The Ethical Questions• Why are you attending college?• What do you want to learn?• What do we learn from writing papers, essays?• How is cheating or plagiarism tied to your tests, your papers?• What ethical issues are involved in cheating?• Who does plagiarism hurt? Who does cheating harm?• What if you are not “caught?”• How would you feel if someone copied your research and did not give credit to you, passing the ideas off as their own? Would you trust that person after?• Are you trustworthy?• Does it matter?
Presentation Agenda• Why do we cite our sources?• What is plagiarism?• Why do students plagiarize?• How do I avoid plagiarism?• Sources of online plagiarism?• How do faculty & librarians detect plagiarized papers?
Why do we cite?• Give credit where credit is due• This is how research happens—we build on other research• Prove that you’ve done your work—protect yourself• For the reader’s further interest and investigation• So your teacher or professor can check your sources.
What is Plagiarism?“According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means• to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as ones own• to use (anothers production) without crediting the source• to commit literary theft• to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.• In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone elses work and lying about it afterward. But can words and ideas really be stolen?” http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html
“According to U.S. law, the answer is yes.The expression of original ideas is consideredintellectual property, and is protected bycopyright laws, just like original inventions.Almost all forms of expression fall undercopyright protection as long as they arerecorded in some way (such as a book or acomputer file).” http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html
“All of the following are considered plagiarism:• turning in someone elses work as your own• copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit• failing to put a quotation in quotation marks• giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation• changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit• copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not” http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_plagiarism.html
1. Direct Quotes• If you use someone else’s exact writing without putting it in quotes, you have blatantly plagiarized.• Even if you add the source in your bibliography, it is still plagiarism.
2. Paraphrasing• Be careful about rewriting someone else’s words. If your sentences use many of the same words and grammatical structure as the original source, it could be plagiarism. Just put the text in your own words…
Paraphrasing needs practice!• Read selection• Read selection again, slowly• Cover/close/hide selection• Talk aloud about the selection to someone else—try to explain what you read• Write down your words without looking at source• Check what you have written against the original• If you cannot do this—re-read! – Try to get input from someone to see if you understood the selection – If you still cannot do this—choose a different source or selection
3. Original Idea• Give credit (“attribute”) to unique ideas others have thought up—their analysis or conclusion or interpretation of an event. You need: – Quotations if direct quote – In text citation or footnote and – Works Cited or References• If you present the ideas of another without crediting them, you have plagiarized them.• Obvious ideas, like known facts, don’t have to be credited.• When in doubt, attribute.
1. “A Means to an End”For some,learning is not apriority. Getting adiploma and agood job aftergraduation is.
2. “This does not relate to my major...” Some students resent having to take courses not directly tied to their major. They see “general education requirements” as a waste of their time, so not worth the effort of study.
3. “I have to be top of the class!” Many students feel incredible pressure to maintain a high grade point average. This can come from friends and family. Students also feel high grades are necessary for getting a good job or getting into the college or graduate school of their choice. Plagiarized papers are seen as a way of keeping the GPA high.
4. “This is a stupid assignment”Students often recognize when anassignment is “busy work” and feel that“if the teacher doesn’t respect me, Iwon’t respect the assignment.”
5. “I am too busy to write!”• Heavy class load• Jobs• Family obligations• Sports• Social activities• Extra-curricular events• Resume building experiences
6. “Everyone does it, so I have to!”Other students are cheating. This maygive them an unfair advantage overstudents who do not cheat. Plagiarism isa way “to level the playing field.”
7. Our “Culture?”• Students do not report each other• Some teachers “don’t care” or ignore it• Some teachers “feel sorry” for the student and do not enforce school policy• Too much of a “hassle” for some teachers to deal with—angry parents & administration• Easy to cheat and copy
8. “Huh?” Some students do not know they are plagiarizing. “But I included the website!”
Studies Show that the Amount of Plagiarism in Colleges relates to: • Size of school matters—smaller, less cheating • Private vs. Public matters—private less cheatingMcCabe, D.M. (2001). Cheating in • Sex does not matteracademic institutions: a decade ofresearch. Ethics & Behavior, 11(3), • Honor code, Code of219-232. Ethics in place in school.
1. “Danger, Will Robinson,• Danger!” Avoid paper mills— free or purchased papers.• Surfing the Web to look for “easy’ information.• Turning in other student papers as your own. These are easy ways to get caught!
What does the student get when the download a paper? • Dated material • Poor writing • Bad or nonexistent research Usually, but not always
“Good” papers can come from a variety of sources.• Old fraternity paper files that have been digitized.• Students using previous papers.• Students uploading the papers of others.• For fee websites—they sell term papers.These can all be caught using a plagiarism service, and many colleges and high schools do
2. “Quotes” Always put quotes from text in quotations. Never forget to do this. Forgetting or neglecting this is the easiest way to get accused of plagiarism.
3. Good Paraphrasing…• Be sure you are not just rearranging or replacing words.• Rewrite the phrase in your own words and credit the original source.• Double check what you wrote by comparing it with the original writing. In essence—know the material!
How do teachers & readers detect plagiarism? They look for…
1. Writing Style?• The writing style, language, vocabulary, tone, and grammar is different than what is expected from the student.• Different writing styles, tones, language, etc. in different parts of paper tell the reader that different authors were used.
2. Web Address? Readers check to see if there is a web address at the top or the bottom of a page. This probably means the paper was printed with a web browser directly from a web site. (Pretty dumb!)
3. Copyright notice?Check to see if anycopyright notices areanywhere in the text ofthe paper. Also check tosee if any notices similarto “this free paperbrought to you byschoolsucks.com”appear anywhere in the Some students do notpaper. read through all the text before turning it in as their own!
4. Layout?Is the page strangely or poorly laid out?This could mean that the text wasimported into a word processor. Theimported text was originally formatteddifferently and the conversion changedhow the page looks. If a student does nottake the time to fix it, the page will lookodd when printed.
5. Graph or Chart Reference?Does the paper make reference to chartsor graphs that can not be found? Maybethe originally paper had these items butsubsequent recycling and reusing anddownloading has resulted in the loss ofthese items.“The chart above is based on data from the Bureau of Public Debt up to September 8, 2008, the last reporting day before this chart was created. “
6. Inactive Web Sites?The bibliography of the paper lists websites that are no longer active.
7. Dated material & studies?Many of the citations in the bibliographyare at least a few years old or not currentenough for the subject. Citations mayhave been new when the paper wasoriginally written. Very obvious with APA Style documentation!
8. “The past” is now?Does the paper make reference to pastevents as if they where happening today? (“I believe that the impeachmenthearings on President Clinton are unfairand are politically biased. The wholeimpeachment process should be stoppednow.”)
9. They use Google Search Type in a key sentence as a phrase search:Google Search is used by teachers, librarians, teaching assistants, and professors all the time to detect plagiarism.
10. They use Professional Search Programs These scan papers against online resources for a fee, searching free sites and subscription databases. Many high schools and colleges use turnitin.com.
Students submit directly to turnitin.com and report goes toteacher or teacher asks paper to be submitted if suspicion.
ACADEMIC HONESTY For XXXX School YearXXXXX students are expected to demonstrate the highest standards ofacademic honesty. Academic dishonesty includes providing or copyinghomework, providing or receiving information during quizzes or tests,and providing or using unauthorized materials during quizzes or tests.Academic dishonesty also includes plagiarism, which is using the wordsor ideas of another person as one’s own without giving credit.Consequences assigned by the teacher and administration will includereceiving a zero on the assignment/test, as well as a disciplinaryconsequence of a Saturday detention, suspension, probation, or expulsion.(P. XXX)XXX Handbook 20XX-20XX.
Kathy Fester firstname.lastname@example.org http://researchwithkathyfester Adapted from presentation by Michael Lorenzen Plagiarism: Huh? by Kathy Fester is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License . Last updated 7/1/12