Consumer Learning► process that continually evolves andchanges as a result of newly acquiredknowledge or through actual experience.► knowledge or experience may beacquired through reading, thinking,observation, discussion, action orinteraction.
Learning occurs when anindividual would show a relativeand permanent change of behaviorin a situation as a result of practiceand experience and as a product ofknowledge.
Classical Conditioning also called Pavlovian conditioning,created by Ivan Pavlov a theory he tested with a help of adog and a bell
Classical Conditioning is a form of learning in which one stimulus, theconditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal theoccurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditionedstimulus or US. The US is usually a biologically significantstimulus such as food or pain that elicits a responsefrom the start; this is called the unconditionedresponse or UR. The CS usually produces no particular responseat first, but after conditioning it elicitsthe conditioned response or CR.
Components of CC1. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) A stimulus that without conditioning will elicit a predictable response.2. Unconditioned Response (UCR) A response that without conditioning will result predictably from UCS.
3. Neutral Stimulus (NS) A stimulus that does not elicit the UR. Also called Orienting Stimulus (OS).4. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that will elicit a predictable response because of its previous pairing with a previously occurring reflex.
5. Conditioned Response (CR) A predictable response to a stimulus that has influence because of its previous pairing with a previously occurring reflex.
Diagram of Conditioning Process Before Conditioning UCS UCR meat dog
Diagram of Conditioning Process During Conditioning NS UCS UCRbell meat dog
Diagram of Conditioning Process After Conditioning CS CR bell dog
Use of Classical Conditioning in Marketing Techniques Creates awareness to the presentation ofstimulus due to the presentation of previousconditioning stimulus (product) that would elicit emotional response in consumers.
Marketing Techniques using Classical Conditioning PrinciplesConditioning Responses to New Stimuli UC CS EXAMPLES Exciting Event A product or Theme New product Song advertised in a big event (concert, rallies) Patriotic Events or A product or person Patriotic music as Music background in commercials
Use of Familiar Stimuli to Elicit Responses CS CR EXAMPLESPopular Music Relaxation, Christmas Songs in retail excitement, good will storesFamiliar Voices Excitement, attention Movie star narrating a commercialSexy Voices, Excitement, Calvin Klein, Victoria’sBodies attention, arousal SecretFamiliar Cues Excitement, Siren sounding, telephones attention, anxiety or doorbells in commercialsFamiliar Social Feelings of Televisions advertisementCues friendship and love depicting calls from family
Operant Conditioning Created by B.F. Skinner Also called Reinforcement Theory The process of strengthening the S-R pattern by immediately following the response with the reinforcement stimulus. Reinforcement is any stimulus that will maintain or increase the strength of a response.
Skinner’s Two Kinds of Learning1) Respondent Conditioning (Classical Conditioning) It refers to a particular paired stimulus (bar press and food pellets) that consistently elicits the response.2) Operant Conditioning This is voluntary behavior or a class of responses which is emitted or reinforced, thereby increasing the probability of responses.
Skinner’s Types of Reinforcement1) Positive (Reward) This is a stimulus that when presented, acts to strengthen the behavior that it follows.2) Negative This is a stimulus which when presented, acts to diminish or extinguish the behavior that follows. Extinction is a good example of negative reinforcement.3) Punishment a. it is the withdrawal of a positive reinforcer. b. it is the presentation of a negative reinforcer or aversive stimulus.
Schedules of Reinforcement1) Ratio – it is based on the number of responses emitted. The response is reinforced only to a certain proportion of the occasion where it occurs.Types of Ratio a) Fixed Ratio (FR) The reinforcement is contingent upon the occurrence of a fixed number of responses. b) Variable Ratio (VR) The number of responses required for reinforcement varies about some mean or average.
Schedules of Reinforcement2) Interval- refers to reinforcement given at interval orpassage of time .Types of Interval a) Fixed Interval (FI) The reinforcement occurs on a fixed time schedule. b) Variable Interval (VI) The length of time varies about some given mean time. Reinforcements becomes available at variable intervals.