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  • From our readings, what do you think crowdsourcing is?Essentially, Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed problem solving and production model.This definition was created by Daren C. Brabham, years after the term was originally coined.Users--also known as the crowd--typically form into online communities based on the Web site, and the crowd submits solutions to the site or produce its contents. The crowd can also sort through the solutions, finding the best ones. These best solutions are then owned by the entity that broadcast the problem in the first place--the crowdsourcerThe winning individuals in the crowd are sometimes rewarded.Many individuals in the crowd participate just for intellectual stimulation or because of emotional ties to product or service(’s interesting to note that there are lots of definitions for crowdsourcing because it’s a very broad idea and encompasses a lot of ideas – some that are very new and some that are very old.
  • Crowdsourcing is a term coined by journalist Jeff Howe
  • Daren C. Brabhamlateddefined "crowdsourcing" in a Convergence article as:”…an online, distributed problem-solving and production model. went on later to say in that article:Crowdsourcing may produce solutions from amateurs or volunteers, working in their spare time, or from experts or small businesses which were unknown to the initiating organization.Crowdsourcing has been used throughout history:In 1714, The English were looking for a way to navigate the ocean more safely and held a contest. John Harrison invented the marine chronometer and won the contest and a prize.The Old English Dictionary started out like Wikipedia in 1858.Thousands of volunteerscontibuted to the creation of the Old English Dictionary, but was history's first massively-crowdsourced collation of English knowledge. Drawing on that same idea, Wikipedia was created some 100 years later and is now an online crowdsourced dictionary of sorts that serves around 152,000 million users a month accroding to Wikimedia stats.Family records and genealogical researchCompetitions in general
  • Knowledge Discovery & Management – which is used for information management problems where an organization uses a crowd to find and assemble information. Ideal for creating collective resources.Broadcast Search – which is for ideation problems where an organization uses a crowd to come up with a solution to a problem that has an objective, provable right answer. Ideal for scientific problem solving.Peer-Vetted Creative Production – which is for ideation problems where an organization utilizes a crowd to come up with a solution to a problem which has an answer that is subjective or dependent on public support. Ideal for design, aesthetic, or policy problems.Distributed Human Intelligence Tasking - for information management problems where an organization has a set of information in hand and mobilizes a crowd to process or analyze the information. Ideal for processing large data sets that computers cannot easily do.
  • If you’re looking for a logo design, you can tell a crowd of designers what you want, how much you will pay, and your deadline. All interested designers will create a finished design specifically for you. You’ll receive 50-300+ different finished logo designs, and you can keep whichever design you like the best. By doing design this way, crowdsourcing actually increases the quality & decreases the price, compared to online freelancing.Crowdsourcing can also be used to get designs for furniture, fashion, advertisements, video, & product design. Just about anything that can be designed can be crowdsourced.With that being said what are the negative effects of crowdcontests on freelancers? Do you think that the crowd will replace the freelancer?(
  • Macrotasking is a type of crowdsourcing that is distinct from microtasking. Macrotasks typically have the following characteristics: -they can be done independently -they take a fixed amount of time -they require special skills. Microtasking projects can also be small pieces of a much larger whole, which workers never see, while macrotasks could be part of a large, visible project where workers pitch in wherever they have the required skills
  • Microtasking involves breaking work up into tiny tasks and sending the work to a crowd of people. If you have 1,000 photos on your website that need captions, you can ask 1,000 individual people to each add a caption to one photo. Break up the work and decide the payment for each completed task (typically .01¢ – .10¢ per task). With microtasking, you can expect to see results within minutes. Microtasking can involve tasks such as scanning images, proofreading, database correction and transcribing audio files.Work is done faster, cheaper, and usually with less errors (when validation systems are in place). Additionally, microtasks can often be performed by people in less fortunate countries, including those with SMS capabilities but without computers. (
  • Crowdfunding involves asking a crowd of people to donate money to your project. For example, if you want to raise $10,000 to pay for studio time to record a new CD, crowdfunding can help you raise that money.. You find a crowdfunding platform, set the goal amount, deadline, and any rewards offered to donors. You must raise 100% of your goal before the deadline, or all the donations are returned to the donors. Deadlines are typically less than 60 days.Crowdfunding is mostly used by artists, charities, & start-ups to raise money for projects such as filming a documentary, manufacturing an iPod watch, cancer research, or seed money.
  • Crowdsourcing, a real-life instance of human collective intelligence, is a phenomenon that changes the way organizations use the Internet to collect ideas, solve complex cognitive problems, and build high-quality repositories (e.g., Wikipedia) by self-organizing agents around data and knowledge. (
  • What do you think the benefits of crowdsourcing are?The pros and benefits of crowdsourcing are the low cost, efficiency, large pool of professionals as part of your project team, large quantity of ideas for your project, high quantity and diversity of talented professionals and collaboration is online without travel cost and travel time required. ( of Crowdsourcing to Companies ( can be explored at comparatively little cost. Payment is by results. The organization can tap a wider range of talent than might be present in its own organizationCrowdsourcing’s biggest benefit is the ability to receive better quality results, since several people offer their best ideas, skills, & support. Crowdsourcing allows you to select the best result from a sea of ‘best entries,’ as opposed to receiving the best entry from a single provider. Results can be delivered much quicker than traditional methods, since crowdsourcing is a form of freelancing. You can get a finished video within a month, a finished design or idea within a week, and microtasks appear within minutes. ( customers into designersTurn customers into marketers
  • Going with the “crowd”, while always a popular decision, might not always be the best one. Even a book written in 1841, titled Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, can see that when asking for popular opinion, you might not get the best results.The major crowdsourcing cons, risks and disadvantages come from the fact that the crowd which is part of your project is not part of your business – they are not your employees and you are not able to fully control the project as you are able to do with traditional jobs and projects. Another con of crowdsourcing is the trust and confidentiality issues when you work with a large team of people you don’t even now – this is a big risk and challenge for some projects. ( property leakageNo time constraintNot much control over development or ultimate productIll-will with own employeesChoosing what to crowdsource & what to keep in-house
  • When you crowdsource, you go through a series of six steps that prepare the job, get the job to the crowd and collect the final work product. Many of these steps are supported by crowdsourcing platforms – web services that guide you through these steps. Most of these platforms give you an easy connection to crowds and handle all the details of compensating the crowd. (
  • Do you have any examples of crowdsourcing?
  • I thought this was a good video to conclude with.Questions for you: Do you know anyone who’s ever crowdsourced anything?Tell them about Lafe’s logo on Design Crowd.Will you crowdsource now that you know what it is?Do you think you would ever crowdsource designs if you got too busy? Tell them about how Ian works as a manager and crowdsources all of his work.


  • 1. + Crowdsourcing Katie Allred
  • 2. + What is crowdsourcing?  Crowd + Outsourcing  Merriam-Webster:  the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers
  • 3. + Crowdsourcing a video definition
  • 4. + Crowdsourcing, a Brief History  The term, “crowdsourcing” was created when Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson, both of Wired Magazine, had a conversation about how businesses were using the internet to outsource work to individuals. Howe later defined crowdsourcing by stating: "Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers.”
  • 5. + Types of Crowdsourcing according to Brabham 1. Knowledge discovery and management 2. Broadcast search 3. Peer-vetted creative production 4. Distributed human intelligence tasking
  • 6. + Types of Crowdsourcing according to Crowdsourcing for Dummies 1. Crowdcontests 2. Macrotasks 3. Microtasks 4. Crowdfunding 5. Self-organized crowds
  • 7. + Crowdcontests  Enable you to identify the best worker for your job  A single job description that asks for one item  Many people proposing or creating item  Only pay one person  Graphic design  Answering questions  Testing software  Creating films  Other creative projects Features Usage Information from
  • 8. + Macrotasks  Enable you to get a specific skill for a job or project  Hire worker from crowd for single task  Communicate over the Internet  Worker paid by task  General business work  Web design and other forms of design  Assistance with writing and editing  Application development Features Usage Information from
  • 9. + Microtasks  Enable you to use human intelligence on large, complicated jobs  Divide big jobs into small units  Put units on the Internet  Let members of crowd do tasks  All workers get paid  Transcribe business cards, medical records and other documents  Tag photos and handle non-textual data  Find business information Features Usage Information from
  • 10. + Crowdfunding  Engage social networks to raise money  Put a request for funds on an Internet platform  Create messages and videos to promote request  Recruit crowd to donate money  Offer crowd gift or benefit  Support non-profit organisations  Raise funds for artistic endeavours  Get cash for companies by offering goods or services  Raise equity for company (under the right circumstances) Features Usage Information from
  • 11. + Self-organized Crowds  Post a challenge on the Internet  Recruit crowd to work on challenge  Crowd organizes itself into a team  Teams compete to provide best answer for challenge  Winning team compensated  Team decides how to divide compensation  Innovation – creating new products or services  Finding and collecting information  Processing information and offering judgement  Solving challenges Features Usage Information from
  • 12. + Benefits of Crowdsourcing  Benefits to Companies  Problems can be explored at comparatively little cost.  Payment is by results.  The organization can tap a wider range of talent than might be present in its own organization  Turn customers into designers  Turn customers into marketers  Low Cost  Large quantity of diverse professionals  Large quantity of ideas  No travel cost/time
  • 13. + Problems with Crowdsourcing  The crowd is not a part of your business  You are not able to fully control  Trust and confidentiality  Quality  No time constraint  Not much control over development or ultimate product  Ill-will with own employees  Choosing what to crowdsource & what to keep in-house
  • 14. + Six Steps to Successful Crowdsourcing 1. Design the job and divide the labor. 2. Write clear instructions. 3. Choose a web platform to serve as your crowdmarket. 4. Release the job and recruit the crowd. 5. Listen to the crowd and manage the job. 6. Assemble the work of the crowd and create the final product.
  • 15. + Examples of Crowdsourcing  Firefox or any open software   General information   Daily Crowdsource  Crowdcontest sites  99 Designs    General macrotasking  oDesk  Elance  TaskRabbit  General microtaking  Mechanical Turk  CrowdFlower  Tagasauris  Crowdfunding sites: Kickstarter, When You Wish, Indiegogo  Self-organized crowd sites for innovation: Chaordix, InnoCentive
  • 16. + Boston Marathon: Crowdsourcing Data to find the bomber  Short Video  Pros  Large amounts of data  Much faster  Cons  So much data to organize  “Internet detective” – blaming the wrong guy
  • 17. + The Crowdsourcing Evolution video