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    2012 Solution Chem 2012 Solution Chem Presentation Transcript

    • Unit VIII Chapter 11, Solution Chemistry (Unit II Revisited...)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • BuzzwordsThursday, February 9, 2012
    • OverviewThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview I. TypesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview II. ConcentrationThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview III. Solution ProcessThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview IV. Affects on SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • I. Types of SolutionsThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • SupersaturatedThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Picture by Kira Bolos, 2009Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • II. ConcentrationThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Molarity (M) = moles solute liter solutionThursday, February 9, 2012
    • 1. How would you prepare 35.0 mL of 0.200 M Al(NO3)3?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • 1. How would you prepare 35.0 mL of 0.200 M Al(NO3)3?2. What is the concentration of nitrate ions?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • 1. How would you prepare 35.0 mL of 0.200 M Al(NO3)3?2. What is the concentration of nitrate ions?3. How would you prepare the same solution in #1 if youstarted with 0.500 M Al(NO3)3?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Molality (m) = moles solute kilogram solventThursday, February 9, 2012
    • 4. What is the molality of a 0.200 M Al(NO3)3? The solution has a density of 1.012 g/mL.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Mole Fraction (XA) = moles A total molesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • 5. A solution contains 12.0 g methanol in 100.0 g water. What is the mole fraction of methanol?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • 5. A solution contains 12.0 g methanol in 100.0 g water. What is the mole fraction of methanol? 6. What is the molality of the solution?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Mass Percent = mass solute x 100 total mass solutionThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Mass Percent = mass solute x 100 total mass solution ppm = mass % x 104Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Mass Percent = mass solute x 100 total mass solution ppm = mass % x 104 ppb = mass % x 10 7Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • 7. What is the mass percent of a saturated solution of potassium chlorate at 30˚C?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • 7. What is the mass percent of a saturated solution of potassium chlorate at 30˚C? 8. What is the ppm and ppb of this solution?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Workshop #1Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • OverviewThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview I. TypesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview II. ConcentrationThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview III. Solution ProcessThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview IV. Affects on SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Overview V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. The Solution ProcessThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Forming a Solution + -! + -! + -! + -! + + -! + -! + -! + -! +Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Forming a Solution • The process by which a solid or liquid particles + -! + become interspersed with molecules of a solvent is -! + -! called dissolution or solvation. + -! + + -! + -! + -! + -! +Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Forming a Solution • The process by which a solid or liquid particles + -! + become interspersed with molecules of a solvent is -! + -! called dissolution or solvation. + -! + • The solute particles (ions + -! + or molecules) become surrounded by solvent molecules -! + -! + -! +Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Forming a Solution • The process by which a solid or liquid particles become interspersed with molecules of a solvent is called dissolution or solvation. + -! + • The solute particles (ions or molecules) become surrounded by solvent -! + -! molecules + -! +Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Forming a Solution • The process by which a solid or liquid particles become interspersed with molecules of a solvent is called dissolution or -! solvation. + • The solute particles (ions + -! + -! or molecules) become + -! + surrounded by solvent moleculesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. Solution ProcessThursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. Solution Process • ∆H sol (energy required for solution) = ∆H1 + ∆H2 + ∆H3Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. Solution Process • ∆H sol (energy required for solution) = ∆H1 + ∆H2 + ∆H3 • ∆H 1 = separation of solute particles (endo)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. Solution Process • ∆H sol (energy required for solution) = ∆H1 + ∆H2 + ∆H3 • ∆H 1 = separation of solute particles (endo) • ∆H 2 = separation of solvent particles (endo)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • III. Solution Process • ∆H sol (energy required for solution) = ∆H1 + ∆H2 + ∆H3 • ∆H 1 = separation of solute particles (endo) • ∆H 2 = separation of solvent particles (endo) • ∆H = attractive interactions between solute & solvent 3 particles (exo)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Energy DiagramThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Energy Diagram Overall Endo or Exo depending on result of all three processes... (See 11.2)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent InteractionsThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent Interactions 1. “Like Dissolves Like”Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent Interactions 1. “Like Dissolves Like” 2. Solubility increases w/ increasing molecular mass or polarity.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent Interactions 1. “Like Dissolves Like” 2. Solubility increases w/ increasing molecular mass or polarity. 3. Alcohols decrease with increasing C chain.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent Interactions 1. “Like Dissolves Like” 2. Solubility increases w/ increasing molecular mass or polarity. 3. Alcohols decrease with increasing C chain. Example: Which would dissolve in CCl4? In water?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility A. Solute-Solvent Interactions 1. “Like Dissolves Like” 2. Solubility increases w/ increasing molecular mass or polarity. 3. Alcohols decrease with increasing C chain. Example: Which would dissolve in CCl4? In water? C2H6, Na2SO4, HCl, I2Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. PressureThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k PgasThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k Pgas a. Cgas = solubility of gas in solution phase (M)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k Pgas a. Cgas = solubility of gas in solution phase (M) b. k = constant (M)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k Pgas a. Cgas = solubility of gas in solution phase (M) b. k = constant (M) c. Pgas = partial pressure of gas over solutionThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k Pgas a. Cgas = solubility of gas in solution phase (M) b. k = constant (M) c. Pgas = partial pressure of gas over solution Ex. Calculate the concentration of CO2 in a so" drink a"er the bottle is opened and equilibrates at 25˚C under a CO2 partial pressure of 3.0 x 10-4 atm. Constant k = 3.1 x 10-2 mol/L•atmThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility B. Pressure 1. Solubility of any gas in any solvent is increased with increasing pressure. 2. Henry’s Law Cgas = k Pgas a. Cgas = solubility of gas in solution phase (M) b. k = constant (M) c. Pgas = partial pressure of gas over solution Ex. Calculate the concentration of CO2 in a so" drink a"er the bottle is opened and equilibrates at 25˚C under a CO2 partial pressure of 3.0 x 10-4 atm. Constant k = 3.1 x 10-2 mol/L•atm 9.3 x 106 MThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting SolubilityThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility C. TemperatureThursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility C. Temperature 1. Solubility for solid solutes increases w/ increasing T.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • IV. Factors Affecting Solubility C. Temperature 1. Solubility for solid solutes increases w/ increasing T. 2. Solubility for gaseous solutes increases w/ decreasing T.Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Workshop #2Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties A.DefinedThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties A.Defined Physical properties that depend on the number of solute particles, not type of solute particlesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties B.Vapor PressureThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties B.Vapor Pressure 1. When a substance is dissolved in water, what happens to VP?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties B.Vapor Pressure 1. When a substance is dissolved in water, what happens to VP? 2. Nonvolatile vs. Volatile?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties B.Vapor Pressure 1. When a substance is dissolved in water, what happens to VP? 2. Nonvolatile vs. Volatile? 3. Raoult’s LawThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties B.Vapor Pressure 1. When a substance is dissolved in water, what happens to VP? 2. Nonvolatile vs. Volatile? 3. Raoult’s Law • VP (solution) = (Xsolvent) (VPsolvent)Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties C. Boiling Point ElevationThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties C. Boiling Point Elevation 1. What is boiling point?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties C. Boiling Point Elevation 1. What is boiling point? 2. Why would adding a solute elevate BP?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties C. Boiling Point Elevation 1. What is boiling point? 2. Why would adding a solute elevate BP? 3. ∆Tb = Kb mThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties C. Boiling Point Elevation 1. What is boiling point? 2. Why would adding a solute elevate BP? 3. ∆Tb = Kb m 4. Difference between electrolytes and non- electrolytes?Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative PropertiesThursday, February 9, 2012
    • V. Colligative Properties D. Freezing Point DepressionThursday, February 9, 2012
    • Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • Workshop #3Thursday, February 9, 2012
    • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coloured-transition-metal-solutions.jpg http://costumescenter.com/buzz-lightyear-costume.php http://wallpaper-s.org/42__Aerial_View_of_Niagara_Falls,_Ontario,_Canada.htm http://www.chemistry.nmsu.edu/studntres/chem116/notes/solutions.html http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun05/swgallery2.html http://www.pascack.k12.nj.us/703204118209503/blank/browse.asp?A=383&BMDRN=2000&BCOB=0&C=57245 http://www.faqs.org/photo-dict/phrase/347/hummingbird.html http://www.avon-chemistry.com/stoic_explain.html http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch18/combine.php http://www.educationallearninggames.com/piece-a-pizza-fractions.asp http://www.judytorel.com/training.htmlThursday, February 9, 2012