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  • 1. Language Comparison
    Kathryn Gaugler
    ESL 502
  • 2. Spanish vs. English
    Language Origins and Features
    Case Study
  • 3. Language Origins
    Spanish is a Romance language but English is a Germanic language
    Spanish migrated across the Atlantic with the exploration and conquering of the “New World”
    Spanish is currently 2nd most spoken language in US
  • 4. Alphabet
    Vowels are super easy in Spanish – no long or short vowels!
    A (sounds like what you say to the Dr. when you stick out your tongue!)
    E (sounds like a way to clarify something in Canadian English…eh?)
    I (Say the English letter “E”, that’s all there is to it!)
    O (not any different than the way we say the letter)
    U (sounds like the double “o” sound you make when impressed. Oo!)
    Spanish vowels never change their sound.
    English “E” and Spanish “I” are phonetically the same, and create a lot of confusion.
  • 5. Alphabet
    Both languages use the Latin alphabet
    BUT…. There are a few additional letters in Spanish:
    CH LL RR Ñ
    Dictionaries published after 1994 do not recognize them as distinct letters, but they do have a different sound than their counterparts: C, L, R and N respectively.
  • 6. Variation
    Formal vs. Informal
    In Spanish, there exists a formal form to address some one you do not know well or someone of higher importance or of age. The informal is used to address a friend.
    This distinction requires different pronouns (tú/usted, vosotros/ustedes) and verb forms
    For example: How are you? Could be translated:
    ¿Cómoestástú? Or ¿Cómoestáusted?
    (friendly) (formal)
  • 7. Adjectives
    In English, adjectives go before the noun they descirbe
    I live in a redhouse.
    Adjectives in Spanish go after the noun
    Vivo en la casa roja.
    Many adjectives will modify in gender and number to agree with the noun they describe.
  • 8. Pronoun Elimination
    Spanish verb conjugation is similar to one particular English verb:
    I am
    You are
    He is
    Each of these verbs looks different….
  • 9. Pronoun Elimination
    Sample Spanish verb conjugation
    Yo soy
    Each of these verb forms also looks different….
    Almost EVERY verb form (in most tenses) will look different than any other form. Because of this, the subject can be inferred from just the verb. While not appropriate to say just “Are tall.” with out a subject in English, Spanish speaker would drop the subject and simply say “Eres alto.” The subject ‘you’ is inferred from eres.
  • 10. Word Order
    Both languages follow SVO order.
  • 11. Case Study
    1st year ELL
    Going into 2nd grade
    Speaks Spanish fluently for age, does not have home English exposure
    Analysis done through written work
  • 12.
  • 13. Case Study
    errors are a combination of developmental (like the omission of verbs)
    interference of L1 like putting adjectives after nouns. (Some of her errors made sense knowing Spanish and the word arrangement and acceptable writing policies of that language.)
    Spelling is developmental
    mastery of L1 and knowledge base to apply rules and strategies to her English acquisition is not there.
  • 14. Spelling in English can be difficult since there are so many ways to change vowels that do not exist in Spanish
    Lola will need to work on English spelling, but doesn’t have a strong base in Spanish spelling
    Verb tense errors – overgeneralization of the –ed rule
    Subject omission – Who has yellow hair?
    homophone errors – to vs. too
    Error samples were limited to writing examples.
    When asked to write words she knew in English, she wrote “sop” including the Spanish vowel /o/ but not the correct English spelling with “o” and “a”.