Approaches to Analyzing ScientificCommunication on TwitterA project of the researchers group „Science and the Internet“Kat...
Background: Science and the Internet                                       6 projects                                     ...
Background: Science and the InternetThe projects      Digital genres of                            Law and scientific     ...
Background: Science and the InternetCurrent activities             Doctoral class                    Media trainings      ...
Background: Science and the InternetCurrent activities                                 HHU-QUT exchange
Scientific Microblogging?How can scientific tweets be identified?                     Based on content                    ...
Analyzing Conference Tweets                     • Selection of conferences          Data       • Collection of tweets base...
Data Collection
Automatic Analysis
Number of tweets per hourhour                                   Time Series: #mla09
User Network based on RTs: #mla09
Retweet-Networks over TimeData from Digital Humanities Conference 2010 (7-10 July 2010), Source:: Puschmann, C., Weller, K...
Number of tweets                         20                              40                                   60          ...
User Activities: #mla09                         40  Number of @-messages                         35                       ...
Manual Analysis
Categorization Scheme for Tweet Contents 1. Level: Content                      2. Level: Purpose      1.1 Related to scie...
Tweet Contents                           Are tweets dealing with the scientific topics                                of t...
Tweet Contents                                                      Purposes of tweets (multiple categories per tweet)    ...
Citation Analysis on Twitter
Citations and References  • Document A cites Document B = A includes a reference to B.  • There is an information flow fro...
Citations and References on Twitter?
External and Internal Citations
Overlap of External and Internal Citations
Overlap of External and Internal Citations
What is Highly Cited?
What is Highly Cited?
URL Categories: #www2010
URL Categories: #mla09
Future Work              Inclusion of additional conferences,                   comparision of disciplines              Mo...
Greetings from Düsseldorf!Dr. Katrin Weller                                  Dr. Cornelius PuschmannDept. of Information S...
Further Reading• Weller, K., & Puschmann, P. (2011, in press). Twitter for Scientific Communication: How Can  Citations/Re...
Selected References • Boyd, D., Golder, S., Lotan, G.: Tweet, tweet, retweet: Conversational aspects of   retweeting on Tw...
Sources for images Page 3: Second Life: http://www.beekeepergroup.com/is-second-life-relevant/ “Blog” keyboard: http://www...
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Approaches to Analyzing Scientific Communication on Twitter

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Presented at "The World According to Twitter" Workshop. Brisbane, Australia, 28. June, 2011.

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Approaches to Analyzing Scientific Communication on Twitter

  1. 1. Approaches to Analyzing ScientificCommunication on TwitterA project of the researchers group „Science and the Internet“Katrin Weller & Cornelius PuschmannHeinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfThe World According to Twitter workshop.Brisbane, Australia. June 28, 2011.Slides are online: http://www.slideshare.net/katrinweller
  2. 2. Background: Science and the Internet 6 projects 8 persons 5 disciplines 1 overall topic NFGWIN http://nfgwin.uni- duesseldorf.de/en/node
  3. 3. Background: Science and the InternetThe projects Digital genres of Law and scientific publication Educational beliefs internet usage Change of the “Publication” concept Citations in Web 2.0 3D environments
  4. 4. Background: Science and the InternetCurrent activities Doctoral class Media trainings Courses Guest for lectures academic staff Conference Work across subprojects September Scientific 2012, Twitter Düsseldorf usage
  5. 5. Background: Science and the InternetCurrent activities HHU-QUT exchange
  6. 6. Scientific Microblogging?How can scientific tweets be identified? Based on content Based on persons Based on formats
  7. 7. Analyzing Conference Tweets • Selection of conferences Data • Collection of tweets based on Collection conference hashtags • Time series Automatic • Most active users Analysis • User-networks • Categorization of tweet contents Manual • Key question: Are tweets dealing with Analysis the scientific topics of a conference? • URLs in tweets („external citations“) Citation • Retweets („internal citations“) Analysis
  8. 8. Data Collection
  9. 9. Automatic Analysis
  10. 10. Number of tweets per hourhour Time Series: #mla09
  11. 11. User Network based on RTs: #mla09
  12. 12. Retweet-Networks over TimeData from Digital Humanities Conference 2010 (7-10 July 2010), Source:: Puschmann, C., Weller, K., & Dröge, E. (2011). Studying Twitterconversations as (dynamic) graphs: visualization and structural comparison. Presented at General Online Research, 14-16 March 2011,Düsseldorf, Germany. Retrieved from http://ynada.com/posters/gor11.pdf.
  13. 13. Number of tweets 20 40 60 80 0 140 160 100 120 samplereality mlaconvention briancroxall kfitzMLAdeconvention triproftri amandafrench jcmeloni nowviskie User Activities: #mla09 academicdave NewFacMajority JenHoward ryancordell amandalicastro wpwend42 amndw2 georgeonline eetempleton mkirschenbaum spikenlilli annecmccarthy ericganderson warnick alogemann derekbruff christydena EMiC_project profsyn kwissoker lizlosh mini_mia mkgold
  14. 14. User Activities: #mla09 40 Number of @-messages 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 @-messages sent @-Nachrichten gesendet @-Nachrichtenreceived @-messages empfangen
  15. 15. Manual Analysis
  16. 16. Categorization Scheme for Tweet Contents 1. Level: Content 2. Level: Purpose 1.1 Related to scientific 2.1 Communication with topics of conference [YES] others [COM] 1.2 Not related to scientific 2.2 Conference-related topics of conference [NO] tweets [CONF] 2.3 Self-referential tweets 1.3 undefined [NA] [ME] 2.4 Media-sharing [URL] 2.5 undefined [NA] RTs excluded
  17. 17. Tweet Contents Are tweets dealing with the scientific topics of the conference? (RTs excluded) 2500 keineavailable Not Angabe Nein No Ja Yes Number of tweets 2000 155 1500 105 938 1000 1.002 500 953 308 0 #mla09 #mla09 #www2010 #www2010
  18. 18. Tweet Contents Purposes of tweets (multiple categories per tweet) 60 Percentage of tweets (RTs excluded) 53,8 % 50 #www2010 40 #mla09 30,9 % 31 30 % 27 % 27,3 % 21 20 % 17,8 15,5 % % 15,4 % 1098 382 10 439 386 630 220 428 364 5% 218 101 0 CONF URL COM ME NA
  19. 19. Citation Analysis on Twitter
  20. 20. Citations and References • Document A cites Document B = A includes a reference to B. • There is an information flow from B to A. • Document B receives a citation (and thus reputation). Citing Cited Document A Document B As pointed out by Reputation B, everything will „Everything will be allright. be allright!“ Information Reference: see Document B.
  21. 21. Citations and References on Twitter?
  22. 22. External and Internal Citations
  23. 23. Overlap of External and Internal Citations
  24. 24. Overlap of External and Internal Citations
  25. 25. What is Highly Cited?
  26. 26. What is Highly Cited?
  27. 27. URL Categories: #www2010
  28. 28. URL Categories: #mla09
  29. 29. Future Work Inclusion of additional conferences, comparision of disciplines More detailed analysis of datasets based on people Identification of „user types“ Longitudinal study: Usage patterns over time
  30. 30. Greetings from Düsseldorf!Dr. Katrin Weller Dr. Cornelius PuschmannDept. of Information Science Dept. of English Language and LinguisticsHeinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf Heinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfUniversitätsstr. 1, Geb. 23.21.04.68, Universitätsstr. 1, Geb. 23.11.01.21D-40225 Düsseldorf D-40225 DüsseldorfE-Mail: weller@uni-duesseldorf.de E-Mail: cornelius.puschmann@uni- duesseldorf.deTwitter: @kwelle Twitter: @coffee001 Acknowledgements: @knuurps @free5pirit @ParrPar #nfgwin #iwhhu Evelyn Julia Parinaz Dröge Verbina Maghferat
  31. 31. Further Reading• Weller, K., & Puschmann, P. (2011, in press). Twitter for Scientific Communication: How Can Citations/References be Identified and Measured? To appear in: Proceedings of the Poster Session at the Web Science Conference 2011, Koblenz, Germany. Preprint: http://www.websci11.org/fileadmin/websci/Posters/153_paper.pdf• Weller, K., Dröge, E., & Puschmann, C. (2011). Citation Analysis in Twitter: Approaches for Defining and Measuring Information Flows within Tweets during Scientific Conferences. In Matthew Rowe, Milan Stankovic, Aba-Sah Dadzie, & Mariann Hardey (Eds.), Making Sense of Microposts (#MSM2011), Workshop at Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2011), Crete, Greece (pp. 1-12). CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol. 718. http://sunsite.informatik.rwth- aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-718/• Puschmann, C., Weller, K., & Dröge, E. (2011). Studying Twitter conversations as (dynamic) graphs: Visualization and structural comparison. Poster presented at General Online Research (GOR 11), 14-16 March 2011, Düsseldorf, Germany. Retrieved from http://ynada.com/posters/gor11.pdf.• Dröge, E., Maghferat, P., Puschmann, C., Verbina, J., & Weller, K. (2011). Konferenz-Tweets. Ein Ansatz zur Analyse der Twitter-Kommunikation bei wissenschaftlichen Konferenzen. In Joachim Griesbaum, Thomas Mandl, Christa Womser-Hacker (Eds.), Information und Wissen: global, sozial und frei? Proceedings des 12. Internationalen Symposiums für Informationswissenchaft (pp. 98- 110). Boizenburg: VWH.
  32. 32. Selected References • Boyd, D., Golder, S., Lotan, G.: Tweet, tweet, retweet: Conversational aspects of retweeting on Twitter. In R. H. Sprague (Ed.), Proceedings of the 43rd Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 10), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE (2010) • Ebner, M., & Reinhardt, W. (2009). Social networking in scientific conferences: Twitter as tool for strengthen a scientific community. In U. Cress; V. Dimitrova, & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines.4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2009 Nice, France. Berlin: Springer. • Letierce, J., Passant, A., Decker, S., & Breslin, J. G. (2010). Understanding how Twitter is used to spread scientific messages. In Proceedings of the Web Science Conference (WebSci10): Extending the Frontiers of Society On-Line, Raleigh, NC, USA. • Priem, J., & Costello, K. L. (2010). How and why scholars cite on Twitter. In C. Marshall; E. Toms, & A. Grove (Eds.), Proceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting on Navigating Streams in an Information Ecosystem, Pittsburgh, PA, USA (pp. Article No. 75). New York, NY: ACM. • Ross, C., Terras, M., Warwick, C., & Welsh, A. (2011). Enabled backchannel: Conference Twitter use by digital humanists. Journal of Documentation, 67(2), 214– 237.
  33. 33. Sources for images Page 3: Second Life: http://www.beekeepergroup.com/is-second-life-relevant/ “Blog” keyboard: http://www.timelesswebs.com/make-money-blog-money-blog/ Wikipedia citations: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brisbane Page 4 (media trainings), pages 6, 9, 15, 19, 29: Microsoft ClipArt. Photos from Düsseldorf / Brisbane (pages 4,5, 30) by Katrin Weller.

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