0
Hot Composting
Glenbrook Native Reserve Spring Fair
      12-13 September 2009
Why Compost?
Australians generate more waste per
person than anyone, except Americans
Australians generate more waste per
person than anyone, except Americans
                32 million tonnes of waste each y...
in the Blue Mountains we love recycling
Council recycles
last year we recycled 8% more the year
          before. That’s great!
but we still dig out new landfill areas
how do we reduce landfill waste?

throwing away less food


buying food and other goods with less
packaging


take our own ...
how do we reduce landfill waste?

throwing away less food


buying food and other goods with less
packaging


take our own ...
how do we reduce landfill waste?

throwing away less food


buying food and other goods with less
packaging


take our own ...
how do we reduce landfill waste?

throwing away less food


buying food and other goods with less
packaging


take our own ...
how do we reduce landfill waste?

throwing away less food


buying food and other goods with less
packaging


take our own ...
Nature also does
   Recycling
Composting is an
 ancient practice
speeding up what
  Nature does
waste=food
http://www.soilfoodweb.com.au
Why hot composting?
• recycle more of your waste
• its fast! Can take just 18 days
• break some traditional rules
 • kills...
How to Hot Compost

• create conditions for microbial activity
  to break material down quickly
 • get the right mix of in...
Cons of hot composting?


• need lots of material - at least 1 square
  metre 2 m2 and space around to wield
  pitchfork
•...
What do I need?


• at least 2m2 + space to work

• pitchfork, rake
• water supply
• old clothes
Materials

•   bacteria attracting -
    activator
•   browns - carbon
• greens or nitrogen
Activators
• comfrey, yarrow, nettles
• fish, animal manure
• old compost
Activators
• comfrey, yarrow, nettles
• fish, animal manure
• old compost
Activators
• comfrey, yarrow, nettles
• fish, animal manure
• old compost
Carbon




• office paper, newspaper, non-coated
• brown dry leaves or straw
• woodchips, sawdust
Nitrogen
• green leaves, grass clippings,
  weeds
• veggie scraps
• worm, animal and human urine
• chook and animal manure
Value Diversity
Carbon:Nitrogen ratios
•   1:1 urine
                           •   45:1 dry/brown leaves
•   7:1 fish
                    ...
What can I compost?
Seems complicated?
Compost Calculator




http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/
With experience,
you can compost
almost anything.
Follow Simple Rule
“If it has lived,
     it can live again”
            Geoff Lawton, Permaculture Research Institute
How can I use compost?




          veggie gardens




 flowers




                           native plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Benefits of Compost

• reduce waste
• save money
• save water
• nutrition for soil organisms
• healthier plants
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
Build the pile
• 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns
• overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1
• pile up ingredients, shred if possib...
the pile should reach
55-63 degrees celcius
within a couple of days




   too hot for pests
the pile should reach
55-63 degrees celcius
within a couple of days




   too hot for pests
after that, turn the pile
 every couple of days



  turn inside out
  add water
  observe
compost!
Some weed seeds need
 high temperatures to
     decompose
Problems


• not breaking down
• smells
• powdery white coating
Solutions

• too much carbon, add
 nitrogen material
• too much nitrogen, add
 carbon/mix pile
• mix the pile
other composting
     methods
• small, home waste recycling
 • bokashi - anaerobic
 • worm farm (inside or outdoors)
more composting
   methods

• composting toilets
 • multiple compost bays
• large scale windrow
Let’s make compost!
Information &
            Resources
•   http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/

•   http://permaculture.org.au/2008/0...
Information &
            Resources
•   http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/

•   http://permaculture.org.au/2008/0...
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Hot composting v5_images.key

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the first half of a composting workshop given at Glenbrook (NSW) Native Plant Reserve's Spring Fair 2009. To complete, go outside and make hot compost. This methodology for composting works where ever you are on the planet.

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  • image (cc) Kat Szuminska
  • picture from permacultureresearchinstitute.org
  • picture http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/3590939898/
    Alot of rubbish goes in landfill. Each Australian household generates about 400 kilograms of waste per year, placing us amongst the top 10 generators of household waste in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
    http://www.spinneypress.com.au/208%20Waste%20and%20Recycling.html
    Australians generate more than 32 million tonnes of waste each year¹. Of this, 42 per cent is construction and demolition waste, 29 per cent is commercial and industrial waste and 29 per cent is municipal or household waste.
    http://www.afgc.org.au/index.cfm?id=565
    http://books.google.com.au/books?id=B-oyXrUVWFkC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=kilograms+of+waste+per+year+in+australia&source=bl&ots=RbKR43vkXE&sig=40XWEo1_7jXmnLpKsiJCLM70iO0&hl=en&ei=lUKqSvSrCtWMkAWtvZiVBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  • Alot of rubbish goes in landfill. Each Australian household generates about 400 kilograms of waste per year, placing us amongst the top 10 generators of household waste in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
    http://www.spinneypress.com.au/208%20Waste%20and%20Recycling.html
    Australians generate more than 32 million tonnes of waste each year¹. Of this, 42 per cent is construction and demolition waste, 29 per cent is commercial and industrial waste and 29 per cent is municipal or household waste.
    http://www.afgc.org.au/index.cfm?id=565
    http://books.google.com.au/books?id=B-oyXrUVWFkC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=kilograms+of+waste+per+year+in+australia&source=bl&ots=RbKR43vkXE&sig=40XWEo1_7jXmnLpKsiJCLM70iO0&hl=en&ei=lUKqSvSrCtWMkAWtvZiVBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  • last year we recycled 8% more than the year before (reported in the local paper)
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • images c/o bmcc website - an extension is planned for Blaxland.
  • we can speed up the natural process and use it to our advantage
  • ‘Prehistoric farming people discovered that if they mixed manure from their domesticated animals with straw and other organic waste, such as crop residues, the mixture would gradually change into a fertile soil-like material that was good for crops. Composting remained a basic activity of farming until the twentieth century, when various synthetic fertilizers were found to provide many of the nutrients occurring naturally in compost.’

    Read more: http://science.jrank.org/pages/1671/Composting-History.html#ixzz0RHZ8wqYr
  • ‘Prehistoric farming people discovered that if they mixed manure from their domesticated animals with straw and other organic waste, such as crop residues, the mixture would gradually change into a fertile soil-like material that was good for crops. Composting remained a basic activity of farming until the twentieth century, when various synthetic fertilizers were found to provide many of the nutrients occurring naturally in compost.’

    Read more: http://science.jrank.org/pages/1671/Composting-History.html#ixzz0RHZ8wqYr
  • In truth what ever organic material you throw away its food for something else, with or without our permission. kitchen scraps to green yard waste.
    worms http://www.flickr.com/photos/25652913@N03/2852789914/sizes/m/
    seagull http://www.flickr.com/photos/roger_g1/518012703/
    possum http://www.flickr.com/photos/wollombi/86671986/
    lyre http://www.flickr.com/photos/chop/2217671242/
    dog (my neighbours’)


    We can’t eat the stuff we recycle. Where does food you don’t eat go?
  • We can take advantage of what we know about how the soil food web works to break down our waste products into soil, to grow more other stuff. Diagram reproduced with permission of SoilFoodWeb
  • recycles your waste and your neighbours’
    fast - 18 days
    kills weed seeds
  • make compost pile directly on top of earth, or some space in your garden where you want to kill existing plants, grass, weeds etc. worms and other creatures can travel through the soil in the yard.
    will be a good place to grow stuff later
  • how activator works
    function of carbon
    function of nitrogen
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/little_yiye/3482084521/in/photostream/ = ducks
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/amberdc/37689554/sizes/o/ - comfrey
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/423508812/ - compost
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/alishav/3571371833/

    the paper, not the cat
  • picture reproduced with permission http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/composting/compost_pf.php
    add picture of horses, cows, other animals whose poo we can use.
  • Give compost a varied diet, you’re feeding microbes and funghi
    pictures of different ingredients, mix it up! Macro and micro nutrients
  • Ask students for their ideas of which other materials to compost, mulch, coffee grounds, straw, lucerne, grass clippings, other animal manure.
  • Don’t worry about oranges, onions or the odd bit of dairy. People have used roadkill as an activator
  • What can’t I compost? Check with the council on what waste you are not allowed to process. eg. dog and cat poo. Vermicomposting can deal with dog poo, if the worms are not given an option to eat anything else!
  • lavender and veggies - http://deepgreenpermaculture.wordpress.com/my-garden/
    native plants picture - katska
    Can use for potting soil, plants flowers trees, as a mulch, soil amendment, top dressing or compost tea!
    Composted materials are ready to use when it looks like rich, brown soil. Try to harvest your compost in the late summer or fall to make room for new leaves.
    doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can, so safe for plants sensitive to certain nutrients like phosphorus
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • doesn’t force feed the plants like a fertilizer can. you can’t over-compost something.
  • too hot for pests, weed seeds, pathogens to survive.
  • too hot for pests, weed seeds, pathogens to survive.
  • maintain high temperature for a couple of weeks.
  • http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/images/composthandful.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/basics.html&usg=__S028ZQ1SwTMqlfEHmJU10VpvMAk=&h=1012&w=1200&sz=659&hl=en&start=17&sig2=RUFwS9y8S7ZHzXcrxghI7g&um=1&tbnid=bNBErDi2ZMp1AM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcompost%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=h3GqSoXaDM6IkAWL-qyVBg
  • maintain high temperature for a couple of weeks.
    http://www.farmanddairy.com/news/keep-compost-weed-free-time-temperature-and-turning-critical-factors/11747.html
    ‘Among the weed seeds that need high temperatures to decompose are common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), bird’s-eye speedwell (Veronica persica), round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), spiny sowthistle (Sonchus asper), ladysthumb (Polygonum persicaria), wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) and broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius).’
  • example problems here. Invite students to share experiences they may have had with composting or worm farming
  • Answers in this case.... but there are many more! Restate the basics carbon/nitrogen/air/water
  • http://www.bokashi.com.au/How-Bokashi-works.htm - bokashi
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502796/ - can o worms
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502734/in/photostream/ - indoor worms
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/arndog/2813529384/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/siftnz/3353502734/in/photostream/ composting not here!
    http://www.turnandscreen.com/Composting.html#Frontier
    http://www.o2compost.com/images/Application_photos/Horses/Small_Bays/Trueblood.jpg
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Compostingtoilet.jpg
  • http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/images/composthandful.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/departments/recycle/basics.html&usg=__S028ZQ1SwTMqlfEHmJU10VpvMAk=&h=1012&w=1200&sz=659&hl=en&start=17&sig2=RUFwS9y8S7ZHzXcrxghI7g&um=1&tbnid=bNBErDi2ZMp1AM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcompost%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=h3GqSoXaDM6IkAWL-qyVBg
  • we can speed up the natural process and use it to our advantage
    http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/
    http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18-day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/
    http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/composting.html
    http://www.compostweek.com.au/
  • Transcript of "Hot composting v5_images.key"

    1. 1. Hot Composting Glenbrook Native Reserve Spring Fair 12-13 September 2009
    2. 2. Why Compost?
    3. 3. Australians generate more waste per person than anyone, except Americans
    4. 4. Australians generate more waste per person than anyone, except Americans 32 million tonnes of waste each year* 42 % construction and demolition waste 29 % commercial and industrial waste 29 % is municipal or household waste. *Waste and Recycling in Australia, Hyder, 2006
    5. 5. in the Blue Mountains we love recycling
    6. 6. Council recycles
    7. 7. last year we recycled 8% more the year before. That’s great!
    8. 8. but we still dig out new landfill areas
    9. 9. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
    10. 10. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
    11. 11. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
    12. 12. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
    13. 13. how do we reduce landfill waste? throwing away less food buying food and other goods with less packaging take our own bags to the shops recycle food and garden waste
    14. 14. Nature also does Recycling
    15. 15. Composting is an ancient practice
    16. 16. speeding up what Nature does
    17. 17. waste=food
    18. 18. http://www.soilfoodweb.com.au
    19. 19. Why hot composting? • recycle more of your waste • its fast! Can take just 18 days • break some traditional rules • kills weed seeds, invasive weeds • kills pathogens • do it any time of year
    20. 20. How to Hot Compost • create conditions for microbial activity to break material down quickly • get the right mix of ingredients • size at least 1 metre square • small pieces = large surface area • add water - keep it moist
    21. 21. Cons of hot composting? • need lots of material - at least 1 square metre 2 m2 and space around to wield pitchfork • turn pile every other day for 2 weeks
    22. 22. What do I need? • at least 2m2 + space to work • pitchfork, rake • water supply • old clothes
    23. 23. Materials • bacteria attracting - activator • browns - carbon • greens or nitrogen
    24. 24. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
    25. 25. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
    26. 26. Activators • comfrey, yarrow, nettles • fish, animal manure • old compost
    27. 27. Carbon • office paper, newspaper, non-coated • brown dry leaves or straw • woodchips, sawdust
    28. 28. Nitrogen • green leaves, grass clippings, weeds • veggie scraps • worm, animal and human urine • chook and animal manure
    29. 29. Value Diversity
    30. 30. Carbon:Nitrogen ratios • 1:1 urine • 45:1 dry/brown leaves • 7:1 fish • 250:1 office paper • 12:1 chook manure • 380:1 cardboard • 18:1 cow manure • 50:1 straw • 25:1 green weeds • 50:1 newspaper • 15:1 grass clippings • 500:1 sawdust • 11:1 veggie scraps
    31. 31. What can I compost?
    32. 32. Seems complicated?
    33. 33. Compost Calculator http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/
    34. 34. With experience, you can compost almost anything.
    35. 35. Follow Simple Rule
    36. 36. “If it has lived, it can live again” Geoff Lawton, Permaculture Research Institute
    37. 37. How can I use compost? veggie gardens flowers native plants
    38. 38. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    39. 39. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    40. 40. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    41. 41. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    42. 42. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    43. 43. Benefits of Compost • reduce waste • save money • save water • nutrition for soil organisms • healthier plants
    44. 44. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    45. 45. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    46. 46. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    47. 47. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    48. 48. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    49. 49. Build the pile • 1/3 manure + 2/3 greens & browns • overall carbon:nitrogen 25/30:1 • pile up ingredients, shred if possible • make a lasagne! • keep adding water • cover if heavy rain expected
    50. 50. the pile should reach 55-63 degrees celcius within a couple of days too hot for pests
    51. 51. the pile should reach 55-63 degrees celcius within a couple of days too hot for pests
    52. 52. after that, turn the pile every couple of days turn inside out add water observe
    53. 53. compost!
    54. 54. Some weed seeds need high temperatures to decompose
    55. 55. Problems • not breaking down • smells • powdery white coating
    56. 56. Solutions • too much carbon, add nitrogen material • too much nitrogen, add carbon/mix pile • mix the pile
    57. 57. other composting methods • small, home waste recycling • bokashi - anaerobic • worm farm (inside or outdoors)
    58. 58. more composting methods • composting toilets • multiple compost bays • large scale windrow
    59. 59. Let’s make compost!
    60. 60. Information & Resources • http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/ • http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18- day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/ • http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/ composting.html • http://www.compostweek.com.au/
    61. 61. Information & Resources • http://www.milkwood.net/content/view/47/30/ • http://permaculture.org.au/2008/07/26/18- day-compost-the-appliance-of-science/ • http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/LivingGreener/ composting.html • http://www.compostweek.com.au/
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