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the first half of a composting workshop given at Glenbrook (NSW) Native Plant Reserve's Spring Fair 2009. To complete, go outside and make hot compost. This methodology for composting works where ever …

the first half of a composting workshop given at Glenbrook (NSW) Native Plant Reserve's Spring Fair 2009. To complete, go outside and make hot compost. This methodology for composting works where ever you are on the planet.

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  • image (cc) Kat Szuminska
  • picture from permacultureresearchinstitute.org
  • picture http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/3590939898/
    Alot of rubbish goes in landfill. Each Australian household generates about 400 kilograms of waste per year, placing us amongst the top 10 generators of household waste in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
    http://www.spinneypress.com.au/208%20Waste%20and%20Recycling.html
    Australians generate more than 32 million tonnes of waste each year¹. Of this, 42 per cent is construction and demolition waste, 29 per cent is commercial and industrial waste and 29 per cent is municipal or household waste.
    http://www.afgc.org.au/index.cfm?id=565
    http://books.google.com.au/books?id=B-oyXrUVWFkC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=kilograms+of+waste+per+year+in+australia&source=bl&ots=RbKR43vkXE&sig=40XWEo1_7jXmnLpKsiJCLM70iO0&hl=en&ei=lUKqSvSrCtWMkAWtvZiVBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  • Alot of rubbish goes in landfill. Each Australian household generates about 400 kilograms of waste per year, placing us amongst the top 10 generators of household waste in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
    http://www.spinneypress.com.au/208%20Waste%20and%20Recycling.html
    Australians generate more than 32 million tonnes of waste each year¹. Of this, 42 per cent is construction and demolition waste, 29 per cent is commercial and industrial waste and 29 per cent is municipal or household waste.
    http://www.afgc.org.au/index.cfm?id=565
    http://books.google.com.au/books?id=B-oyXrUVWFkC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=kilograms+of+waste+per+year+in+australia&source=bl&ots=RbKR43vkXE&sig=40XWEo1_7jXmnLpKsiJCLM70iO0&hl=en&ei=lUKqSvSrCtWMkAWtvZiVBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  • last year we recycled 8% more than the year before (reported in the local paper)
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • we can speed up the natural process and use it to our advantage
  • ‘Prehistoric farming people discovered that if they mixed manure from their domesticated animals with straw and other organic waste, such as crop residues, the mixture would gradually change into a fertile soil-like material that was good for crops. Composting remained a basic activity of farming until the twentieth century, when various synthetic fertilizers were found to provide many of the nutrients occurring naturally in compost.’

    Read more: http://science.jrank.org/pages/1671/Composting-History.html#ixzz0RHZ8wqYr
  • ‘Prehistoric farming people discovered that if they mixed manure from their domesticated animals with straw and other organic waste, such as crop residues, the mixture would gradually change into a fertile soil-like material that was good for crops. Composting remained a basic activity of farming until the twentieth century, when various synthetic fertilizers were found to provide many of the nutrients occurring naturally in compost.’

    Read more: http://science.jrank.org/pages/1671/Composting-History.html#ixzz0RHZ8wqYr
  • In truth what ever organic material you throw away its food for something else, with or without our permission. kitchen scraps to green yard waste.
    worms http://www.flickr.com/photos/25652913@N03/2852789914/sizes/m/
    seagull http://www.flickr.com/photos/roger_g1/518012703/
    possum http://www.flickr.com/photos/wollombi/86671986/
    lyre http://www.flickr.com/photos/chop/2217671242/
    dog (my neighbours’)


    We can’t eat the stuff we recycle. Where does food you don’t eat go?
  • We can take advantage of what we know about how the soil food web works to break down our waste products into soil, to grow more other stuff. Diagram reproduced with permission of SoilFoodWeb
  • recycles your waste and your neighbours’
    fast - 18 days
    kills weed seeds
  • make compost pile directly on top of earth, or some space in your garden where you want to kill existing plants, grass, weeds etc. worms and other creatures can travel through the soil in the yard.
    will be a good place to grow stuff later
  • how activator works
    function of carbon
    function of nitrogen
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/alishav/3571371833/

    the paper, not the cat
  • picture reproduced with permission http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/composting/compost_pf.php
    add picture of horses, cows, other animals whose poo we can use.
  • Give compost a varied diet, you’re feeding microbes and funghi
    pictures of different ingredients, mix it up! Macro and micro nutrients
  • Ask students for their ideas of which other materials to compost, mulch, coffee grounds, straw, lucerne, grass clippings, other animal manure.
  • Don’t worry about oranges, onions or the odd bit of dairy. People have used roadkill as an activator
  • What can’t I compost? Check with the council on what waste you are not allowed to process. eg. dog and cat poo. Vermicomposting can deal with dog poo, if the worms are not given an option to eat anything else!
  • lavender and veggies - http://deepgreenpermaculture.wordpress.com/my-garden/
    native plants picture - katska
    Can use for potting soil, plants flowers trees, as a mulch, soil amendment, top dressing or compost tea!
    Composted materials are ready to use when it looks like rich, brown soil. Try to harvest your compost in the late summer or fall to make room for new leaves.
    doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can, so safe for plants sensitive to certain nutrients like phosphorus
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • too hot for pests, weed seeds, pathogens to survive.
  • too hot for pests, weed seeds, pathogens to survive.
  • maintain high temperature for a couple of weeks.
  • http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/images/composthandful.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/basics.html&usg=__S028ZQ1SwTMqlfEHmJU10VpvMAk=&h=1012&w=1200&sz=659&hl=en&start=17&sig2=RUFwS9y8S7ZHzXcrxghI7g&um=1&tbnid=bNBErDi2ZMp1AM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcompost%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=h3GqSoXaDM6IkAWL-qyVBg
  • maintain high temperature for a couple of weeks.
    http://www.farmanddairy.com/news/keep-compost-weed-free-time-temperature-and-turning-critical-factors/11747.html
    ‘Among the weed seeds that need high temperatures to decompose are common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), bird’s-eye speedwell (Veronica persica), round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), spiny sowthistle (Sonchus asper), ladysthumb (Polygonum persicaria), wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) and broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius).’
  • example problems here. Invite students to share experiences they may have had with composting or worm farming
  • Answers in this case.... but there are many more! Restate the basics carbon/nitrogen/air/water
  • http://www.bokashi.com.au/How-Bokashi-works.htm - bokashi
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502796/ - can o worms
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502734/in/photostream/ - indoor worms
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/arndog/2813529384/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502734/in/photostream/ composting not here!
    http://www.turnandscreen.com/Composting.html#Frontier
    http://www.o2compost.com/images/Application_photos/Horses/Small_Bays/Trueblood.jpg
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Compostingtoilet.jpg
  • http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/images/composthandful.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/basics.html&usg=__S028ZQ1SwTMqlfEHmJU10VpvMAk=&h=1012&w=1200&sz=659&hl=en&start=17&sig2=RUFwS9y8S7ZHzXcrxghI7g&um=1&tbnid=bNBErDi2ZMp1AM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcompost%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=h3GqSoXaDM6IkAWL-qyVBg
  • we can speed up the natural process and use it to our advantage
    http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/
    http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18-day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/
    http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/composting.html
    http://www.compostweek.com.au/

Transcript

  • 1. Hot Composting Glenbrook Native Reserve Spring Fair 12-13 September 2009
  • 2. Why Compost?
  • 3. Australians generate more waste per person than anyone, except Americans
  • 4. Australians generate more waste per person than anyone, except Americans 32 million tonnes of waste each year* 42 % construction and demolition waste 29 % commercial and industrial waste 29 % is municipal or household waste. *Waste and Recycling in Australia, Hyder, 2006
  • 5. in the Blue Mountains we love recycling
  • 6. Council recycles
  • 7. last year we recycled 8% more the year before. That’s great!
  • 8. but we still dig out new landfill areas
  • 9. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
  • 10. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
  • 11. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
  • 12. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
  • 13. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
  • 14. Nature also does Recycling
  • 15. Composting is an ancient practice
  • 16. speeding up what Nature does
  • 17. waste=food
  • 18. http://www.soilfoodweb.com.au
  • 19. Why hot composting? • recycle more of your waste • its fast! Can take just 18 days • break some traditional rules • kills weed seeds, invasive weeds • kills pathogens • do it any time of year
  • 20. How to Hot Compost • create conditions for microbial activity to break material down quickly • get the right mix of ingredients • size at least 1 metre square • small pieces = large surface area • add water - keep it moist
  • 21. Cons of hot composting? • need lots of material - at least 1 square metre 2 m2 and space around to wield pitchfork • turn pile every other day for 2 weeks
  • 22. What do I need? • at least 2m2 + space to work • pitchfork, rake • water supply • old clothes
  • 23. Materials • bacteria attracting - activator • browns - carbon • greens or nitrogen
  • 24. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
  • 25. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
  • 26. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
  • 27. Carbon • office paper, newspaper, non-coated • brown dry leaves or straw • woodchips, sawdust
  • 28. Nitrogen • green leaves, grass clippings, weeds • veggie scraps • worm, animal and human urine • chook and animal manure
  • 29. Value Diversity
  • 30. Carbon:Nitrogen ratios • 1:1 urine • 45:1 dry/brown leaves • 7:1 fish • 250:1 office paper • 12:1 chook manure • 380:1 cardboard • 18:1 cow manure • 50:1 straw • 25:1 green weeds • 50:1 newspaper • 15:1 grass clippings • 500:1 sawdust • 11:1 veggie scraps
  • 31. What can I compost?
  • 32. Seems complicated?
  • 33. Compost Calculator http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/
  • 34. With experience, you can compost almost anything.
  • 35. Follow Simple Rule
  • 36. “If it has lived, it can live again” Geoff Lawton, Permaculture Research Institute
  • 37. How can I use compost? veggie gardens flowers native plants
  • 38. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 39. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 40. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 41. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 42. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 43. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
  • 44. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 45. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 46. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 47. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 48. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 49. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
  • 50. the pile should reach 55-63 degrees celcius within a couple of days too hot for pests
  • 51. the pile should reach 55-63 degrees celcius within a couple of days too hot for pests
  • 52. after that, turn the pile every couple of days turn inside out add water observe
  • 53. compost!
  • 54. Some weed seeds need high temperatures to decompose
  • 55. Problems • not breaking down • smells • powdery white coating
  • 56. Solutions • too much carbon, add nitrogen material • too much nitrogen, add carbon/mix pile • mix the pile
  • 57. other composting methods • small, home waste recycling • bokashi - anaerobic • worm farm (inside or outdoors)
  • 58. more composting methods • composting toilets • multiple compost bays • large scale windrow
  • 59. Let’s make compost!
  • 60. Information & Resources • http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/ • http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18- day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/ • http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/ composting.html • http://www.compostweek.com.au/
  • 61. Information & Resources • http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/ • http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18- day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/ • http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/ composting.html • http://www.compostweek.com.au/