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Internship report

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  • 1. In the name ofAllah who aremostCompassionate,ever MercifulInternship reportKokab Jabeen1140727-0129/24/2012
  • 2. Sr # Content 1. Introduction o Personal Biography o Session o Taught courses o Motivation/Reason for Internship 2. Host Organization/ Institute Introduction Ongoing programs Specialties Working mechanism Goals/ Target Salient Achievements 3. Focal Person/Immediate Boss/Senior  Name  Behavior towards Internee  Level of Cooperation during work  Guidance to complete tasks
  • 3. 4. Field Work  Name of the Assignment  Introduction  Objectives  Targets  Working Mechanism  Working hours  Visited vicinities/ Locations  Detailed Interventions  Obstacles  Rectifications  Communication with host Department  Salient Learning  Conclusion5. Office work/Institution Based Work  Introduction  Name of the Assignment  Nature of office work  Objectives  Working Mechanism  Working Hours  Obstacles  Rectifications  Communication with seniors  Salient learning  Conclusion6. Relationship of internship with Taught Courses
  • 4. 7. Individual benefit gained from Internship8. Host organization/ Institute gained benefit from internship9. Lesson learned from internship10. Conclusion from internship
  • 5. Email:kokabjabeen@ymail.comPERSONAL PARTICULARSFather’s Name : Muhammad TariqDate Of Birth : 28-03-1990Marital Status : SingleDomicile : Gujrat (PUNJAB)Health : ExcellentNationality : Pakistan Academic qualificationYear Class Subjects Boardongoing M.A Population science UOG2010 B.com Business PU2008 F.A Arts BISE GRW2005 Matriculation Science BISE GRW
  • 6. Relevant Courses Pure and applied mathematics Statistics Computer Applied Computer Skills: Web surfing. Microsoft office. Good at Languages: English Urdu Punjabi Interests: Playing games. Book reading. Objective: To work for the challenging position in an organization order to build professionalcreditability through efficient performance for the long career development and growth.
  • 7. Interpersonal Skills: Able to work under pressure and meet deadlines. Familiar how to work with team Good leadership capability Creative Can play a meaningful role in the development programs. Reference will be provide if required
  • 8. Taught CoursesSemester I Introduction to Introduction to Social StatisticsI ComputerPopulation Sciences Application Introduction to Planning & techniques of Management Population Program 2nd Semester Population & Development Gender & Reproductive Health Population & social Statistics ll Introduction to social sciences social and research method l
  • 9. My career interests: I want to become a best population scientist under the supervision of myrespectable teachers.Reason for internship: My reason for internship is just to get a basic training for my practical life that Ican do best for my nation in future and major reason of internship is to get knowledgeand for learning.
  • 10. Host organization Introduction: Sialkot Urban Resource Center working in Sialkot with the coordination of the Pakistan Urban Observatory UN Habitat. Ongoing Projects 1. Community based solid based managements program. Funded by UN Habitat. Technically assist by Akhtar Hammed Memorial Trust. Supported by Urban Resource Center. Govt. by Community Development Concerns (CDC). 2. Socio-economic survey. 3. Water Aid Program. 4. Tornado effected area rehabitation. Specialties’: Urban Affairs Working Mechanism: The main purpose of SURC is to create interaction among peoples, politicians,and community in a positive sense in order to mobilization of all these for the establishment of aprogressive and peaceful society.In this ways they highlight any social problem on the demand of society and include students ofcivil society and other volunteer organization for the collection of data and compile these dataand find the final results that are beneficial for the society and individualsGoals: To create harmony among society. To create equal opportunity for everyone. To build up skills of individuals. To make policies which are beneficiary for the society?
  • 11. Achievement: Solid waste management. Water Aid Programs Socio-economic survey
  • 12. Focal Person/senior Name: Mr.Moeen Qadir. Behavior toward internee: Focal person’s behavior towards internee was very appreciative and kind. All time, he encourages for work properly and in time. Level of cooperation: During work level of cooperation of focal person was well. He guides all the time properly from all aspects of work that may be field work or office work. I feel comfortable to work with them.Guidance to complete Tasks: It is pleasure to thank my focal person Mr. MOEEN QADIR whose encouragement, supervision and great support from beginning to concluding level enables me to bring this work to completion.
  • 13. Field Work Name of the Assignment: Community Based Solid Waste Management. Community Based Solid Waste Management Introduction:This topic is assigned by the Sialkot Urban Resource Center. The main purpose of this programis to clean the society and make the society sustainable. Before talking about the solid wastemanagement firstly question raise in mind what is solid waste?Definition of Wastes “Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to bedisposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law”Disposal means “Any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation,direct re-use or alternative uses is termed as disposal of anything”Kinds of Wastes: 1. Solid wastes 2. Liquid waste Now I explain the above types of wastes. Solid wastes: Waste in solid form is called as solid waste.Examples: plastics, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash
  • 14. 3. Liquid Wastes: Wastes in liquid form are termed as liquid waste.Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturingindustries and other sources.
  • 15. Solid Waste:Definition:“All wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and that arediscarded as useless or unwanted.” Solid waste is a byproduct and discarded material of differentactivities at household, offices, colleges, schools, universities, hospitals, hotels, shops and othersuch institutions.Composition of solid waste: Paper, packing material, metals, glass, electronic wastes, andplastic and polythene bags are the major contributors of municipal solid waste.Solid waste is unavoidable by product of human activity. Economic development and a risingliving standards in the ASIAN and specific region have led to increases in the quantity andcomplexity of generated waste. Industrial devastation and the provision of expanded health carefacilities have added substantial quantities of industrial hazardous waste and biomedical wasteinto the waste stream with potentially sever environmental and human health consequences.
  • 16. Type of solid waste:Solid waste can be classified in to different types depending upon their resources. 1. Municipal solid waste (MSW) 2. Industrial waste. 3. Agricultural waste. 4. Hazardous waste.  Municipal solid waste: MSW is generated from household, offices, hospital, shops, schools, and other institutions. The major components are food waste, plastic, rags, metal and glass, although domination and construction debris also included collection waste.  Industrial Waste: Typically this range would included paper, packing materials, waste from food processing, oils, solvents, reins, paints and sledges, glass, ceramics, stones, metals, plastics, rubber, leather, wood, cloth, straw etc.
  • 17.  Agriculture Waste: Expanding agricultural production has naturally resulted in increase quantities of livestock waste, agricultural crop residues and agro industrial by-product. Hazardous Waste: It including the lack of qualified personnel to undertake the necessary assessment, the reluctance of industries to provide process information (including waste arising data) and a poor appreciation of the extent to which generated waste is hazardous. Hospital Wastes: Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, or immunization of human beings to animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biological. It may include waste like solid waste, disposal, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This
  • 18. waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if notmanaged in a specific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated thatof the 4kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. Solid Waste ManagementDefinition:“Interrelated system of appropriate technologies and mechanisms involves in thegeneration, collection, storage and processing, transfer and transport and dispoalof solid waste at the lowest possible cost and risk to the health of the people andtheir environment.” Waste management is the collection, transport, processing,recycling, or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relatedto materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reducetheir effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.Solid Waste Management in Pakistan:Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste managementsystem right from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal. Much of theuncollected waste poses serious risk to public health through clogging of drains,formation of stagnant ponds and providing breeding ground for mosquitoes andflies with consequent risk of malaria and cholera. In addition, because of lack ofadequate disposal sites, much of the collected waste finds its way in dumpinggrounds, open pits, ponds, rives, and agricultural land. Solid waste collection,transfer and disposal have become a major problem in cities of Pakistan. Pakistan
  • 19. suffers losses to the tune of Rs. 343.7 billion each year due to the economicimpact of the inadequate sanitation, resulting in 4% loss to the country’s GDP.Over half if Pakistan’s population, 91 million people lack access to adequatesanitation facilities, out of 25 billion people globally. 1.1 billion people who stilldefecate in the open 40 million live in Pakistan the third highest number in theworld. These reports also suggest that hygiene related interventions can mitigate52% of the economic impact. Majority of the economic cost related to inadequatesanitation were health and 71% of the health related costs were due toproductivity lost because of diarrhea. The urban centers of Pakistan aredeveloping rapidly, which are putting the environment under stress. In Pakistanabout 80% of the solid waste is openly dumped along the road side, agricultureland, in drains causing blockages in sewage system and In streams as only51-69% waste is collected by the inadequate waste collection system presently.This waste collection costs represent 80-90% of the municipal solid wastemanagement budget.Due to lack of financial, human and technical resources, municipalities are notable to provide basic services to entire city. Especially the low income areas aredeprived of the basic facilities. Open sewerage lines pose a serious health hazard.Sialkot Urban Resource Center is one of the few organizations working onsanitation at grass root level through community contribution.Sialkot Urban Resource Center:Before discussing about SURC. I want to tell you about the Sialkot. Sialkot issituated 125 km away from Lahore in North West direction. Sialkot was wellorganized and clean city in past many decades. Sialkot is famous city of Pakistanand all over the world for its own leather garments, surgical instrument and sportsgood production and export. During last three decades it make tremendousprogress in development of small and medium industry, which created incomegenerating activities and job opportunity that improve the living standard of focalpeople. This situation is favorable for Urbanization. This higher populationgrowth rate and higher rate of immigrants put the existing municipal system understress and worsen day by day.
  • 20. According to official of Tehsil Muncipal Administartion (TMA), there are about1600 sanitary workers in Sialkot city during 1990 but now this number is reducedto700 people, creating a big gap b/w disposal and solid waste generation. It isfactual situation that working force and resource of TMA are not enough to fulfillthe requirements for the solid waste disposal and sewerage system. TMA is fullyfunctional and operative in some relict areas often deprived from this service. Theperipheral part of the city not only face the improper solid waste management butalso countenance the open dumping site of solid waste along the school, roads andrailway tract.There is a big gap b/w the solid waste generation and disposal capacity of TMA.That’s why people throw solid waste on nearest place. A lot of hump of solidwaste can be observed in the peripheral and poor populated areas.During heavy rain fall openly dumped solid waste on the roads is flushed away insewerage system, which not only blocks the drain but makes the roads thestagnant pools of sewerage water.
  • 21. Sialkot’s solid waste management (SWM) system is in a state of disarray. Out of the 125,000 tons per year of municipal solid waste generated, 25% enters in municipal waste system and remaining 75% of the population without waste collection. 75% population without waste collection 25%enters MWS All municipal waste is either burned, dumped or buried illicitly on vacant land throughout the city, causing significant environmental damage and threatening human health, sanitation and pollution problems. Sialkot’s municipal waste generation is designed to accelerate to 300,000 tons per year by 2030, resulting in an estimated total of 4.3 million tons of municipal waste being generated during 2010-2030Sialkot solid waste %age of wastesFood and organic wastes 40%Plastic and Paper 13%Glass 08%Leather, metal and wood 3-4%Electronic wastes 02%Other wastes 14%
  • 22. Survey indicate there is little variation in the composition of waste from Sialkot’s high, mediumand low income residential communities; variation are generally less than 2% for given wastecomponent.Composition of municipal wastes from commercial and institutional establishment is moredifficult to estimate, sample indicate that they are so also high.Municipal wastes from commercial and institutional %ageFood wastes 40%Paper and cardboard 16%Plastic 13%Smaller fraction of wood 04%Glass 03%Metal 02%Leather 01%Existing Municipal System:The responsibility for Sialkot’s municipal SWM collection, transfer, treatment and disposal restswith infrastructure and deppt. Of the Sialkot TMA. Currently the solid waste management unit ofI & S department has a staff of about 1,156 employees, of whom about 470 are full time regularemployees, the balance being hired on a daily, as-needed basis.Tehsil officer I&S and ChiefOffice HQ are in charge of overall sanitation services. A Chief Sanitary Inspector, with the helpof sanitary inspector, with the help of sanitary inspectors, and sanitary supervisors implement theoverall SWM operations.The balance of staff includes machine drivers; with the balance being unskilled and semi-skilledwaste collectors, road sweepers and laborers.
  • 23. Solid waste management establishment Chief sanitary Sanitary Sanitary Mashki cum Tractor drivers inspector inspector supervisors sanitary workerMunicipal waste collection method:The department’s existing therefore is limited to supporting its large manual labour pool, andoperating a few basic piece of equipment. It operates only 28 rudimentary trailer vehicles for itswaste collection which traverse parts of the city to pick up waste piled daily at 146 designatedcollection points. As there is no properly designed disposal site, these waste are dumped in openareas and waste ground on the outskirts of the city. Currently, the SWM Department onlycollects about 25% of Sialkot’s municipal waste. The balance, which is a startling three quartersof the city’s waste is therefore being dumped, burned or buried illicitly by private individuals andhaulers throughout Sialkot. disposal 25% 75% 25% 75%
  • 24. Burning Wastes at a Sialkot Dumpsite:All the municipal waste, whether being collected by the SWM Department,self disoposed, orpicked up by private waste workers, ends up filling old depressions, river banks, drainagechannels, flood plains, vacant lots or other such areas throughout Sialkot urbanized area. Manyof the dumping grounds utilized are not that noticeable to most people, due to their small size,and hidden and dissipated locations. The damage that they cause to the environment and tonearby communities however is serious. A Sialkot dumping site, which in this case includeswaste which has been set on fire, releasing harmful contaminations into the atmosphere.Sialkot Waste Incinerator:Sialkot currently lacks any industrial solid waste collection, treatment and disposal systems.Virtually all industrial solid wastes are being commingled with general municipal waste anddumped in the same manner throughout the city’s outer lying areas. Sialkot has over 5,000business registered with the Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI), and many ofthem generate significant quantities of industrial waste. The SCCI and many of its members arekeen to address their industrial waste issues.Regarding medical waste management (MWM), the Sialkot TMA has installed a medical wasteincinerator at one of the Govt. hospital, the Allama Iqbal Hospital. The incinerator is supposed toaccept the medical waste of all of Sialkot’s Government and private medical facilities for thermaldestruction. Site inspection however revealed that the incinerator was not functioning, andaccording to local reports, had not functioned for some time.
  • 25. Objectives: 1. To investigate the major problem of solid waste management with the help of my focal person 2. To investigate how the Sialkot Urban Resource Center utilize the solid waste material. 3. To evaluate the minimization of environmental impact and measure the pollution. 4. Effectively link domestic waste disposal with private sector recycling operations at fair price. 5. Access the composition and characteristics of municipal waste in Sialkot. Method: Quantitative research design is used in this context. Research design: Descriptive study design is used in this research project. Research method: Survey research method is used. Tool for data collection: A well designed and authenticated questionnaire is used as tool for data collection. Target population: 125 households from the rural area of Sialkot selected as target population. Sampling frame: All households of Muslim colony were included in sampling frame. Sampling technique: Simple random sampling is used.
  • 26. Sample: Sample is consisted upon 125 households.Pretesting: Pretesting is also used to test the validity of questionnaire.Interviewing media: As the questionnaire was in English but it was translated into Urdu and Punjabi for convince of interviewer
  • 27. General Findings: Problems: Tehsil municipal administration (TMA) solid waste management is poorly resourced TMA is unable to meet its responsibilities. It is basically understaffed so collect only 25% of municipal solid waste. All municipal waste is dumped off in vacant places, plots, along the road sides, drainage channels, river banks and other open areas of city. There is no industrial waste management in Sialkot. Medical waste management in Sialkot is working any how a little bit. Valuable recycled material is thrown away just because of lack of coordination and knowledge. Public awareness about solid waste management is low. The primary segregation of recycled material in Sialkot is largely undeveloped. In short current practices cannot meet even basic level of solid waste management. Solution: To make aware the people about the disadvantages of improper solid waste disposal. Recycle the material in useful way to consume that material in meaningful form. Solid waste management program established to facilitate the public. Switch to reusable transport containers. more efficient collection construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each household construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets greening of their respective areas Encouraging others to join.
  • 28. Targets: 1. Primary collection of 500 Households. 2. Strengthen Municipal capacity. 3. Awareness about the solid waste collection. 4. Reduce health costs of beneficiary household. 5. Reduce drain blockages and clean up vacant plots. 6. Celebrate the weak in remember of clean, from 1st Sep to 6th Sep
  • 29. 7. Collection of household’s wastes and their disposal into Municipal bins. Also Municipal sweepers will clean drains weekly or fortnightly. 8. Collection of waste from bins to final disposal site daily by the Municipality.Working Mechanism: 1. The working mechanisms of field work are door to door interview. 2. We work in field from 9: am to 5: pm. 3. We work in community, and interact with people, politician, and community in positive sense. 4. During that time we highlight the issue and after that we collect the data through door to door interview after collecting data we compile that data and find the result, what is beneficial for society. 5. I followed some rules during field work given to me by my host organization 6. I do not permit to eat during fieldwork. 7. I do not permit to take anything from interviewer 8. I do not permit to drink even water from the field area. 9. Working mechanism is just as that I have done numeration of this program and marking of the households as for the remembrance that data has been collected from this household.
  • 30. 10. During numeration there I was not allowed to enter in the households to get the data. 11. For data collection from households it was necessary to display my UOG ID card. 12. During working in field it was mechanism to work with sincerity and in serious mood.Working Hours:We work in field 8 hours daily, 9: am -5: pm. So working hours were 6 hours because from 2-3PM was lunch break.Visited Vicinities/ Locations: We visited Muslim colony Sialkot in which 625 household overall visited. Out of 625 household 125 households per person visited. Obstacles: There are some obstacles comes during field work During field work I face the bitter behavior of the people. Some people do not co-operate with me to give their information. Some people even use rubbish language with me. Sometimes the weather becomes very unsuitable to work in field properly. Sometimes the behavior of people was so rude that they even close their doors just to see that someone standing outside to take their some information. Interviewer behavior is very big problem in collecting data during field work. I travel more than 5 hours daily to reach my numeration place i.e. from Lalamusa to Sialkot. During this traveling I also suffered lot of problems in which not only behavior of people include as well as my physical tiredness also contributed. Rectifications: Through awareness and education it can be rectify I do not lose my temper during the fieldwork despite the harsh words of people.
  • 31. At that time I do not care about the rude behavior of people with me, Because I was over there just to get the training and during training lot of problems a person must faced. I also faced but I remained determined on my passion of work. The problem of weather does not affect me as such because may that is not suitable to work in field but anyhow the weather was pleasant. I never feel tiredness at all to avoid from work but I motivate myself from daily traveling that it is the real training which will be beneficial for me in my practical life. Communication with Host Department:Communication with host department are well, the focal person fully communicate and guide tous. And guide us appropriately in those two hours. And after field work we go to the office andsubmit the daily report. So over all communication was very strong and that organizationmembers not show any discrimination between us. And not behave us like the internee but wefeel comfortable and full satisfaction by working in that organization.Salient Learning: There is some salient learning that is followings I learn there during fieldwork that first of all how to deal with the different people. How to communicate in field How to make Map? How to mark household number? How to marking household numbering into Map? Field work enhances the confidence level of mine. I travel more than 5 hours a day during fieldwork to reach my place of numeration during that timing I also learned lot of things. Conclusion: There is limited focus on control mechanism which is affecting safety, health and environment. Solid waste management is not the priority for some people but some warmly welcomed this project initiative. Open burning and open disposal is a common practice. So open burning of plastic waste increasing the air pollution
  • 32. and depleting the ozone layer. But our host organization work on this program canimprove the efficiency of the solid waste management. House to house collectionis made available. And this project has taken its first initiative. In short byworking on this project along with Sialkot Urban Resource Center we not onlylearn much more knowledge for practical life but also see the situation of peoplevery closely and feel their feelings from heart.
  • 33. Office work Name of assignment: After collecting data reedit Enter the data into excel Interpret the data into meaningful form for final presentation. Introduction: As the assignment name is indicating that what of work which I have to done.Edit the data to remove all kind of possible mistakes and to make it ready for the finalpresentation. Reconstruct it in meaningful form. So that when this data presented as final workso that hard working done on this project should be seemed.Nature of the office work:The nature of office is that all work would be done on the computer. Microsoft Office is used forthis purpose. As this project assigned to us by our host organization so our main work is just uptill data base entry. SPSS working never done by us as the program was not as own it wasrecommended by our host organization.Objectives: To keep complete command on office work. To get basic training for professional life. To learn the basic skills of computer. Working mechanism: Working mechanism of office work is to just edit the data on papersand then enter this data to make a record in computer. To enter the data in micro soft excel andthen just sum up the some necessary columns and find average of some data to make the resultsclear and easy to find. Working hours: We work in office approximately 8 hours (9: am to 5: pm)
  • 34. Obstacles: There are no as much obstacles comes during office work. Because I have already some basic skills of computer. So there was no difficulty which I faced during office work. During office work was the load shedding problem. Communication with seniors: During office work my communication with my seniorswas continuous, as my Coordinator Mr. Moeen Qadir guides me all the time properly that how towork in office. Salient learning: I already have basic skills of computer but I command on the Microsoftoffice by working on Microsoft excels. Because I never work on excel before this office work.So it improves my skills on computer not little bit but largelyConclusion: Office work is necessary to make the final conclusion about the data collected fromthe households. So this basic office work helps out the organization to draw their conclusioneasily.Relationship of internship with Taught Courses: Internship has strongly related with taught courses except major ones. The relationship with that of taught courses is as following.
  • 35. introduction to social sci social research me social statistics l thod l introduction social to computer statistics ll applicationSocial statistics l: In this course we have studied the basic statistics techniques. In this course we have studied about normal distribution. Social statistics II: In this subject I also have learned about the statistical tests which are most important part of the internship to find out final results In this subject we have learned about the types of sampling In which we are being taught which the basic key to start the research project is. Social research method I: In this subject we read about the social research methods and techniques, different paradigms and basic tools to do better outcomes of research. This course also helps a lot during internship. Introduction to social sciences: In this course I have studied about the behavior of the people.
  • 36. What kind of gestures they show in different conditions and how we can identify such kind of behavior. Introduction to Computer Application: In this course I taught about the basic computer skills, windows, installation and MS office. Individual Benefit Gained from Internship: The following benefit I have gained from the internship program as individual: It strengthens my computer skills. I have a little grip on my talking style. It helps me to increase my confidential level. Due to it I come to know that how people different in different situations. It also helps me out that how to faced the difficulties in life bravely. Host organization gained from Internship: They take a step towards completing theproject on which they are working day and night. So my internship over there helps them a littlebit to complete their project. So my internship over there helps them a little bit to completetheir projectLesson learned from Internship: I have learned the following lesson from the internship; This program improves my skills for a better future. I am also able to discover my hidden skills as well as faults due to internship In short it enhances the confidence level of mine.
  • 37. Conclusion of Internship: Over all conclusion of my internship is as follows. When I start first day I did not think that I was going to be able all such difficult task in the field for six hours a day and six days a week. Once I realized that what I have to do I organized my day and work so that I was not wasting my time but in every new moment I was learning something better. In review this internship has been an excellent and rewarding experience. I have been able to meet with so many people that will be able to help me with opportunities in the future. I have learned from this internship is time management skills. I have learned from internship to self motivation. I enjoy this line of work. This was an excellent experience and I hope that other interns got as much out of it as I did! In conclusion, my internship at Sialkot Urban Resource Center was an outstanding experience. I got a deep and inspiring insight in the office as well as in field work.