Factors affecting urbanization process and how urbanization can be controlled
Urbanization, the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. Natural increase of urbanization can occur if the natural population growth in the cities is higher than in the rural areas.
WorkersIndustrial moved Agriculturalrevolution commercial jobs less hubs
A country is considered to urbanize when over 50 per cent of its population live in the urban areas (Long 1998). An urban area is spatial concentration of people who are working in non-agricultural activities.
Growing center for modern Financial production and industry servicesInternal commerce Education and and foreign trade govt.
Rural area Urban areaEducation High level ofHealth educationSafe drinking water Better facilities ofElectricity healthFresh Food Drinking waterEntertainment ElectricityJobs FoodLow income people. Entertainment Jobs opportunity High level of income
political attention.One problem is tointegrate land- andwater use planning toprovide food andwater security (UNEP1999).
90 million babies are borneach yearAt this rate, by the year2050, global populationwill reach 10 billion.
• Rapid population growth not only lessens available calorie supply from food per Growing demand for person but also risks the present food food and production with pollution. facilities • Agricultural foodProblem to food • Industrial food production
acid co precipitation acidity ofLead waters photochemical pollutants
Pollution due to burning of fuel TrafficTraffic Respiratory jam diseases
Local water bodies are used as alack of sanitation and dumping ground for sewage treatment untreated water from urban areas.
Solid waste management means proper collection, transfer, recycling and disposal of solid wastes. The people end up to the illegal dump on streets, open spaces, wastelands, drains or rivers. Sometimes they are collected to the land sites but the protection of water bodies and groundwater is not active (HABITAT 1996, Ogu 2000).
. Industrial operation Highway Sources of noise Air traffic crafts Construction activities
water is not geographically equally divided and seasonal changes are extensive. In Africa, 14 countries already experience water stress or water shortage. Another 11 countries will join that list in the next 25 years (Somlyódy et al. 2001, Postel 1992). 20% of the world’s pop fall short to safe water
• Environment-related diseases or accidents remainEnvironmental among the major causes of problems illness, injury, and premature death.link between • Poor environment, housingenvironment and living conditions are the main reasons to theand health is diseases and poor health evident.
Atleast once every five years, more than a half of the world’s population living in the cities with 100,000 or more inhabitants are victims of a crime of some kind. urban violence Only in Asia this is estimated to proportion is under grow 3 to 5 50 percent. percent every year
. The houses are often small and overcrowded and 33 to 67 per also lack facilities cent of the like; piped water population lives supplies, the in housing units removal of excreta that are in poor and solid wastes, condition. drainage and roads.
misemployment It means that a person might be full-time employed, but the task performed promotes little to social welfare.
Lack of jobs Inflation Unskilledpopulation unemployme Over nt population
Waste Recycling -Environmental New Challenges of Implication SustainabilityPolicy Responses and Tools to Poverty manage Urbanization
Regional / Urban National planning to planning to guidecontrol urbanization to urbanization to manageable levels manageable situation Tool to manage Intra-urban Participation,management to cope Partnership and with urbanization Governance problems
•Socialism •People were not allowed Socialist to permanently move from model the place of birth to urban area. •This method was not toSouth African control the migration of model single people but decrease migration with families