Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar; they usually have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH 2 O. A monosaccharide has one carbonyl (>C=O) and multiple hydroxyls (-OH). The location of the carbonyl determines whether the sugar is an aldose or a ketose.
A saturated fatty acid has no double bonds, therefore hydrogen atoms can attach to the unpaired electrons on the carbons. When hydrogen atoms attach, the molecule is said to be “saturated” with hydrogen. Most animal fats are saturated.
Phospholipids make up the cell membrane. A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids and a glycerol attached to a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon tails of a phospholipid are hydrophobic and the phosphate head is hydrophilic.
Disulfide bridges form where two crysteine monomers are brought together by the folding of the protein . The sulfurs on either side of the protein bond together, which reinforces the shape of the protein.
Ribose is the sugar connected to the nitrogenous base in RNA and deoxyribose is the sugar connected to the nitrogenous base in DNA . Deoxyribose lacks an oxygen on the second carbon, which differentiates it from ribose .