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Ch1 introduction

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  • 1. Invitation to the Life Span Chapter 1– The Science of Development
  • 2. Defining Development The scienceof human development… seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age—change over time.
  • 3. 3 important elements inLife Span Psychology It’s a science Studies all kinds of people- all ages, ethnicities, races, sex etc. Studies changes from conception to death
  • 4. The Nature-Nurture Debate Nature refers to the influence of genes which we inherit. Nurture refers to environmental influences, such as: health and diet of the embryo’s mother family school community society
  • 5. Development is multidirectional
  • 6. Development Is Multicontextual HISTORICAL CONTEXT- All persons born within a few years of one another are said to be a cohort, a group defined by the shared age of its members.
  • 7. Multi-contextual con’t Socioeconomic Context socioeconomic status (SES) A person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence.
  • 8. Development Is Multicultural Culture - patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next. Ethnic group - People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion
  • 9. Development is Multi-Disciplinary
  • 10. Plasticity Development Is Plastic Human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does).
  • 11. Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
  • 12. Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic Theory A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
  • 13. Theories of Human Development Erickson’s Stages Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but, he also described three adult stages.
  • 14. Theories of Human Development Behaviorism A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also called learning theory, because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
  • 15. Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory -Albert Bandura An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them.
  • 16. Theories of Human Development Cognitive Theory Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. Focuses on changes in how people think over time. Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
  • 17. Theories of Human Development Systems Theory Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
  • 18. Understanding How and Why Five basic steps of the scientific method: On the basis of theory, prior research, or a personal observation, pose a question. Develop a hypothesis, a specific prediction, that can be tested. Test the hypothesis. Design and conduct research to gather empirical evidence (data). Draw conclusions. Use the evidence to support or refute the hypothesis. Report the results. Share the data and conclusions, as well as alternative explanation.
  • 19. Using the Scientific Method Scientific Observation requires the researcher to record behavior systematically and objectively. May be done in a naturalistic setting such as a home, school, or other public place. May be done in a laboratory.
  • 20. Using the Scientific Method The Experiment establishes causal relationships among variables. independent variable-the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. dependent variable- the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds.
  • 21. Using the Scientific Method experimental group- gets a particular treatment (the independent variable). comparison group (also called a control group), which does not get the treatment.
  • 22. Using the Scientific Method The Survey Information is collected from a large number of people by interview, questionnaire, or some other means. Acquiring valid survey data is not easy. Some people lie, some change their minds. Survey answers are influenced by the wording and the sequence of the questions.
  • 23. Studying Development over the Life Span Cross-sectional Research Groups of people of one age are compared with people of another age. Longitudinal Research Collecting data repeatedly on the same individuals as they age. Cross-sequential Research Study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and follow them over the years (a longitudinal approach).
  • 24. Using the Scientific Method
  • 25. Ethics Each academic discipline and professional society involved in the study of human development has a code of ethics. Researchers must ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless. Subjects (participants in research) must give informed consent- they must understand the research procedures and any risks involved.