Sustainable Passenger Transportation in
Urban Areas


              By Silvia Di Ponte and Katja Kavcic


                ...
Points of presentation and
discussion
          EU initiatives and policies in the field of
           urban transport

 ...
Urban traffic is responsible for 40% of CO2
emissions and 70% of emissions of other
pollutants arising from road transport...
EU on Urban
  Mobility
Legislation and Initiatives

              Legislation                                 Initiatives


   Legislative initi...
Best practices
Bicycle Routes in Graz
   13 main bicycle routes (83 km) were defined in Graz, during the
    Bicycle Focal Point 2007/20...
London Congestion Charge
   Central Zone since the 17th February 2003. Western
    Extension 19th February 2007

   Char...
The “PediBus” idea for Terranuova (Tuscany)
                                    Who is involved: children of Primary Scho...
Ljubljana
urban region
Ljubljana Urban Region (LUR)
   The City of Ljubljana population: 270.000

   LUR (Ljubljana urban region) population:
 ...
Internal characteristics of the region -
transport
                Strengths                              Weaknesses

   ...
Annual greenhouse gas emissions by sector in
Slovenia (= 1000 tons) in CO2 equivalents


 25000
                          ...
Research on
    public
transport use
 in Ljubljana
Number of passengers
    using a bus in 1000
95
90
85
80
       2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Statistical Yearbook of L...
2. Public opinion survey, conducted by the Faculty of Social
Sciences at the University of Ljubljana on different location...
Why is passenger
  public transport
(PPT) in Ljubljana
   undeveloped?
The last spatial plan for Ljubljana is 15
years old
 The spatial plan is a document of the municipality and is a
  basis ...
The City of Ljubljana is preparing a new
Municipality spatial plan

It consists of Strategic spatial plan and Implementati...
What has been
   done?
 Civitas
 Urbana (directed into payment policy)
 Regional Development Agency of the Ljubljana urban
 region is the hold...
CIVITAS-ELAN project

   The mayors of the cities of
    Ljubljana, Gent, Zagreb, Brno and Porto
    have agreed to a com...
18 common headline objectives                  Expected CIVITAS results:


Among them:                                 Amo...
URBANA

   Uniform City Urban card (URBANA) is
    contactless smart card for residents and
    visitors of Ljubljana

 ...
Regional Development Agency of the
Ljubljana urban region – RRA LUR

               Priorities                     Guideli...
Integrated Public Passenger
Transport (IPPT)

             Has been done                            Will be done



   Ta...
What is planned?
On a government level                       On a City level



   Congestion charge (legislation is      Integrated publ...
Recommendations
What needs to be done?


             Key steps                        How to do it?


   1st step: Improvement of the   ...
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Presentation Urban Mobility Final

  1. 1. Sustainable Passenger Transportation in Urban Areas By Silvia Di Ponte and Katja Kavcic Learn, Apply, Communicate Web conference June 11th, 2009 IIIEE, Lund University, Sweden
  2. 2. Points of presentation and discussion  EU initiatives and policies in the field of urban transport  Best practices  The state of passenger public transport in Ljubljana  Actions that could help to create more sustainable mobility for passengers in Ljubljana
  3. 3. Urban traffic is responsible for 40% of CO2 emissions and 70% of emissions of other pollutants arising from road transport.  Throughout Europe, increased traffic in town and city centers has resulted in chronic congestion, with the many adverse consequences that this entails in terms of delays and pollution.  Every year nearly 100 billion Euros, or 1% of the EU's GDP, are lost to the European economy as a result of this phenomenon.  European towns and cities are all different, but they face similar challenges and are trying to find common solutions.
  4. 4. EU on Urban Mobility
  5. 5. Legislation and Initiatives Legislation Initiatives  Legislative initiatives have been  European Platform on Mobility Management developed, sometimes in a rather fragmented way  European Local Transport Information Service  Green Paper: Towards a new  Civitas Initiative – Clean and Better Transport in Cities culture for urban mobility [COM(2007)55]  ManagEnergy – Directorate for Energy and Transport  No Action Plan yet  Sustainable Energy Europe Campaign  European Mobility Week  EXTRA – Connecting transport research solutions to European Transport Policy
  6. 6. Best practices
  7. 7. Bicycle Routes in Graz  13 main bicycle routes (83 km) were defined in Graz, during the Bicycle Focal Point 2007/2008. They consist of tempo 30-zone streets, tempo 50 streets and bicycle tracks. (120km bicycle tracks already exist)  They claim to be the fastest connection between the inner city and the periphery and suburbs of Graz, for work, leisure and shopping traffic.  The project is more an awareness campaign than an infrastructural campaign: the aim is showing people the fastest connections  What‟s new? - priority in maintaining them - signposted with new, bigger and innovative signs - just painted signs on the pavements to attract users‟ attention - they have been included in the new bicycle map  Now the rout look like a star. The next objective is make them look like a spider web  bikers are not simply tolerated but strongly desired
  8. 8. London Congestion Charge  Central Zone since the 17th February 2003. Western Extension 19th February 2007  Charge: 8£ daily (about 9.5€), from 7.00 to 18.00, Monday till Friday.  Payable:online,SMS,phone,post,shop.Otherwise: £120 Penalty Charge.  Discounts: residents, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, disabled drivers, motorbikes…  Setting up cost was £200 million. Cost of running the scheme is around £115 million a year (1)  Benefits since the scheme started (2) : - Traffic entering the original charging zone: 21% lower than pre-charge levels (70,000 fewer cars a day) + Traffic entering the Western Extension: fallen by 14% (-30,000 cars a day) - 6% increase in bus passengers during charging hours - 12% increase in cycle journeys into the Western Extension - £137m raised, in the financial year 2007/08, to invest back into improving transport in London
  9. 9. The “PediBus” idea for Terranuova (Tuscany)  Who is involved: children of Primary School  Where: TerranuovaBracciolini, 11.181 inhabitants.  What: PediBus (FootBus). It consists in walk with children instead to drive them to the school. An adult should collect them along a stated pathway and take them to school  Why: Even if it‟s a small project, in a small scale, it could be useful in *reducing the amount of Km run by cars, thus air pollution (PM10, NOx…CO2) and car traffic in the small centre,* educating children and *making people more sensitive to environmental issues.  How: The pathway should be constituted of 2 major lines of about 1 Km (see the chart), starting from the 2 main ends (following the longitudinal length/axis of the town) and arriving to the school ( approx in the middle).  How much Km by car could be avoided? Yearly child‟s responsibility: 200 days x 4km = 800 km 300 children‟s responsibility: 240.000 km 240.000km = 35 travels Roma-New York
  10. 10. Ljubljana urban region
  11. 11. Ljubljana Urban Region (LUR)  The City of Ljubljana population: 270.000  LUR (Ljubljana urban region) population: 500.000, which is ¼ of Slovenian population  In last 20 years the number of LUR inhabitants grew twice as fast as Slovenian average  No. of migrations per day in LUR: 100.000 (90% of daily migrations: by car)  LUR region: good access by car, very bad access by public transport
  12. 12. Internal characteristics of the region - transport Strengths Weaknesses  Ljubljana lies on the crossroads of  In the last 10 years the use of the European transport corridors 5 passenger cars has increased to and 10. the level of Western Europe.  Road and railway infrastructures Thus air pollution with are more or less already photochemical smog constructed for long-term needs of increased, and traffic congestion the region. has not decreased essentially despite the construction of  A high concentration of population highways.
 situated along transport corridors enables the development of public transport.  By using personal transport the use of public transport is  flat land - good possibilities for decreasing in the region and cycling and walking. with it the supply of services.
  13. 13. Annual greenhouse gas emissions by sector in Slovenia (= 1000 tons) in CO2 equivalents 25000 other 20000 waste 15000 agriculture fuel in 10000 households fuel in industry 5000 indusrty 0 energy transport Source: TGP, The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2008
  14. 14. Research on public transport use in Ljubljana
  15. 15. Number of passengers using a bus in 1000 95 90 85 80 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Ljubljana, 2008 1. Research of urban passenger transport during the European Week (questionnaire for passengers on public transport): • Buses should be of better quality (air-conditioning, lower emissions and noise) • Frequency should be improved • Drivers should drive more carefully and be more friendly
  16. 16. 2. Public opinion survey, conducted by the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana on different locations of the corridor in Ljubljana (October and December 2008) Means of transport used:  33,2 % of the respondents used their car for going to work or school, 11,4 % are walking and 9,8 % are using the public transport (bus). Of those using a car 75,8 % are even driving alone. A desired change:  strongly in favor of the construction of parking facilities P & R  establishment of a unified e- ticketing  implementation of passenger information services on electronic displays on bus stops  hybrid bus implementation is supported most by respondents
  17. 17. Why is passenger public transport (PPT) in Ljubljana undeveloped?
  18. 18. The last spatial plan for Ljubljana is 15 years old  The spatial plan is a document of the municipality and is a basis to regulation and development of the city.  Problems with developing a plan:  absence of regional planning  flexibility of current decision-making  lack of state funding for transport projects  Lack of government interest. Words of Mr. Drasler from the Ministry of Transport: „The oil and transport lobby is very strong‟
  19. 19. The City of Ljubljana is preparing a new Municipality spatial plan It consists of Strategic spatial plan and Implementation plan. Drafts are done, Strategic spatial plan has already been assessed (specific comment on parking spaces) The priorities of the new spatial plan are:  Ljubljana has to retain quality of the environment  promoting the urbanization within the motorway ring  extend the main roads  open up new economic and commercial zone by the railway
  20. 20. What has been done?
  21. 21.  Civitas  Urbana (directed into payment policy)  Regional Development Agency of the Ljubljana urban region is the holder of the project quot;Professional base for managing public transport in the regionquot;, financed by the 24 municipalities of the Ljubljana urban region and co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund.  The Ministry of Transport has been working on Integrated Public Passenger Transport (IPPT) projectin the Republic of Slovenia since February 2007.
  22. 22. CIVITAS-ELAN project  The mayors of the cities of Ljubljana, Gent, Zagreb, Brno and Porto have agreed to a common mission statement:  “To „mobilize‟ our citizens by developing with their support clean mobility solutions for vital cities, ensuring health and access for all.”
  23. 23. 18 common headline objectives Expected CIVITAS results: Among them: Among them:  Implementing effective, high quality  Target Congestion and related mobility solutions pollution as most crucial problems  Planning intermodal infrastructure  Improving public transport with public participation quality (especially demanded by citizens)  Charging for access  Increasing the share of walking and cycling  Improving mobility management  Supporting freight innovative  Making walking and cycling more delivery solutions attractive  Implementing innovative demand  Establishing a mobility dialogue with management the citizens  Using of clean and energy-efficient vehicles  Enhancing traveler information & ticketing
  24. 24. URBANA  Uniform City Urban card (URBANA) is contactless smart card for residents and visitors of Ljubljana  It will be used for payment:  Urban bus, parking spaces provided by the City of Ljubljana, funicular railway  City libraries  cultural events museums
  25. 25. Regional Development Agency of the Ljubljana urban region – RRA LUR Priorities Guidelines  Development of PPT of high  Establishment of Special quality and improvement of regional regulation body citizens‟ mobility  Common interest (on a state  C of traffic congestion level)  Improvement of traffic safety  Intermodal transfer sites  Emissions and noise reduction  Connecting with non- motorized transport  Organizational measures
  26. 26. Integrated Public Passenger Transport (IPPT) Has been done Will be done  Tariff system in the Republic of  The standardization of Slovenia, June 2008 timetables at bus and rail transport, October 2010  Integrated ticketing database, October 2008  Information portal for travelers in the IPPT, April 2011  Establish a comprehensive image of the integrated public transport, June 2010  Information / promotion / education of the public on September IPPT, 2009 December 2012
  27. 27. What is planned?
  28. 28. On a government level On a City level  Congestion charge (legislation is  Integrated public transport and being prepared at the Ministry of ticketing with P+R terminals Transport)  Congestion charge  Higher tax on a purchase of a new or old car  3 times as many bike tracks as there are now, 70% more  Higher tax on fuel and Heavy pedestrian zones in the city Vehicle Fee (HVF) centre, Closing city centre for transport  Hydrogen buses
  29. 29. Recommendations
  30. 30. What needs to be done? Key steps How to do it?  1st step: Improvement of the  The European Union play a overall availability facilitating, , quality, accessibility and  without imposing top-down attractiveness of the public solutions which may not transport necessarily be appropriate for the diverse local  2nd step: Address peoples hearts situations and minds ?

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