Tag Gardening Activities for Folksonomy
     Maintenance and Enrichment



     Katrin Weller & Isabella Peters
       Hei...
Motivation


    How to combine the dynamics of freely chosen
     How to combine the dynamics of freely chosen
    tags w...
Two Sides of the Same Coin


• Aim 1: Optimizing folksonomies for specific application
  scenarios.

• Aim 2: Maintaining ...
The Two Sides of Tag Gardening
Some Problems of Unstructured
Folksonomies

• Spelling variants, translations, abbreviations and
  synonyms have to be con...
Source:
http://flickr.com/photos/jup3nep/2473905053/
Some problems of unstructured
folksonomies




    Tag cloud of the user„MarmaladeToday’s“ for
    Tag cloud of the user„M...
Some approaches:
Adding structure to folksonomies




            Del.icio.us
            Del.icio.us




                ...
Some solutions:
Adding structure to folksonomies




                                   Flickr.com
                       ...
The Folksonomy Tag Garden
Tag Gardening

• Term coined by James Governor:
  „Like plants or animals, tags evolve in an emergent
  fashion, open to h...
Levels of Tag Gardening
Document collection vs. single document level:
  Simple form: editing the tags of one single docum...
Tag Gardening Activities:
 1. Weeding

• Removing “bad tags“: spelling variants (plural vs. singular,
  conflation of mult...
Tag Gardening Activities:
2. Seeding
• Extending the folksonomy with rarely used “seedlings“
  if high-frequency tags do n...
Tag Green Houses


• Problem: high-frequent tags provide high recall – but low
  precision and low degrees of discriminati...
Tag Gardening Activities:
  3. Landscape Architecture

• Shaping the folksonomy into “flower beds“, distinguishing
  simil...
Synonym interrelation and distinction of homonyms.
Hidden Semantic Relations
      in Folksonomies




Source for image: http:// www.flickr.com
Tag Gardening Activities:
4. Fertilizing

• Combination of folksonomies and KOS during indexing
  and retrieval.
• Aim: en...
Tag Gardening Activities:
Fertilizing Type 1 and 2



• Fertilizing Type 1
  Fertilizing a folksonomy with semantic struct...
Tag Gardening in Practice


Possibilities
   – Editing and deleting functionalities for tags on
     personal and document...
Gardening support: Power tags and co-
occurences as candidates and starting points

Steps:

• Detecting power tags on the ...
Personal Tag Gardening

• Our approach: TagCare
  (www.tagcare.org, currently under development)

• „take care of your tag...
Personal Tag Gardening


Use of TagCare – first version


•    Adding, deleting and editing of tags
•    Hierarchical stru...
Tag Gardening Community

Solution for small, closed communties and
development of shared vocabularies:
Community tagging p...
Collaborative Tag Gardening


Challenges and open questions
   – Who may perform editing actions? Who is an
     authorize...
Challenges and open questions

• The three elements of folksonomies (resources – people –
  tags) constitute a three-dimen...
Conclusions & Outlook

• Folksonomies may be enriched with semantics to achieve
  a combination of vocabulary dynamics and...
Thank You

  Best regards from Düsseldorf!




Contact:   katrin.weller@uni-duesseldorf.de
           isabella.peters@uni-...
Seeding Weeding Fertilizing - Tag Gardening for Folksonomy Maintenance
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Seeding Weeding Fertilizing - Tag Gardening for Folksonomy Maintenance

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Seeding Weeding Fertilizing - Tag Gardening for Folksonomy Maintenance

  1. 1. Tag Gardening Activities for Folksonomy Maintenance and Enrichment Katrin Weller & Isabella Peters Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf Institute for Language and Information Dept. of Information Science Presentation at I-Semantics, Triple-I Conference 2008. Graz, 04. September 2008
  2. 2. Motivation How to combine the dynamics of freely chosen How to combine the dynamics of freely chosen tags with the steadiness and complexity of tags with the steadiness and complexity of controlled vocabularies? controlled vocabularies?
  3. 3. Two Sides of the Same Coin • Aim 1: Optimizing folksonomies for specific application scenarios. • Aim 2: Maintaining and enriching knowledge organization systems (KOS, e.g. ontologies or thesauri) with folksonomy terms. Tag Gardening!
  4. 4. The Two Sides of Tag Gardening
  5. 5. Some Problems of Unstructured Folksonomies • Spelling variants, translations, abbreviations and synonyms have to be considered for query formulation and indexing. • Tags serve a variety of functions, not just content description (e.g. “toread”, “@Henry”). • Tags enable browsing by popularity – but not navigation by meanings and semantic interrelations. • Even on a personal level unstructured tags may become unmanageable.
  6. 6. Source: http://flickr.com/photos/jup3nep/2473905053/
  7. 7. Some problems of unstructured folksonomies Tag cloud of the user„MarmaladeToday’s“ for Tag cloud of the user„MarmaladeToday’s“ for 1.157 bookmarks. Source: del.icio.us (5.03.2008). 1.157 bookmarks. Source: del.icio.us (5.03.2008).
  8. 8. Some approaches: Adding structure to folksonomies Del.icio.us Del.icio.us Bibsonomy.org Bibsonomy.org
  9. 9. Some solutions: Adding structure to folksonomies Flickr.com Flickr.com
  10. 10. The Folksonomy Tag Garden
  11. 11. Tag Gardening • Term coined by James Governor: „Like plants or animals, tags evolve in an emergent fashion, open to hybridisation. Stewardship can help grow and put roots down. Helping the darwinian process is tag gardening.“ • We define tag gardening as any activity to edit, reeingineer, manipulate or organize tags – in order to make them more productive and effective. Tag gardening is performed on top of existing folksonomies. Users may tag as usual, afterwards gardenig activities may be performed for optimization and user support.
  12. 12. Levels of Tag Gardening Document collection vs. single document level: Simple form: editing the tags of one single document. Complex task: handling all tags in a folksonomy system. Personal vs. collaborative level: Personomy level: single users edit the personal tags they use within a system. Folksonomy level: enabling a user community to collaboratively maintain all tags in use. Intra- and cross-platform level: Usual case: consider only tags within one platform. Broader view: for some cases the use of consistent tags across different platforms will be useful.
  13. 13. Tag Gardening Activities: 1. Weeding • Removing “bad tags“: spelling variants (plural vs. singular, conflation of multi-word tags) and spam through “pesticides“. • Aim: enhancing recall and a consistent indexing vocabulary. • Achieved by – type-ahead functionality during indexing, – editing functionalities for tags after the application (remove, change, etc.), – Natural Language Processing of index tags and search tags, – indexing and retrieval tutorials or guidelines for users, – authorized users as gardeners Simplest form of tag gardening
  14. 14. Tag Gardening Activities: 2. Seeding • Extending the folksonomy with rarely used “seedlings“ if high-frequency tags do not sufficiently discriminate resources. • Aim: enhancing precision and expressiveness of the folksonomy. • Achieved by – displaying an inverse tag cloud during indexing or particular “green house“ areas where the seedlings may develop and grow, – discrete tag suggestions during indexing.
  15. 15. Tag Green Houses • Problem: high-frequent tags provide high recall – but low precision and low degrees of discrimination. Tag „Design“ on Tag „Design“ on Del.icio.us. Del.icio.us. • Seedlings or „Baby tags“ as additional entry points to explore document collections. • Promoting baby tags via alternative display options like – „New tags“ / trends – „infrequent tags“ / inverse tag cloud
  16. 16. Tag Gardening Activities: 3. Landscape Architecture • Shaping the folksonomy into “flower beds“, distinguishing similar looking “plants“, identifying their “species“, branding each species with labels and giving additional information regarding their application area. • Aim: enhancing precision and expressiveness of the folksonomy by adding semantics. For query expansion along semantic relations, for enhanced navigation, as basis for semantic-oriented display. • Achieved by – conflation of multi-language tags, – summarization of synonyms, – distinction of homonyms, – establishment of semantic relations, – field-based tagging
  17. 17. Synonym interrelation and distinction of homonyms.
  18. 18. Hidden Semantic Relations in Folksonomies Source for image: http:// www.flickr.com
  19. 19. Tag Gardening Activities: 4. Fertilizing • Combination of folksonomies and KOS during indexing and retrieval. • Aim: enhancing precision and recall and the expressiveness of the folksonomies by adding semantics, for query expansion during retrieval via semantic relations, for enhanced indexing functionalities, for enhanced navigation within the folksonomy, as basis for semantic-oriented displays. • Achieved by – semantic-oriented tag suggestions during indexing and retrieval ( tag suggestions not based on tag popularity to avoid “success breeds success-effect”) – establishment of semantic relations by mappings to KOS (after indexing)
  20. 20. Tag Gardening Activities: Fertilizing Type 1 and 2 • Fertilizing Type 1 Fertilizing a folksonomy with semantic structures from other knowledge organization systems. • Fertilizing Type 2 Fertilizing a structured knowledge organization system (ontology, thesaurus) with user-generated terminologies.
  21. 21. Tag Gardening in Practice Possibilities – Editing and deleting functionalities for tags on personal and document level. – Detecting and labeling semantic relations. – Use of power tags as candidates on document collection level. – Co-occurence computations as starting points. – Tools for personal tag gardening on personomy level. – Collaborative tag gardening in (small) communities. – Power users as chief gardeners in communities.
  22. 22. Gardening support: Power tags and co- occurences as candidates and starting points Steps: • Detecting power tags on the resource level • Computing co-occurences of power tags with the whole tag collection • Result: distribution and power tags on co- occurence level Power relations as candidates for new folksonomy structuring approaches Data retrieved 2008-05-15 from del.icio.us
  23. 23. Personal Tag Gardening • Our approach: TagCare (www.tagcare.org, currently under development) • „take care of your tags“ TagCare imports personal tags from different tagging platforms and allows to manage them centrally for better personal overview. Personal structured tag vocabulary for: • Personal infomation management (PIM) • Consistent tagging across platforms (functionalities under development). • Search in folksonomy-based systems (e.g. use pre- cooked personal synonym lists).
  24. 24. Personal Tag Gardening Use of TagCare – first version • Adding, deleting and editing of tags • Hierarchical structuring of tags • Interrelating of synonyms • Labeling of otherwise related tags • Statistics on tag frequencies
  25. 25. Tag Gardening Community Solution for small, closed communties and development of shared vocabularies: Community tagging plus single information architects. Information architect: Information architect: builds a structured thesaurus builds a structured thesaurus and enhances it with tags. and enhances it with tags. establishes structures between establishes structures between loose tags (emergent semantics). loose tags (emergent semantics). Community: Community: applies tags and applies tags and performs minor editing performs minor editing activities. activities.
  26. 26. Collaborative Tag Gardening Challenges and open questions – Who may perform editing actions? Who is an authorized user? – Which tags are spam? – How can users collaborate, which aspects are determined collectively? – Can tagging guidelines be applied? – …
  27. 27. Challenges and open questions • The three elements of folksonomies (resources – people – tags) constitute a three-dimensional knowledge space: domain – community – expressiveness. • Conflicts are caused, if all three elements should be considered to large extents simultaneously.
  28. 28. Conclusions & Outlook • Folksonomies may be enriched with semantics to achieve a combination of vocabulary dynamics and structure. • Aim: improved information retrieval on personomy and collection level. • Manual and semi-automatic approaches may be combined. • Tag gardening may first be applied to small communities or small application domains. • Solutions for bigger communities are needed, „chief gardeners“ as first approach. • Future work: development of TagCare, analysis of types of semantic relations for folksonomy enrichment, tagging for support of ontology or thesaurus development.
  29. 29. Thank You Best regards from Düsseldorf! Contact: katrin.weller@uni-duesseldorf.de isabella.peters@uni-duesseldorf.de http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/infowiss/

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