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    Content analysis of pakistani movies Content analysis of pakistani movies Document Transcript

    • CULTURE, VIOLENCE AND DRESS PATTERN: ACONTENT ANALYSIS OF PAKISTANI URDU MOVIES FROM 2000-2012 Chapter # Contents Page # 1. Introduction 1 Conceptualization 2. and 9 Operationalization Material and 3. 12 methods 4. Coding 15 5. Data Analysis 19 Discussion, 6. Summary and 22 Recommendations 7. References 27 1
    • Chapter 1 IntroductionThe cinema of Pakistan put forward to Pakistan‟s film industry. The majority of characteristicsmovies explosion in Pakistan are in Urdu language but also consist of movies in English,Punjabi, Pashto and Sindhi languages. Pakistan‟s largest film industry is Lollywood.The content analysis of film focuses on the themes of images of dressing, violence and culturalimpact in the Pakistani Urdu film from 2000-2012. Nowadays, Pakistani society a life without the media is only justimaginable whether magazines, newspaper, radio, television, movies or the internet, media isaffecting our everyday lives. The affect of the movies on our daily lives is wonderful and most ofthe time we are not aware of this vast powerful reason. Movie shown on television or in MovieTheater include strong mediated message norms and values related to gender.1.1 Background of Pakistani cinema: Before the partitioning of Bangladesh, Pakistan had three major filmproduction center‟s: Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka. Dhaka was lost after 1971. The government ofMuhammad Zia ul Haq, VCRs, film piracy. The introduction of entertainment taxes and Islamic 2
    • laws, have been some of many obstacles to the industry‟s growth. Once flourishing, the cinemain Pakistan now hardly exists.The Pakistani film industry is created with having produced some of the most famous and wellknown film makers, actors, writer and directors and introducing pop music to south Asia andaway from. Competition from Bollywood and piracy, however has led to the industry‟s decline.Right away following the division, the newly founded Pakistan being a new country faced ashortage of funds. Deficiency of filming equipment further paralyzed the nation‟s film industry.With much hardships faced, the new film industry was able to produce its first characteristicsfilm, yaadon 7 Aug, 1948, premiering at the parbhat theater in Lahore. The following year, evernew studios recognized a studio in a country which would afterward become the biggest filmcompany of the time. More than the next only some years, films that were released reachedordinary success until the release of Do Ansoo on 7 April 1950. Do Ansoo become the first filmto achieve a 35 week performance making it the first film to reach silver jubilee status?Recovery was obvious with Noor Jehan‟s directorial debut Chanwey releasing on 29 April 1951.The film became the 1st film to be directed by female director. Syed Faqir Ahmad Shah producedhis initially production 1952. The Jagga Dakku Saqlain Rizvi was the director the film couldn‟tobtain a larger amount of positive reception by reason of violence exposed in it. As cinemaviewership greater than before, Sassi released on June 1954 reached golden Jubilee positionstaying on screens for 50 weeks. Famous play back singer Ahmed Rushdi started his career April1955 after singing his 1st song in Pakistan Bander Road Se Kemari. Umar Marvi released onMarch 1956 became the 1st Pakistani film made in the Sindhi Language. To celebrate the successof these Endeavours‟s film journalist Ilyas Rashidi launched an annual awarding event on July, 3
    • 1958. Named Nigar Awards, the affair is since then considered Pakistan‟s premier awardingaffair celebrating great performance in various categories of film making.1.2 Era of 2000 to 2012: Directors realized there was even now hope and Javed Sheikh‟s Yeh DilAap Ka Huwa released in 2002 grossing over 200 million rupees crossways Pakistan. Thefinancial prospects were then realized fully and for the first time in twelve years, investorsstarting taking keen interest in Pakistani films.On the other hand, the short period of success in the industry could not keep the cinemas afloat,and the same industry that at one time produced in excess of a 100 films annually a decade agowas at this time reduced to only 32 per year. In Aug, 2007, a new titled Khuda Ke Liye wasreleased. It became popular as a result of its contentious themes of the current problems faced inPakistan. It was also released internationally, including in India, where it became the firstPakistani released after four decades In early 2003, Young film makers took on a posture to show that high quality content could beproduced by the local film industry using the incomplete resources available. Cinema wasdeclining in all major cities of the nation and a need for renewal was echoed in the media. Withprivatization of television stations in full swing, a new channel Filmazia was broadcast, mostlyto broadcast films and productions made indigeniously in the country.Later in 2005, industry official released that the government desired to lift the ban for thescreening of Bollywood films in Pakistan. The issue was voiced by the Film ProducersAssociation (FPA) and the Cinema Owner Association (COA) of Pakistan after the release of thecolourised premastering of the 1960 classic Mughal e Azam. When the government turned down 4
    • the request, Geo Films, a supplementary of Geo TV took on itself to invest in forthcomingPakistani directorial ventures and dubbed their efforts “Revival of Pakistani Cinema” and on 20July, 2007 released Shoaib Mansoor‟s cinematic directorial debut Khuda K Liye. The film wouldafterward become the first Pakistani film since the imposition of the ban in 1965 to be released atthe same time in India and Pakistan. With its common released in India, the four decade ban waslastly lifted. The film was released in more than a 100 cinema in 20 cities in India.In spite of some hopefulness of a solid revival at the turn of the millennium, developmentcontinues to be slow. Alongside Geo Films continued efforts with their „Revival of cinema‟ thePakistan New Cinema Movement was launched in 2009. With around 1400 members PNCM is agrass roots organization that facilitates networking and publishes articles to encourageproduction.Next up are film star Reema Khan‟s directorial project based on Paulo Coehlo‟s VeronicaDecides to Die; film star Shan‟s directorial project Chup introducing model Juggun Kazim to thesilver screen; Syed Noor‟s Price of Honor based supposedly on the Mukhtara Mai rape incident.Shoaib Mansoor is to bring his 2nd film Bol with stars Atif Aslam, Mahira Khan and JugganKazim. Also coming is Syed Faisal Bokhari‟s Bhai Log. Indo Pak American co production Virsastarring Arya Babbar from India and Mehreen Raheal from Pakistan will be releasing in Pakistanand India after its world premiere at the Dallas International Film Festival. Iqbal Kashmir‟s 2 ndfilm Devdas reconstruct of IUndia film, Devdas, and Bengali novel, starring Zara Shiekh, Meeraand Nadeem Shah. Son of Pakistan is based on terrorism in Pakistan and written, directed amdproduced by Jarar Rizvi; it features Shamyl Khan, Sana Nawaz and Meera in lead roles. AamirZafar a film making student, debut as director with Victim which features Humayun Saeed andIrtiza Ruhab in lead roles. Syed Faisal Bukhari‟s 2nd film Saltanat featuring Lollywood debut 5
    • Mona Lizza, Javed Sheikh and Ahsan Khan. Shaan Shaihd‟s 2nd script by Mashal Peezadafeaturing Vannez Ahmad and Naeasha Tamanna, a UK Pakistani production shot totally inPakistan with the sound pathway featuring Rahat Fateh Ali Khan.1.3 Cultural Pattern: Culture can be defined as the collective programming of the mind whichdistinguishes the members of one group of people from those of other. A component of cultureincludes Languages, Normative behavior, values, symbols and stories. Cultures have fourcharacteristics in values pattern that are power distance, individualism and masculinity anduncertainty avoidance. The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs,institutions and all other products of human work and idea. These patterns, characters andproducts considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community or population likePakistani culture, Japanese culture, Indian culture, the culture of poverty. These patterns, traitsand product considered with respect to a particular category, such as a field, subject or made ofexpression, religious culture in the middle ages, musical culture, and oral culture. If I will talkabout the Pakistani culture then firstly thing is language. The ordinary and shared custom ofUrdu language and English language of South Asia was inherited by the new state. Over a periodof time, a body of language unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistanilanguages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pashto, Seraiki, Balochi and Sindhi.1.4 Dressing Pattern: The use of clothing to maintain the dual sexual category has declinedsomewhat as feminine dress codes have full grown more flexible in recent decades, but in periodof fashion when male clothes were regularly functional and feminine clothes frivolous, female 6
    • cross dressing was seen as “ a willful offense in the direction of more power and freedom” (Altenburger 171).As Roland Altenburger writes in the aricles “is it clothes that make the Man? Cross Dressing,Gender, and Sex in Pretwentieth Century Zhu Yingtai Lore”.The attribution of gender like any other social category, is not in the person‟s own hands, butdepend on others recognition. It is the reconfirmation by others that ultimately determines whatcategory one belongs to, such as whether one is perceived as male or female. Cross dressingrelies on make believe, on deception, on the willful manipulation of perception (Altenburger172).There are generally three reasons for cross dressing cited in the literature: cross dressing forreasons related to sexuality, cross dressing as performance and crass dressing as escape (Hawkes261). In this third reason that motivates most historically documented cases of female to malecross dressing. Escape in this context applies to both women who were voluntarily escaping thelimitations of their socially fixed sex roles to pursue male freedom and to women who wereescaping urgent dangers such as poverty and starvation. The numerous options open to a passingwomen might well be seen as appealing alternatives to theft and prostitution, the usual lastresorts for desperate women (Dekker 32).Female cross dressers faced numerous risks for discovery, however among them “lack ofprivacy, illness, punishment, an inadvertently bad performance betrayal by others” (Dekker 20).Punishment for discovered cross dressers could be quite severe and included imprisonment forcharges such as libel and prostitution during the Civil War (Young 201). 7
    • In cross dressing narratives within any genre. The cross dressing heroine‟s return to her femininesex role effectively “contain or even quell any threateningly subversive representation”(Brocklebank 273).This is a compelling message for young audiences who are negotiating the complexities ofcontemporary gender structure. In “Reframing Masculinity: Female To Male Cross Dressing”.Flanagan suggests that children‟s cross dressing texts further reveal a continuum of possiblegenders, demanding that masculinity and femininity. And supposed essential behaviors skills andattributes associated with these two genders be reassessed and reconstructed into something newand meaningful a notion of gender based not on differences and division but on intrinsicallyinterwoven shades of gray where lines can and will be crossed by autonomous individuals whoexist beyond the limitations of male and female (95).Notably, however these radical notions of gender in the context of young adult and childrensfiction are completely disconnected from adult themes of lesbianism and transgender adisconnect maintain by the “non sexual and temporary” nature of the cross dressing experience(Flanagan 59).1.5 Violence Violence is a play a Vitol role in media as a entertainment. Violence is aterm to describe action which causes injury to people; it is also associated with aggression. Somepeople suggest that media is causing aggressive behavior while other think that violence can helpto reduce an aggressive drive. While testing both theories, conclusions have shown that mediaviolence can have both positive and negative effect on individual. I include three type of 8
    • violence‟s in my research physical, verbal and use of weapon in movies, excluded sexual andother violence‟s from it.1.6 Significance of the study The question of media culture is still as important as it was in earlier days,when, mass media started to gain attention of its audience and viewers. With the popularity offilms, researchers conducted many studies to find out/ analyze how much culture impact this(movie) particular form of media is portraying.As this research study is confined to Pakistani cinema (Lollywood) it will add up to ourknowledge the nature of films produced by both countries and will compare Pakistani movies inperspective culture. The content analysis of the movies would brief about the various nature ofscenes (ie how many scenes of violence and other material as songs, comedy etc are in the film).As the media impact on society and media violence is a worldwide accepted talk, this researchstudy has investigated that how much culture impact this popular medium of Pakistan isportraying.1.7 Objectives:The research has the following main objectives  To study the cultural differences between Pakistani movies and real society of Pakistan.  To explore the effect of Pakistani movie on the Pakistani society..  To examine how the culture affect people perceive from Pakistani movies.  To examine the rate of violence in Pakistani movie. 9
    • Chapter 2 Conceptualization and Operationalization2.1 Conceptual Definition2.1.1 Culture: Culture is a set of shared and enduring meaning, values and beliefs that characterizenational. Ethic or other groups and orient their behavior (Mulholland 1991).2.1.2 Pattern: A diagram is showing the distribution of the pellets of a shotgun on a vertical particularto the plan of fire.OrA full sized model around which a mold of sand is made, to receive the melted metal. It isusually made of wood and in several parts, so as be removed from the mold without injuring it.2.1.3 Dress To put in proper condition by appareling, as the body, to put clothe upon, to invest withgarments or rich decorations, to clothe, to desk. 10
    • 2.1.4 Violence: Exertion of physical force so as to injury or abuse (as in warfare effecting illegal entryin to a house) OrPhysical force or power, threatened or actual, against a person or against a group or communitythat is either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm,and deprivation (WHO 2002).2.2 operational Definition2.2.1 Culture: Culture is collective programming which cannot genetically inherited, it passed fromgeneration to another and it is changing all the time because every generation adds something ofits own before passing it on.2.2.2 Pattern: Pattern is a template or model which generates pattern elements, especially if theelements have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred, in which case thethings are said to exhibit the unique pattern.2.2.3 Dress: A dress is a garment which is used for wearing, consisting of a Shalwar, qameez,trouser, shirts, fracks and skirts etc with an attached a matching bodice giving the effect of a onepiece garment. 11
    • 2.2.4 Violence: Violence is a action exertion to force as a injury, abuse and mentally fromindividual or group to individual, or group. In Pakistani movies it is mostly in the form ofphysical and verbal like abusive language. 12
    • Chapter 3 Material and Method3.1 Research Design: According to the needs and objectives of this research the method of content analysishas been used. The cultural, violence and dresses pattern; content of Pakistani Urdu movies from2000-2012 has been analyzed.3.2 Research Question: The research question focuses on the cultural pattern.What is the difference between the culture showing in the Pakistani movie and the real cultureof Pakistani society?In here culture include dressing pattern, Pakistani values and violence.3.3 Content Analysis: Content analysis represents the most appropriate methodology for obtaining andclassifying the data related to cultural, dress pattern and violence in Lollywood production. Thismethod is defined as “a research technique that is based on measuring the amount of something(violence, dresses of women). 13
    • 3.4 population and period of the study: The population for the study is Pakistani Urdu movies released from 2000-2012.3.5 Sampling and sample size: For the selection of sample of Pakistani Urdu movies convenient sampling techniqueis used. The researcher selected 5 Pakistani Urdu movies for the purpose of analyzing dressespattern, culture, violence.3.6 unit of analysis: Portrayal of images of cultural and dress pattern and violence duration of time inseconds consumed by Pakistani Urdu movies have been taken as units of analysis.3.7 category construction:3.7.1 Dress pattern: For research purpose, I have categorized culture into following three categories:Any scene in which female wearing dresses that are related with our culture, also those that arenot related our culture highlighted and that affects our society.3.7.2 Violence: In the scene when person harm the other by slapping, beating, weapon and throughverbally. In Pakistani violence divided into three major kinds that are 14
    • a) Physical violence. b) Verbal violence. c) Use of weapon in any kind of.3.7.3 Culture: Any scene that show the Pakistani culture, it includes the norms and values.3.7.4 Major themes: Major themes of story also analyze by researcher. Themes that are shown in movie andalso that are hidden in movies. Sr# Name of movie Year 1. Beti 2000 2. Toofan 2002 3. Laaj 2003 4. Khuda Ke Liye 2007 5. Bol 2011 Table 1 show the list of Pakistani movies selected by convenient sampling and also shows the name with releasing year of Pakistani movies. 15
    • Chapter4 Coding4.1 Frequency Frequency simply means counting, how many something occurs in movie, and nowcheck one by one in above movies.Firstly researcher checks the frequency of dressing pattern of different Pakistani movies.Name of Shalwar,Qamez Pant,shirt Sarie Lehnga Goun Skirt Frocks Pthani HijabMovies Duptta frock Beti 36 13 5 2 00 4 00 00 00Toofan 2 20 7 3 3 3 2 00 00 Laaj 15 00 8 3 01 00 3 1 00Khuda 26 79 3 1 00 03 00 22 3ke Liye Bol 87 10 00 05 00 00 2 00 7 Total 166 122 23 14 3 7 5 23 10Table 2 shows that dress pattern of female. Female wears how many times above dresses in movie. 16
    • 2ndly researcher checks the violence in above Pakistani movies.Name of movies Physical violence Verbal violence Use of weaponBeti 7 22 7Toofan 7 4 19Laaj 15 9 21Khuda Ke Liye 9 16 3Bol 12 29 1Total 50 82 51 Table 3 shows violence how many times showed in movies.4.2 directions:4.2.1 The direction of message in beti movie was positive for viewer, dressing pattern; mostlyused in whole movie were Shalwaar, Qameez and duptta. Verbal violence were used excess, theculture displayed in whole movie were traditional culture.4.2.2 The direction of message in Toofan movie was negative for viewer, dressing patternmostly used in whole movie were those that were not used in our society. Violence by weaponswas mostly appeared in movie give negative impact for society. Cultures displayed in moviewere those that never exist in our society.4.2.3 The direction of Laaj movie was in positive sense, dressing pattern mostly Shalwaar,Qameez with duppta wear by cast, violence with weapon show a negative. Culture displayed inmovie was Hindu and Musalim. 17
    • 4.2.4 The direction of message in Khuda Ke Liye movie was positive for viewer, dresses patternmostly wear by cast were those that were exist in our society and this movie supportive forviewer in every aspects.4.2.5 The Bol movie give the positive direction to viewer dresses pattern and traditional culturewere exist in our society and also supportive for daily life.4.3 Space: Researcher can record the size of message and the amount of space or volumeallocated to it. Researcher shows the duration of below dresses in seconds.Name of Shalwar,Qamez Pant,shirt Sarie Lehnga Goun Skirt Frocks Pthani HijabMovies Duptta frock Beti 3166 sec 656 sec 384se 99 sec 00 4 00 00 00Toofan 80sec 1404sec 304se 518sec 262se 322se 215sec 00 00 Laaj 986sec 00 423 82 134se 00 96sec 29sec 00 Khuda 344sec 2412sec 32sec 5sec 00 11sec 00 854sec 346seke Liye Bol 4006sec 198sec 00 43sec 00 00 399sec 00 131se Table 4 shows that dresses wear by female cast in seconds. 18
    • Secondly researcher record the violence displayed in movie how long time, time record byresearcher in seconds.Name of movies Physical violence Verbal violence Use of weaponBeti 220 sec 1308 sec 430 secToofan 269 sec 346 sec 1068 secLaaj 374 sec 226 sec 1460 secKhuda Ke Liye 1010 sec 897 sec 129 secBol 532 sec 1155 sec 118 sec Table 5 shows violence appeared in movies how many seconds 19
    • Chapter 5 Analyzing Data and Major Finding5.1. Dress Pattern: The dresses patterns in movies are more likely. Rate of cultural and religiousdress are smaller amount. Mostly fracks, gauns and short dresses and pant shirts wear by femalecast. Cultural dresses were used hardly ever. Example: in Bol movie the religious dress are used.Dress wear by female cast were shalwar qameez, hijab and frack. While in Toofan the dresspattern showed pant, shirt and also wear trouser shirt and also sarie wear by female cast while insongs Balooz with Lehnga and duptta wear by female cast. In Beti movie the dress wear byfemale Shalwaar Qameez and and pant shirt wear but in some songs she wear also sarie, skirt.But in this movie the percentage of Shalwaar Qameez are high. In khuda ke liye the percentageof pant, shirt is high as compare to shalwar qameez. In Laaj movie female cast most of timeswear shalwaar, qameez but sarie also wear.Mostl of female cast wear those dress that are not wearing in our society. In our society womenmostly wear religion dress and cultural dress. The dressing of Pakistani Urdu movies doesn‟trelate our real society. Mostly short dress used in Pakistani movies that never exists in ourculture and in the songs of movies are totally unrelated with our real culture mostly in songsfemale wear Indian cultural dress like lehnga with balooz and sarie. 20
    • 5.2 Violence: The violence displays in the movie are more likely. Rate physically violencein Pakistani Urdu movie (2000-2012), is highly showed. The violence was showed in highlysome are examples coated here. In khuda ke liye movie a female cast violate by his husband andfather, in the name of islam. In the Bol movie showed the physical violence, verbal and also usedweapon for beating and killing. In beti movie rate of violence were rarely the used of verbalviolence were more as compared to physical violence. While in Laaj movie the violence rate ishigh weapons are also used in movie.5.3 Culture: I watch five movies and I finally get some findings that are given following.Movies showed the Pakistani culture; in most movies they were never forget what Pakistanculture is. Mostly movies make by according to Pakistani culture but in some extent the cultureis missing. Example one of the elements of culture belief in the movie toofan they forget thebelief and norms as well. If I will talk about the movie beti, the concept of daughter is existing inour society as well as in Islam. khuda ke liye and Bol in both movies, culture were shown in thename of islam but with wrong concept.5.4 Major themes: The major themes of bol complements its radical audacity with an optimisticending, after having compressed in its narrative themes of women‟s emancipation, poverty,homosexuality, conflict between sects and somewhere an unspoken hope for laicism, alsohighlight the issues due to large family and masculinities. 21
    • The major theme of Khuda ke liye is clerics misguide to young people through wrong conceptsin their minds. 9/11 incident totally degrade Muslims in different countries and treated asminority in abroad.The major theme of Beti movie is conservative mind about the daughter by elderly. In rural area,family disputes are more than urban areas. 22
    • Chapter 6 Discussion, Summary and Recommendation6.1 Discussion Every society has its own a particular culture and a culture is an identify of anyindividual and nation. The Muslims were highly affected by the Hindu‟s culture because ofliving with them together for a longer period in Sub Continent. In this way, now we are facingcultural conflict and identify crisis at a large scale. Culture or civilization is a complex wholewhich includes knowledge, belief, art, law, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired byman as a member of society.There are two types of culture. First is material culture and second non material culture. Materialculture comprises tangible things that have been shaped to some extent by man such things oftencalled artifacts or culture object such as tools. House hold items, apparatus, weapon etc. nonmaterial culture on the other hand, comprises intangible aspects of culture such as religiousbeliefs, values, ideas and ethics etc. Pakistan is a Muslim country and Pakistani culture is theunique pattern of belief, ideas, values etc. Pakistan is a Muslim country and Pakistani culture isunique pattern of belief, ideas, and values highly influenced by religion of Islam. Islam inPakistan sets the code of ethic for cultural life for the people of Pakistan. But people gainedwestern and Pakistani culture due to acculturations modernization. Pakistan has an impact ofPakistani dressing culture as well as in Pakistani movies. Now people like to wear sari, PatialaShalwar, Chori daar pajama, sleeveless dressing, short shirt and less use of chadaar (veil) etc. the 23
    • influence of movie culture are quite visible on our marriage ceremonies and festivals. Dowrysystem and heavy expenditures on the marriage of girl are done, which are inherited from Hindusociety because in Hindu society there is no share of women in the inheritance of their parentsthe same attributes of parents in giving this share to their daughter after their marriage is visiblein Pakistan, reflecting the adjustment of Pakistani cultural values.Movies were not only affecting the social and psychological development of youth but also ourdressing, language, household living pattern and way of lifestyle, and preview component ofculture had been changed.Movies have a great impact on the lives of peoples and mostly movies are produced according tothe lives of peoples and due to this these movies can impress their audience in both scenespositive and negative scene. If a person gets impress from a character of a movie which is reallycalm and cool minded and a kind person and that person adopt same qualities ten this could bepositive scene while if a person gets impress from a really cruel criminal character so in thissituation if that person start commuting crime so this would be called negative side of movies.Pakistani movies have great impact on Pakistani society. I will evaluate good and bad aspects ofmovies and its impacts on crimes. One good aspect of Hollywood and Pakistani movies areultimate victory of heroes and good people. Most villains in movies either die or they realizedtheir mistakes. Although most of Pakistani movies revolves around men and women love yetgood Pakistani and Hollywood movies shows valuable social realities and truth about society.However Pakistani movies show considerable violence. Such violence in Pakistani movies couldpromote crimes. However many such Hollywwod movies is extremely entertainment? Peopleshould consider then movies merely for the purpose of entertainment. Unfortunately heroes andgood people never in real life. No hero reaches to save good people. Bad people in real life 24
    • neither get punishment nor do they realize mistake and crime. Things are reverse in real world.Noble educated people cannot fight. Wicked people overcome nobles. Neither their educationnor society or police provide us protection.Most of the women are girls try to copy their favorite actresses of Pakistani dramas and moviesand try to look and behave like them. In case of men and boys they are not far from doing samealso. They also copy their favorite male actors. In this case, our youth is spoiling their ownvalues and culture by attaining and acting behaving like neighbor country. Our culture is beingspoiled. Pakistani cinema is now working to regain its worth and status values. Our showbizindustry still has some great thinkers and story tellers who are working hard for reshapingPakistani cinema.6.2 Summary: Cinema is great source of promoting culture, values and norms of the society, itshows how exactly the people of that specific region are and how they live, think and do theiractivities. Pakistani movies are very much popular in our country and movies are very much seenin Pakistan. No doubt, it is the fault of our directors and producers who are not making goodmovies, there are no solid concepts seen in new movies of Pakistan. Our youth is educated andknow more about the issues. They want to see good movies based on good scripts and wellworking cast. Pakistani cinema is lacking all these elements. Our director and producers makelow budget movie with so called topic and cast.It is need of time that Pakistani cinema should be improved it needs more attention of greatinvestors and script writers, so that our people and society turn to watch their own cinema.Movies should be magnifying our society, culture and beliefs. There should be some message for 25
    • youth or people in the movies. Social issues must be highlighted with their with their solutions.Some Pakistani movies are worth watching as they depicts meanings of life, society, culture,believes and positive actions and these kind of movies are remember for long time by the people.That‟s another point of so much Pakistani cinema impact in our country and our students and ourculture.It concluded that the trend of adopting Pakistani culture among the people of Pakistan isimmense and increasing very swiftly day by day. Mass media especially cable TV network andPakistani channels are demolishing our social, cultural, religious and family values and normbrutally. Pakistani mass media is also trying to copy and compete with Indian and Western mediaby forgetting its Pakistani identity and culture. They are not only affecting the social, spiritualand psychological development of immature minds of children and youngsters but alsopromoting vulgarity and sexual behaviors among youth.Many families have to face many psychological and financial hardships due to spending largeamount of money lavishly on anti Islam and Hindu child birth and marriage traditions. Lowstandard Pakistani films and the migration of Pakistani film stars and singers etc.6.3 Recommendation: Pakistani mass media, politicians, artists, models, stars and else every citizen should promote its own Pakistani culture instead of imitating the culture of others countries. It is liability of government to ban all those CD, DVD cassette, websites on internet and channels on cable TV network which are promoting vulgarity and sexuality. The people particularly, the females should be more cautious about their dressing regarding their chastity and decency. 26
    • The real Pakistani Islamic culture should also be discussed and included in syllabus andbooks to guide the new generation about our social, cultural, religious and family valuesand norms.The people related to drama and film industry should make pedantic and constructivemovies to build up a dignified nation and eradicate social evils from the society. 27
    • REFERENCES Altenburger, Roland. (2005). “Is It Clothes that Make the Man? Cross Dressing, Gender, and Sex in Pre-Twentieth Century Zhu Yingtai Lore.” Asian Folklore Studies, 64:165- 205. Dekker, Rudolph M. and Lotte C. van de Pol. 1997. The Tradition of Female Transvestism in Early Modern Europe. New York: St. Martin‟s Press. Hawkes, Gail L. (1995). “Dressing Up: Cross-dressing and Sexual Dissonance.” Journal of Gender Studies, 4(3): 261-270. Young, Elizabeth. 1996. “Confederate Counterfeit: The Case of the Cross-Dressed Civil War Soldier.” Passing and the Fictions of Identity. Ed. Elaine K. Ginsberg. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. Brocklebank, Lisa. 2000. “Disney‟s Mulan the „True‟ Deconstructed Heroine?” Marvels and Tales: Journal of Fairy-Tale Studies, 14 (2): 268-283. Flanagan, Victoria. “Me, Myself, and Him – The Changing Face of Female Cross Dressing in Contemporary Children‟s Literature.” (59-66) Change and Renewal in Children’s Literature. Ed. Thomas van der Walt. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2004 Mulholland, J., 1991. The Language of Negotiation. London: Routledge. http://www.brainyquote.com/words/pa/pattern200182.html http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/dressing http://www.brainyquote.com/words/dr/dress157261.html#eudhdXH4q3MSXy0m.99 www.youtube.com http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/violence 28
    •  Berkowitz, L., Ronald C and Mark H. 1963. Film Violence and Subsequent Tendencies. Public Opinion Quarterly: 217-29. 29