NEEDS: To satisfy, offers: Physiological needs > rest and refreshment breaks > physical comfort on the job > reasonable work hours Safety needs > safe working conditions > job security > base compensation and benefits Social needs / Belongingness > friendly workers > interaction with customers > pleasant supervisors Esteem needs > responsibility of an important job > promotion to higher status job > praise and recognition from boss Self-actualization needs > creative and challenging work > participation in decision making > job flexibility and autonomy
“ That unless an individual can clearly identify their motivating factors or their significant and meaningful reasons why they wish to attain the goal, they will never have the power to attain it. The failure is directly attributed to motivating factors.”
Organizational Communication: Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication SOURCE: Adopted from Richard L. Daft and Richard M. Steers, Organizations; A Micro-Macro Approach, 538 Copyright 1986 by Scott, Foresman and Company, Used by permission.
Communication Barriers & Ways to Overcome Them Active Listening Selection of appropriate channel Knowledge of other’s perspective MBWA Climate status of trust, Dialogue Development and use of formal channels Encouragement of multiple channels, formal and informal Changing organization or group structure to fit communication needs Feedback and learning Individual Interpersonal Dynamics Channels and Media Semantics Inconsistent Cues Organizational Status and power differences Departmental needs and goals Lack of formal channels Communication channels not suited to task Poor coordination Barriers How to Overcome
Ten Keys to Effective Listening SOURCE: Adapted from Sherman K. Okum, “How to Be a Better Listener,” Nation’s Business (August 1975), 62 and Philip Morgan and Kent Baker, “Building a Professional Image; Improving Listening Behavior,” Supervisory Management (November 1985), 34-38.
Dialogue and Discussion: The Differences Source: Adapted from Edgar Schein, “On Dialogue, Culture, and Organization Learning,” Organizational Dynamics (Autumn 1993), 46. Conversation Lack of understanding, disagreement, divergent points of view Dialogue Discussion Result Result Reveal feelings Explore assumptions Suspend convictions Build common ground Long-term, innovative solutions Unified group Shared meaning Transformed mind-sets State positions Advocate convictions Convince others Build oppositions Short-term resolution Agreement by logic Opposition beaten down Mind-sets held onto