• I. The Earth System has for major parts
– A) Atmosphere (Air)
– B) Hydrosphere (H20)
– C) Biosphere (life)
– D) Geospher...
Atmosphere

• A) The atmosphere is the mixture of
gas and particles that surrounds and
protect the surface of Earth.
• B) ...
Hydrosphere
• A) The hydrosphere is made up of all
the water on earth.
• B) 97% of Earths water is salt water and
3% of Ea...
Biosphere
• A) The
biosphere
includes living
things on
Earth, in the
water, on the
land, and in
the air.
Geosphere
• A) The Geosphere includes all the
features of Earth’s surface the rocks,
land and ocean floor.
B) The
geosphere
is made up
of several
layers:
crust,
mantle,
inner and
outer core.
Identify the Earth System
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1. Bacteria
2. Bumble Bee
3. Gold
4. Farmer Brown’s Pond
5. Broccoli
6. Hyd...
ANSWERS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1. Bacteria
2. Bumble Bee
3. Gold
4. Farmer Brown’s Pond
5. Broccoli
6. Hydrogen
7. Water Vap...
Minerals and Rocks
Chapter 2
• 1. Minerals have four characteristics
– A mineral is a substance that
Minerals

• A) forms in nature (a natural process ...
B) is a solid (definite volume and a
rigid shape)
• C) has a definite
chemical makeup
(specific
combination of
atoms)
• D) has a crystal structure (a
solid in which the atoms are
arranged in an orderly,
repeating three-dimensional
pattern)
• Are the following substances minerals
– 1. Water
– 2. Oil
– 3. Ice
– 4. Diamond
– 5. Ruby
– 6. Sugar
– 7. Salt
– 8. Copp...
ANSWERS
– 1. Water
– 2. Oil
– 3. Ice
– 4. Diamond
– 5. Ruby
– 6. Sugar
– 7. Salt
– 8. Copper
– 9. Liquid quartz
– 10. Natu...
• Scientists classify minerals into two
groups
– 1. Silicates (contains oxygen and silicon)
• Make up about 90% of the roc...
•

Each kind of mineral has certain
properties that you can use to identify it.
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

COLOR
STREAK
LUSTER
CLE...
Color
• A mineral may
be one color or
many colors.
You cannot
identify a mineral
by color alone,
but color is
helpful alon...
Can you tell what the mineral is by
identifying the color?
• No! The mineral on the left is halite, and
the mineral on the...
Can you tell what the mineral is by
identifying the color?
• NO! These minerals are both HALITE
Streak
• Streak is the color of
a mineral in powder
form. You can find
out a mineral’s streak
by rubbing it across
an ungl...
Luster
• This property
describes how a
mineral reflects
light from its
surface. Some
minerals are shiny
like metal or glas...
Cleavage
• Minerals break
according to how
their atoms are
arranged. Cleavage
is the tendency of a
mineral to break
along ...
Fracture
• Fracture is the
tendency of a
mineral to
break in a way
that is not
along a flat
surface.
Specific Gravity (Density)
• The specific gravity of a mineral is a
comparison of its density. Density is the
amount of ma...
Hardness
• 1. Hardness is the ability of a mineral to
resist being scratched. A harder mineral
will always scratch a softe...
• German scientist Freidrich Mohs
developed a system comparing the
hardness of a mineral to 10 common
minerals. These 10 m...
Mohs’ Hardness Scale.
Hardness
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Mineral
Talc
Gypsum
Calcite
Fluorite
Apatite
Feldspar
Quartz
Topaz
Co...
• Ore – Rocks that contain enough mineral
to be mined.
Mining
• There are two types of mining
– Surface mining
– Deep mining
Dwarfs
• Mine caves
• Usually come in 7’s
• Sleepy, doc, sneezy, prancer, dixon,
jermaine, and tito
• Live with snow white...
Surface mining
• 1. Panning – miners use a pan to wash
away unwanted minerals.
• 2. Strip mining – miners strip away plant...
Deep Mining
• Deep mining is used when an ore lies far
below Earth’s surface.
• Miners dig, blast, drill or cut an opening...
Characteristics of a rock
• 1. Solid
• 2. Formed naturally
• 3. Usually made of minerals
– EXCEPT:
• Obsidian – natural gl...
Rocks
1. There are three types of rocks
a. Igneous Rocks
b. Sedimentary Rocks
c. Metamorphic Rocks
Can you guess the follo...
Igneous Rock

• Igneous rock forms when molten
rock – magma or lava – cools and
becomes solid. Magma that
reaches Earth’s ...
• There are two types of igneous rocks
– Intrusive
– Extrusive
(Intrusive)

(extrusive)
Intrusive Rocks

• Forms when magma cools within the Earth
• The forces inside the Earth push rocks
upward (e.g. mountains)
• Water and wind break apart and carry
away surface rocks leaving behind deeper
rocks.
• Granite is a common intrusive rock
• Crystals are large in intrusive rocks because
the magma cooled slowly.
Extrusive Rocks
• Forms when lava cools on Earths surface
floor.
• Basalt is an extrusive rock that forms on
the ocean floor
• Examples of extrusive rock are rhyolite,
pumice and basalt.
Basalt

Pumice
Rhyolite
• Crystals in extrusive rocks are small
because the lava cooled quickly and there
was no time for large minerals to form.
Sedimentary Rocks
• 1. Sedimentary rock develop from layers
of sediments that build up over time
• 2. Sediments are loose ...
Sedimentary Rocks formed on
Land.
• 1. Weathering of rocks creates rock
fragments. (sediments)
• 2. Water carries sand and...
Sedimentary Rocks formed in the
ocean
• Shells and skeletons settle on the ocean
floor as layers of sediments. Over time,
...
Metamorphic Rocks.
• 1. Over time, heat and pressure inside
Earth squeeze and melt existing rocks.
• 2. This process chang...
• Metamorphic rock is rock that has been
changed in form by pressure and heat.
• For example granite is igneous rock (blac...
Minerals and rocks final
Minerals and rocks final
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Minerals and rocks final

  1. 1. • I. The Earth System has for major parts – A) Atmosphere (Air) – B) Hydrosphere (H20) – C) Biosphere (life) – D) Geosphere (ground/land)
  2. 2. Atmosphere • A) The atmosphere is the mixture of gas and particles that surrounds and protect the surface of Earth. • B) The most abundant gases are Nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%)
  3. 3. Hydrosphere • A) The hydrosphere is made up of all the water on earth. • B) 97% of Earths water is salt water and 3% of Earths water is fresh water.
  4. 4. Biosphere • A) The biosphere includes living things on Earth, in the water, on the land, and in the air.
  5. 5. Geosphere • A) The Geosphere includes all the features of Earth’s surface the rocks, land and ocean floor.
  6. 6. B) The geosphere is made up of several layers: crust, mantle, inner and outer core.
  7. 7. Identify the Earth System • • • • • • • • • • 1. Bacteria 2. Bumble Bee 3. Gold 4. Farmer Brown’s Pond 5. Broccoli 6. Hydrogen 7. Water Vapor 8. Lava 9. Sea Sponge 10. Silver
  8. 8. ANSWERS • • • • • • • • • • 1. Bacteria 2. Bumble Bee 3. Gold 4. Farmer Brown’s Pond 5. Broccoli 6. Hydrogen 7. Water Vapor 8. Lava 9. Sea Sponge 10. Silver BIOSPEHRE BIOSPHERE GEOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE BIOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE GEOSPHERE BIOSPHERE GEOSPHERE
  9. 9. Minerals and Rocks Chapter 2
  10. 10. • 1. Minerals have four characteristics – A mineral is a substance that Minerals • A) forms in nature (a natural process not involving organisms –plants or animals)
  11. 11. B) is a solid (definite volume and a rigid shape)
  12. 12. • C) has a definite chemical makeup (specific combination of atoms)
  13. 13. • D) has a crystal structure (a solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern)
  14. 14. • Are the following substances minerals – 1. Water – 2. Oil – 3. Ice – 4. Diamond – 5. Ruby – 6. Sugar – 7. Salt – 8. Copper – 9. Liquid quartz – 10. Natural gas
  15. 15. ANSWERS – 1. Water – 2. Oil – 3. Ice – 4. Diamond – 5. Ruby – 6. Sugar – 7. Salt – 8. Copper – 9. Liquid quartz – 10. Natural gas No - liquid No – liquid, comes from Yes Yes Yes No – comes from a plant Yes Yes No - liquid No - gas
  16. 16. • Scientists classify minerals into two groups – 1. Silicates (contains oxygen and silicon) • Make up about 90% of the rocks in Earth's crust, and are the most common rock-forming minerals. – 2. Carbonates (contains oxygen and carbon) • Found in sea shells.
  17. 17. • Each kind of mineral has certain properties that you can use to identify it. 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. COLOR STREAK LUSTER CLEAVAGE AND FRACTURE GRAVITY/DENSITY HARDNESS
  18. 18. Color • A mineral may be one color or many colors. You cannot identify a mineral by color alone, but color is helpful along with other
  19. 19. Can you tell what the mineral is by identifying the color? • No! The mineral on the left is halite, and the mineral on the right is quartz.
  20. 20. Can you tell what the mineral is by identifying the color? • NO! These minerals are both HALITE
  21. 21. Streak • Streak is the color of a mineral in powder form. You can find out a mineral’s streak by rubbing it across an unglazed porcelain streak plate. Each mineral makes a streak of a certain color. This color may differ from the color of the
  22. 22. Luster • This property describes how a mineral reflects light from its surface. Some minerals are shiny like metal or glass ( a glassy luster is called vitreous). Others have dull, waxy or earthy luster.
  23. 23. Cleavage • Minerals break according to how their atoms are arranged. Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along a flat surface where layers of atoms are attached weakly to each other.
  24. 24. Fracture • Fracture is the tendency of a mineral to break in a way that is not along a flat surface.
  25. 25. Specific Gravity (Density) • The specific gravity of a mineral is a comparison of its density. Density is the amount of mass in a given substance.
  26. 26. Hardness • 1. Hardness is the ability of a mineral to resist being scratched. A harder mineral will always scratch a softer one.
  27. 27. • German scientist Freidrich Mohs developed a system comparing the hardness of a mineral to 10 common minerals. These 10 minerals make up Mohs’ Hardness Scale.
  28. 28. Mohs’ Hardness Scale. Hardness 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mineral Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond Common object Finger nail Copper penny Steel blade Glass
  29. 29. • Ore – Rocks that contain enough mineral to be mined.
  30. 30. Mining • There are two types of mining – Surface mining – Deep mining
  31. 31. Dwarfs • Mine caves • Usually come in 7’s • Sleepy, doc, sneezy, prancer, dixon, jermaine, and tito • Live with snow white • Hate apples
  32. 32. Surface mining • 1. Panning – miners use a pan to wash away unwanted minerals. • 2. Strip mining – miners strip away plants, soil and unwanted rock from the Earth’s surface • 3. Open pit mining – Miners dig a deep hole or pit to mine the ore.
  33. 33. Deep Mining • Deep mining is used when an ore lies far below Earth’s surface. • Miners dig, blast, drill or cut an opening to reach a deep ore inside a mountain or hill.
  34. 34. Characteristics of a rock • 1. Solid • 2. Formed naturally • 3. Usually made of minerals – EXCEPT: • Obsidian – natural glass • Coal – remains of ancient plants.
  35. 35. Rocks 1. There are three types of rocks a. Igneous Rocks b. Sedimentary Rocks c. Metamorphic Rocks Can you guess the following types of rocks? – A B C
  36. 36. Igneous Rock • Igneous rock forms when molten rock – magma or lava – cools and becomes solid. Magma that reaches Earth’s surface is called Lava.
  37. 37. • There are two types of igneous rocks – Intrusive – Extrusive (Intrusive) (extrusive)
  38. 38. Intrusive Rocks • Forms when magma cools within the Earth
  39. 39. • The forces inside the Earth push rocks upward (e.g. mountains)
  40. 40. • Water and wind break apart and carry away surface rocks leaving behind deeper rocks.
  41. 41. • Granite is a common intrusive rock
  42. 42. • Crystals are large in intrusive rocks because the magma cooled slowly.
  43. 43. Extrusive Rocks • Forms when lava cools on Earths surface floor.
  44. 44. • Basalt is an extrusive rock that forms on the ocean floor
  45. 45. • Examples of extrusive rock are rhyolite, pumice and basalt. Basalt Pumice Rhyolite
  46. 46. • Crystals in extrusive rocks are small because the lava cooled quickly and there was no time for large minerals to form.
  47. 47. Sedimentary Rocks • 1. Sedimentary rock develop from layers of sediments that build up over time • 2. Sediments are loose pieces of rock, minerals plant and animal remains. • 3. Sedimentary rocks are formed on land and in the ocean. • 4. Sedimentary rocks are formed by pressure, and by minerals holding together the particles.
  48. 48. Sedimentary Rocks formed on Land. • 1. Weathering of rocks creates rock fragments. (sediments) • 2. Water carries sand and rock fragments to distant places • 3. Sediments form layers as larger particles settle firs followed by smaller ones. • 4. Examples of sedimentary rock formed on land are sandstone and coal.
  49. 49. Sedimentary Rocks formed in the ocean • Shells and skeletons settle on the ocean floor as layers of sediments. Over time, the layers become buried, pressed together, and cemented to form limestone.
  50. 50. Metamorphic Rocks. • 1. Over time, heat and pressure inside Earth squeeze and melt existing rocks. • 2. This process changes the grain size and even the minerals that make up those rocks, forming a new type of rock.
  51. 51. • Metamorphic rock is rock that has been changed in form by pressure and heat. • For example granite is igneous rock (black and white speckles) but when it is changed it forms into Gneis.(black and white stripes)

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