Minerals and rocks final

  • 202 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
202
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. • I. The Earth System has for major parts – A) Atmosphere (Air) – B) Hydrosphere (H20) – C) Biosphere (life) – D) Geosphere (ground/land)
  • 2. Atmosphere • A) The atmosphere is the mixture of gas and particles that surrounds and protect the surface of Earth. • B) The most abundant gases are Nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%)
  • 3. Hydrosphere • A) The hydrosphere is made up of all the water on earth. • B) 97% of Earths water is salt water and 3% of Earths water is fresh water.
  • 4. Biosphere • A) The biosphere includes living things on Earth, in the water, on the land, and in the air.
  • 5. Geosphere • A) The Geosphere includes all the features of Earth’s surface the rocks, land and ocean floor.
  • 6. B) The geosphere is made up of several layers: crust, mantle, inner and outer core.
  • 7. Identify the Earth System • • • • • • • • • • 1. Bacteria 2. Bumble Bee 3. Gold 4. Farmer Brown’s Pond 5. Broccoli 6. Hydrogen 7. Water Vapor 8. Lava 9. Sea Sponge 10. Silver
  • 8. ANSWERS • • • • • • • • • • 1. Bacteria 2. Bumble Bee 3. Gold 4. Farmer Brown’s Pond 5. Broccoli 6. Hydrogen 7. Water Vapor 8. Lava 9. Sea Sponge 10. Silver BIOSPEHRE BIOSPHERE GEOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE BIOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE GEOSPHERE BIOSPHERE GEOSPHERE
  • 9. Minerals and Rocks Chapter 2
  • 10. • 1. Minerals have four characteristics – A mineral is a substance that Minerals • A) forms in nature (a natural process not involving organisms –plants or animals)
  • 11. B) is a solid (definite volume and a rigid shape)
  • 12. • C) has a definite chemical makeup (specific combination of atoms)
  • 13. • D) has a crystal structure (a solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern)
  • 14. • Are the following substances minerals – 1. Water – 2. Oil – 3. Ice – 4. Diamond – 5. Ruby – 6. Sugar – 7. Salt – 8. Copper – 9. Liquid quartz – 10. Natural gas
  • 15. ANSWERS – 1. Water – 2. Oil – 3. Ice – 4. Diamond – 5. Ruby – 6. Sugar – 7. Salt – 8. Copper – 9. Liquid quartz – 10. Natural gas No - liquid No – liquid, comes from Yes Yes Yes No – comes from a plant Yes Yes No - liquid No - gas
  • 16. • Scientists classify minerals into two groups – 1. Silicates (contains oxygen and silicon) • Make up about 90% of the rocks in Earth's crust, and are the most common rock-forming minerals. – 2. Carbonates (contains oxygen and carbon) • Found in sea shells.
  • 17. • Each kind of mineral has certain properties that you can use to identify it. 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. COLOR STREAK LUSTER CLEAVAGE AND FRACTURE GRAVITY/DENSITY HARDNESS
  • 18. Color • A mineral may be one color or many colors. You cannot identify a mineral by color alone, but color is helpful along with other
  • 19. Can you tell what the mineral is by identifying the color? • No! The mineral on the left is halite, and the mineral on the right is quartz.
  • 20. Can you tell what the mineral is by identifying the color? • NO! These minerals are both HALITE
  • 21. Streak • Streak is the color of a mineral in powder form. You can find out a mineral’s streak by rubbing it across an unglazed porcelain streak plate. Each mineral makes a streak of a certain color. This color may differ from the color of the
  • 22. Luster • This property describes how a mineral reflects light from its surface. Some minerals are shiny like metal or glass ( a glassy luster is called vitreous). Others have dull, waxy or earthy luster.
  • 23. Cleavage • Minerals break according to how their atoms are arranged. Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along a flat surface where layers of atoms are attached weakly to each other.
  • 24. Fracture • Fracture is the tendency of a mineral to break in a way that is not along a flat surface.
  • 25. Specific Gravity (Density) • The specific gravity of a mineral is a comparison of its density. Density is the amount of mass in a given substance.
  • 26. Hardness • 1. Hardness is the ability of a mineral to resist being scratched. A harder mineral will always scratch a softer one.
  • 27. • German scientist Freidrich Mohs developed a system comparing the hardness of a mineral to 10 common minerals. These 10 minerals make up Mohs’ Hardness Scale.
  • 28. Mohs’ Hardness Scale. Hardness 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mineral Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond Common object Finger nail Copper penny Steel blade Glass
  • 29. • Ore – Rocks that contain enough mineral to be mined.
  • 30. Mining • There are two types of mining – Surface mining – Deep mining
  • 31. Dwarfs • Mine caves • Usually come in 7’s • Sleepy, doc, sneezy, prancer, dixon, jermaine, and tito • Live with snow white • Hate apples
  • 32. Surface mining • 1. Panning – miners use a pan to wash away unwanted minerals. • 2. Strip mining – miners strip away plants, soil and unwanted rock from the Earth’s surface • 3. Open pit mining – Miners dig a deep hole or pit to mine the ore.
  • 33. Deep Mining • Deep mining is used when an ore lies far below Earth’s surface. • Miners dig, blast, drill or cut an opening to reach a deep ore inside a mountain or hill.
  • 34. Characteristics of a rock • 1. Solid • 2. Formed naturally • 3. Usually made of minerals – EXCEPT: • Obsidian – natural glass • Coal – remains of ancient plants.
  • 35. Rocks 1. There are three types of rocks a. Igneous Rocks b. Sedimentary Rocks c. Metamorphic Rocks Can you guess the following types of rocks? – A B C
  • 36. Igneous Rock • Igneous rock forms when molten rock – magma or lava – cools and becomes solid. Magma that reaches Earth’s surface is called Lava.
  • 37. • There are two types of igneous rocks – Intrusive – Extrusive (Intrusive) (extrusive)
  • 38. Intrusive Rocks • Forms when magma cools within the Earth
  • 39. • The forces inside the Earth push rocks upward (e.g. mountains)
  • 40. • Water and wind break apart and carry away surface rocks leaving behind deeper rocks.
  • 41. • Granite is a common intrusive rock
  • 42. • Crystals are large in intrusive rocks because the magma cooled slowly.
  • 43. Extrusive Rocks • Forms when lava cools on Earths surface floor.
  • 44. • Basalt is an extrusive rock that forms on the ocean floor
  • 45. • Examples of extrusive rock are rhyolite, pumice and basalt. Basalt Pumice Rhyolite
  • 46. • Crystals in extrusive rocks are small because the lava cooled quickly and there was no time for large minerals to form.
  • 47. Sedimentary Rocks • 1. Sedimentary rock develop from layers of sediments that build up over time • 2. Sediments are loose pieces of rock, minerals plant and animal remains. • 3. Sedimentary rocks are formed on land and in the ocean. • 4. Sedimentary rocks are formed by pressure, and by minerals holding together the particles.
  • 48. Sedimentary Rocks formed on Land. • 1. Weathering of rocks creates rock fragments. (sediments) • 2. Water carries sand and rock fragments to distant places • 3. Sediments form layers as larger particles settle firs followed by smaller ones. • 4. Examples of sedimentary rock formed on land are sandstone and coal.
  • 49. Sedimentary Rocks formed in the ocean • Shells and skeletons settle on the ocean floor as layers of sediments. Over time, the layers become buried, pressed together, and cemented to form limestone.
  • 50. Metamorphic Rocks. • 1. Over time, heat and pressure inside Earth squeeze and melt existing rocks. • 2. This process changes the grain size and even the minerals that make up those rocks, forming a new type of rock.
  • 51. • Metamorphic rock is rock that has been changed in form by pressure and heat. • For example granite is igneous rock (black and white speckles) but when it is changed it forms into Gneis.(black and white stripes)