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# Lesson 1 forces

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• 1. Lesson Plan Format: Unit/Topic/Title: Powerstations Achievement Objectives: (2-3 achievement objectives selected from the NZC science learning area which the lesson addresses. There must have be at least one from the NoS strand. Identify the strand, level and achievement aim. Write out in full)) Physical World Strand Level 5 Physical inquiry and physics concepts -Identify and describe the patterns associated with physical phenomena found in simple everyday situations involving movement, forces, electricity and magnetism, light, sound, waves, and heat. Eg identify and describe energy changes and conservation of energy, simple electrical circuits, and the effect of contact and non-contact on the motion of objects. Key Competencies: Thinking; Using language, symbols and texts; Managing self; Relating to others; Participating and contributing (highlight teaching focus). Science Background Information: What science do I need to know? Forces: -Are pushes or pulls which can start to move objects, stop, speed up, slow down, change direction of moving objects or change shape of objects. Force diagrams show that the size and strength of a force is denoted by size of arrows that are depicting the force direction. When forces are balanced, no movement will occur or no change in motion (constant speed). When forces are unbalanced, then there is motion (acceleration, deceleration). -Forces can be contact forces: pushing, pulling, or wind blowing. Or non-contact forces including gravity, electrostatic and magnetic forces. Measurement of forces: The unit used to measure force is newton (N) named after Sir Issac Newton. You can use force measurers that contain a spring to measure the force. The bigger the force, the more it is stretched or compressed and a pointer attached to the spring moves as the spring changes its length and the force can be read from a scale. -If the scale is in kilograms, then we multiply by 10 to get newtons. If the scale is in grams, divide by 100 to get newtons. Friction: is an example of a contact force and occurs whenever two forces in contact try to move past each other. Frictional force opposes motion and occurs because object surfaces are never completely smooth. All friction apart from static friction generates heat. Friction occurs because objects are never completely smooth and the roughness of the two surfaces means there are many points which catch and stick together Date: 13/5/13 Class: 9SA Time : 8.40am N/- students:
• 2. Specific Learning Outcomes: (What science do I want the students to learn?) By the end of the lesson, students will be able to: Define a force Illustrate forces using a force diagram Describe that Newtons (N) is the measure of a force. Differentiate between weight and mass. Achievement Criteria: (How will I know student have learned the science I want them to learn?) By the end of the lesson students can: Define a force as above. Illustrate using a force diagram, forces acting upon objects should include 4 directional arrows either into the object or away. Describe that Mass is a persons weight in kilogram and weight is a persons mass while on earth and therefore measured in Newtons (1kg = 10N) Assessment methods (your data gathering methods) (How are you going to find out if the students have achieved the learning as defined in the SLO’s and achievement criteria? Appraising the way students complete the prescribed tasks; listening to their discussions and evaluating their discussion outcomes; listening to their verbal descriptions and their class/group participation and comparing this data with the achievement criteria Learning Activities (in sequence) Time line Introduction (Review / focus / starter activities, student views, key questions; Share learning intentions and achievement criteria in students’ speak e.g. Today we are learning to … ; we will know this when … ) Teacher Moves Welcome class and introduce myself. Today we are learning what forces there are around us and how to measure them. We will have learned successfully if we can describe forces using a force diagram and Student Moves Main Activities (attach notes, Power Points, developed resources) Time Line Teacher Moves Student moves
• 3. Ask students of their previous learning experiences with forces. Explain what a force is and ask students if they know what types of forces there are? “There are two types of forces: A contact force and non- contact force” Get students to answer what they think a contact force is and write on the board the two forces with the students examples. Friction is an example of a contact force which opposes motion. Friction occurs because objects are never completely smooth and the roughness of the two surfaces means there are many points which can catch and stick together. “The forces on an object may be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced then the object with change its motion by moving, stopping, turning and so on. If it is balanced, then there will be no change in motion or movement” “we can explain the direction of a force by using force diagrams. The size and direction of the arrows tells us what forces the object is being exposed to” Write a diagram on the board of a person pushing a rock and ask students to explain the forces being applied to move the rock. Ask students to draw in their Student comment/question. Students comment/question.
• 4. book a picture of a moving car, falling apple, magnet and paper clip, moving boat on water. We can measure forces using Newtons (N) named after Sir Issac Newton. 1Kg = 10N. We measure this using spring balanced force measurers in N or using kitchen/bathroom scales and multiply the kg by 10. “Do we know the difference between mass and weight?” A persons mass (kg) is the same wherever they are in the world or universe, and their weight is the gravitational force acting upon that mass. “The weight of an object is the downwards pull of gravity on it. The mass of an object is the amount of matter in it.” “Mass = Kg Weight = force of gravational pull towards earth, therefore multiply Kg by 10 to get Newtons” Apply N measurement on to a force diagram to illustrate size (size of arrow and also now measurement) Draw pictures and show direction of forces. Write down how to measure newtons. Students comment/question. Write down explanation Closure/Finishing (Revisit learning intentions and success criteria; strategies to wrap up, reflect on learning,) Timeline Teacher Moves Ask the students to reflect on forces and ask them about what forces are being applied Student Moves Student comment/answer.
• 5. to them as they sit in their seat and how will they measure their mass in Newtons Materials / Resources / Equipment required Whiteboard and marker Safety considerations References Reflection Evaluation of student learning (How well the students met the achievement criteria with examples/data/evidence to support and justify your judgments) This was my first lesson with the students, and also their first lesson this year on forces. Therefore it was quite an introductory lesson for me and for them on their new topic. I tried to give clear instructions that were simple and able to be understood, I always asked for feedback answers on what we had covered/what was on the board. This gave me information about whether the students had comprehended what I had just introduced and could move to the next point, or whether they needed more time and more explanation about the point. I walked around the room and checked on the students engagement and what type of work they were producing. They were able to confidently show me their work and explanations for their drawings. For the lesson recap I went over the main points in the lesson with the students giving feedback on their understanding. If there were questions then I would redirect it to the class as an opportunity to answer. If no one could answer then I would assume that the question raised might be the same for everyone and therefore I have confused them, however this did not happen. If a question was asked, I was able to confidently direct it to the classroom to answer and then they could help their peers out by answering it in ‘student terms’. This is a good way to understand if the students are acting up or one student has just not been paying attention, or if the whole class is not understanding. Strengths and Weakness of Lesson Plan (Comment on aspects of the lesson plan such as the appropriateness of the level; usefulness of the achievement criteria; any modifications required etc) I think I was able to scaffold the students well by taking them step by step through each explanation, asking for feedback along the way. The class were quite eager at the start of the lesson so by telling them a bit about myself and letting them get to know me, they settled down quickly and all were engaged to
• 6. what I was saying. Building the trust relationship with students is a must, and also if they feel like they have something in common with me then they might feel more comfortable in the classroom and with my teaching. As well as showing respect for me as I have told them about my history and what I want to achieve as a teacher. The one thing I did not do was write up the learning intentions of the lesson. This would have settled the students a bit more as they would then know what they were going to do for the lesson. However this was my first lesson so the students were rather excited to have a new teacher. The objectives provide a good reference point for the students and it is something for me to relate to at the end of the lesson during recap. Evaluation of your Teaching (Comment on: your ability to scaffold student’s learning in terms of your science knowledge, the effectiveness of your various teaching skills and strategies including questioning, formative assessment etc; your behavior management skills; and areas you need to improve and how you can achieve this.) This lesson was the first lesson for the topic so I decided to teach it in stages. Introduce the topic, provide examples for the topic, get the students to practice some examples then go over what was achieved and then move on to the next step. Therefore throughout each feedback time I was gauging on the students comprehension and understanding of the topic before I moved on to the next stage. During feedback session, if there were questions that I thought the rest of the class could answer, I would redirect them to the rest of the students to answer them and provide each other opportunities to trust each other’s answers more. There was times when I asked for hands up during question session, and then near the end I was more relaxed and let the students shout out their answers without being asked upon. I found myself not realizing this was happening until the last recap session therefore next lesson when I am asking for feedback, I need to let the students know my expectations of question time, and therefore insist during class of what my expectations are. This will help me manage the feedback easier and also allow all students an opportunity to answer a question. I did a recap session with the students and then when the bell went they all sat quite awkwardly waiting for more instruction. I just let them go, but this is where I should have introduced the next lesson and how we will be utilizing what we have learnt today in tomorrow’s session. Gives the students something to look forward to, and also when they turn up for the next lesson then they might be more prepared for the lesson, and more settled.