Language Comparison<br />Kathryn Gaugler <br />ESL 502<br />
Spanish vs. English<br />Language Origins and Features<br />Variances<br />Case Study<br />
Language Origins<br />Spanish is a Romance language but English is a Germanic language<br />Spanish migrated across the Atlantic with the exploration and conquering of the “New World”<br />Spanish is currently 2nd most spoken language in US<br />
Alphabet<br />Vowels are super easy in Spanish – no long or short vowels!<br />A (sounds like what you say to the Dr. when you stick out your tongue!)<br />E (sounds like a way to clarify something in Canadian English…eh?) <br />I (Say the English letter “E”, that’s all there is to it!)<br />O (not any different than the way we say the letter)<br />U (sounds like the double “o” sound you make when impressed. Oo!) <br />Spanish vowels never change their sound. <br />English “E” and Spanish “I” are phonetically the same, and create a lot of confusion. <br />
Alphabet<br />Both languages use the Latin alphabet<br />BUT…. There are a few additional letters in Spanish:<br />CH LL RR Ñ<br />Dictionaries published after 1994 do not recognize them as distinct letters, but they do have a different sound than their counterparts: C, L, R and N respectively. <br />
Variation<br />Formal vs. Informal<br />In Spanish, there exists a formal form to address some one you do not know well or someone of higher importance or of age. The informal is used to address a friend. <br />This distinction requires different pronouns (tú/usted, vosotros/ustedes) and verb forms<br />For example: How are you? Could be translated:<br />¿Cómoestástú? Or ¿Cómoestáusted?<br />(friendly) (formal)<br />
Adjectives<br />In English, adjectives go before the noun they descirbe<br />I live in a redhouse.<br />Adjectives in Spanish go after the noun<br /> Vivo en la casa roja. <br />Many adjectives will modify in gender and number to agree with the noun they describe. <br />
Pronoun Elimination<br />Spanish verb conjugation is similar to one particular English verb:<br />I am<br />You are<br />He is<br />Each of these verbs looks different….<br />
Pronoun Elimination<br />Sample Spanish verb conjugation<br />Yo soy<br />Túeres<br />Éles<br />Each of these verb forms also looks different….<br />Almost EVERY verb form (in most tenses) will look different than any other form. Because of this, the subject can be inferred from just the verb. While not appropriate to say just “Are tall.” with out a subject in English, Spanish speaker would drop the subject and simply say “Eres alto.” The subject ‘you’ is inferred from eres. <br />
Word Order<br />Both languages follow SVO order.<br />
Case Study<br /> Lola<br />1st year ELL<br />Going into 2nd grade<br />Speaks Spanish fluently for age, does not have home English exposure<br />Analysis done through written work <br />
Case Study<br />errors are a combination of developmental (like the omission of verbs)<br /> interference of L1 like putting adjectives after nouns. (Some of her errors made sense knowing Spanish and the word arrangement and acceptable writing policies of that language.)<br />Spelling is developmental<br />mastery of L1 and knowledge base to apply rules and strategies to her English acquisition is not there. <br />
Spelling in English can be difficult since there are so many ways to change vowels that do not exist in Spanish<br />Lola will need to work on English spelling, but doesn’t have a strong base in Spanish spelling<br />Verb tense errors – overgeneralization of the –ed rule <br />Subject omission – Who has yellow hair?<br />homophone errors – to vs. too<br /> Error samples were limited to writing examples. <br />When asked to write words she knew in English, she wrote “sop” including the Spanish vowel /o/ but not the correct English spelling with “o” and “a”. <br />
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