Elements of Poetry and Scansion

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  • is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocritus' short pastoral poems, the Idylls.
  • The pastourelle is a typically Old Frenchlyric form concerning the romance of a shepherdess. Villanelles do not tell a story or establish a conversational toneA villanelle has only two rhyme sounds.
  • Elements of Poetry and Scansion

    1. 1. What is poetry?
    2. 2. A form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities with or without its apparent meaning.
    3. 3. It is derived from the Greek word poiesis, meaning "making" or "creating‖
    4. 4. often uses particular forms and conventions to expand the literal meaning of the words, or to evoke emotional or sensual responses
    5. 5. What are the origins of poetry?
    6. 6. Many ancient works, from the Vedas to the Odyssey, appear to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
    7. 7. The oldest surviving poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (Mesopotamia, now Iraq), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus.
    8. 8. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, Iliad and Odyssey, and the Indian epics, Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
    9. 9. What are the genres of poetry?
    10. 10. POETIC GENRES Narrative Poetry Satirical Poetry Epic Poetry Lyric Poetry Dramatic Poetry
    11. 11. Narrative Poetry Tells a story May be the oldest genre of poetry Includes epics, ballads, idylls and lays
    12. 12. Epic Poetry It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons.
    13. 13. Dramatic Poetry Is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying and sometimes related forms in many cultures. uses the discourse of the characters involved to tell a story or portray a situation.
    14. 14. Satirical Poetry A punch of an insult delivered in verse often written for political purposes. A notable example is that of the Roman poet Juvenal.
    15. 15. Lyric Poetry Portrays the poet's own feelings, state of mind, and perceptions. Derived from the word "lyre―; implies that it is intended to be sung Includes sonnets, elegy, ballads, odes , villanelles and pastourelles
    16. 16. What are the basic elements of poetry?
    17. 17. Basic Elements of Poetry RHYTHM is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry.
    18. 18. Basic Elements of Poetry RHYTHM the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line.
    19. 19. RHYTHM THUS, when we describe the rhythm of a poem, we ―scan‖ the poem and mark the stresses (/) and absences of stress (^) and count the number of feet.
    20. 20. Kinds of feet (English): Iamb — unstressed syllable (^) followed by a stressed syllable (/) iamb ^ The (^/) /^ / ^ /^ / ^/^ / ^ / falling out of faithful friends renewing is of love
    21. 21. Trochee — one syllable followed unstressed syllable stressed by an trochee (/^) /^ Double, /^ double / ^ toil and /^ trouble
    22. 22. Anapest (^^/) — two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable anapest ^ ^ /^ ^ / I am monarch of all ^ ^/ I survey
    23. 23. Dactyl (/^^) — one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables dactyl (/^^) / ^ ^ / ^^ Take her up tenderly
    24. 24. Spondee (//) — two together stressed syllables Pyrrhic (^^) – two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter)
    25. 25. Spondee and pyrrhic are called feet, even though they contain only one kind of stressed syllable. They are never used as the sole meter of a poem. But inserted now and then, they can lend emphasis and variety to a meter.
    26. 26. / ^ ^ / ^ ^ Tossed by the tempest from / /^ / pole unto pole;
    27. 27. Basic Elements of Poetry METER the number of feet in a line
    28. 28. Basic Elements of Poetry METER Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter)
    29. 29. Basic Elements of Poetry METER is often scanned based on the arrangement of "poetic feet" into lines.
    30. 30. Commonly used names for line lengths monometer 1 foot pentameter 5 feet dimeter 2 feet hexameter 6 feet trimeter 3 feet heptameter 7 feet octameter 8 feet tetrameter 4 feet
    31. 31. Some examples of metric system Iambic pentameter. It contains five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb‖ Dactylic hexameter. It has six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the dactyl.
    32. 32. REMEMBER! 1 foot = 1 syllable with a stress and 1or 2 syllables without a stress. trochee (/^) /^ Double, /^ double / ^ toil and /^ trouble
    33. 33. iamb (^/) ^ The /^ / falling out ^ /^ / ^/^ / ^ / of faithful friends renewing is of love Number of feet: 7 Meter: IAMBIC HEPTAMETER
    34. 34. anapest ^ ^ /^ ^ / I am monarch of all Number of feet: 3 Meter: ANAPESTIC TRIMETER ^ ^/ I survey
    35. 35. dactyl (/^^) / ^ ^ / ^^ Take her up tenderly Number of feet: 2 Meter: DACTYLLIC DIMETER
    36. 36. TRY THE FOLLOWING SCANSION EXERCISES!
    37. 37. #1 If this be error and upon me proved I never writ, nor no man ever loved. #2 Alas! What hereby shall I win If he gainsay me?
    38. 38. #3 As fair art thou, my bonnie lass So deep in love am I: And I will love thee still, my dear, Till a’ the seas gang dry.
    39. 39. #4 Continuous, as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay:
    40. 40. Basic Elements of Poetry RHYME consists of identical (hard-rhyme) or similar (soft-rhyme) sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines (internal rhyme).
    41. 41. Basic Elements of Poetry THEME can be described as the soul of a poem
    42. 42. Basic Elements of Poetry THEME what the poet wants to express through his words.
    43. 43. Basic Elements of Poetry THEME may either be a thought, a feeling, an observation, a story or an experience.
    44. 44. Basic Elements of Poetry SYMBOLISM virtual substances and themes to express the deep hidden meaning behind the words.
    45. 45. Basic Elements of Poetry SYMBOLISM The use of symbolism gives a more reflective empathy to the poem.
    46. 46. Basic Elements of Poetry ALLITERATION the repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables.
    47. 47. Basic Elements of Poetry ALLITERATION several words in a line may be beginning from the same word for example 'musical melody of the mystic minstrels'.
    48. 48. Basic Elements of Poetry FIGURES OF SPEECH Used when words and phrases that help the reader to picture ordinary things in new ways are chosen in poetic lines
    49. 49. Another important thing to know STANZA consists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem.
    50. 50. COUPLETS stanzas of only two lines which usually rhyme TERCETS stanzas of three lines. QUATRAINS stanzas of four lines.

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