” Supervisory Management (November 1985), 34-38.
  43. 43. Dialogue and Discussion: The Differences Source: Adapted from Edgar Schein, “On Dialogue, Culture, and Organization Learning,” Organizational Dynamics (Autumn 1993), 46. Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view Dialogue Discussion Result Result Reveal feelings Explore assumptions Suspend convictions Build common ground Long-term, innovative solutions Unified group Shared meaning Transformed mind-sets State positions Advocate convictions Convince others Build oppositions Short-term resolution Agreement by logic Opposition beaten down Mind-sets held onto