There are three main methods of genetic engineering. The plasmid method, the vector method, and the biolistic method.Plasmid Method Vector Method Biolistic Method
A gene gun, or a biolistic particle delivery system, is a genetic engineering technique originally designed to modify plants.
This device injects cells with genetic information using a heavy metal element bullet coated with plasmid DNA.
This device can be used on almost any cell, and it is not limited to transforming genetic information in the nucleus. It also can modify other organelles.
Originally, the gene gun was a Crosman air pistol that had been redesigned to fire dense tungsten particles. The heavy metal element, tungsten.
It was invented by three scientists fromCornell, John C Stanford, Ed Wolf, and Nelson Allen, and one scientist from DuPont, Ted Klein, between the years 1983 and 1986.
The gene gun today is used not only on plants cells, but also on bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell lines that had previously been impossible to inject such as non-dividing cells or primary cells.
Using the gene gun on other organelles, such as chloroplast, has been useful because no bacteria or viruses are known to infect the chloroplast. Therefore, other ways of transfer genetic information were void.
DNA delivery with the gene gun offers new research opportunities for areas such as DNA vaccination/genetic immunization, gene therapy, tumor biology, and many others.
"Www.biosicherheit.de." Biolistic Gun; Particle Gun. Federal Ministry of Education and Research, 2012. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.gmo- safety.eu/glossary/776.biolistic-gun-particle.html>."Www.biosicherheit.de." GMO-Safety.eu. Federal Ministry of Education and Research, 9 Feb. 2009. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.gmo- safety.eu/basic-info/602.ready-aim-fire.html>."Gene Guns." Gene Guns. Davidson College. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/molbio/molstudents/spring20 03/mcdonald/gene_gun.html>."Plant Transformation Using Particle Bombardment." Plant Transformation Using Particle Bombardment. ABNE, 2010. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.nepadbiosafety.net/for- regulators/resources/subjects/biotechnology/plant-transformation- bombardment>.