Many people would agree that fear is one of the most powerful motivators of human behavior. Fear of injury makes us buckle our seat belts. Fear of failure makes us study or work harder.
Do you think that fear is a great motivator?
Take a few minutes and write about what motivates you and whether you would use fear to motivate someone else.
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
Groomed from an early age to take over his grandfather’s congregation in Massachusetts
Entered Yale University at 13 years old
Became one of the most important theologians in American history
Wrote several sermons
Began a religious revival known as The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a response to the declining number of people who still followed traditional Puritanism.
It called for deeper devotion and connection to God
It was often preached in very detailed and dramatic sermons, like the one we will hear today.
When you read or listen to an argument, determine what type of persuasive argument is being used:
Logos, Ethos, or Pathos
Appeals to logic (the Mind)
Uses definitions, analogies, factual data, statistics, and quotations
Repetition of words, phrases, or ideas
Uses citations from experts and authorities
Causes a cognitive, rational response
FAVORED IN ACADEMIC SETTING
Appeals to values and ethics (Right and wrong)
Uses language appropriate to audience and subject
Presents a sincere, fair minded approach
Asks questions of right and wrong
Presents author or speaker as being reliable and respectful of audience
Asks audience to make a value judgment
OFTEN USED IN LAW
Appeals to emotions
Uses vivid, concrete language
Uses emotionally loaded language
Includes emotional, personal examples
Uses figurative language
Evokes an emotional response
MOST POWERFUL APPEAL
Which is which?
“ Haven’t I always been trustworthy?”
“ Studies show that teens whose parents trust them have higher self esteem.”
“ If you don’t let me go, I won’t have any friends!”
“ Don’t I usually fill up the tank when I borrow the car?”
“ You hate me!”
“ Teens whose parents trust them usually act in a trustworthy manner.”
“ If you let me do this, then I will have a better attitude toward chores.”
“ Is it right that many of my friends have a later curfew than I do?”
Jonathan Edwards uses several types of figurative language in his sermon. They include metaphor, simile, and imagery.
A figure of speech that makes a clear comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles.
“ He is like an ape.”
“ His girlfriend is as cold as Beyonce.”
A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without saying the specific words like, as, than, or resembles.
A metaphor usually compares two things by saying that something “ is ” something else, or by putting them together in such a way that they are compared.
“ Life is a circus.”
“ Love is a dream.”
Metaphors can be extended over several lines of text, and these extended metaphors often compare things over the length of those lines.
The use of language to cause a picture or other sensory experience (like taste or smell) in the mind of the reader.
“ The streetlights in the park lit up the autumn leaves in a way that made them seem more brightly colored than they really were. There was a crisp scent of fall everywhere– the smell of burning wood and cool air.”
Follow along in the text book as the audio version is played for you.
As you are following along, answer the questions on the organizer.
Is credibility ( being believable or having a good reputation ) important? How important is it that Edwards was a well-known, well-respected theologian? Does his credibility contribute to the work?
Who is the audience? How does Edwards demonstrate an awareness of his audience?
According to the sermon, what keeps sinners out of the fiery “pit of hell”?
Identify at least one metaphor Edwards used.
Give a synonym for the word abhors.
What does Edwards mean by the statement “the door of mercy” are wide open.