Roots, stems and leaves notes serena


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Roots, stems and leaves notes serena

  2. 2. WHAT PART OF PLANTS DO WE EAT? Onion STEM Do we eat the Potato STEM Flower Artichoke LEAVES Ovary Tomato OVARY Pollen Broccoli FLOWER Seeds Green Bean Leaves SEEDS Stem Carrot ROOTS Roots Which of these are fruits?
  3. 3. DID YOU KNOW? Plants out number animals. Most plants are flowers. Plants have special tissue just like us.
  4. 4. SPECIALIZED TISSUES IN PLANTS Seed plants have 3 principal organs:1. Roots2. Stems3. Leaves RecallCells make Tissues, Tissues make Organs, Organs make Organ systems, and Organ systems make Organisms.
  5. 5. DIRECTIONS – PARTICIPATION GRADE Fill in the blanks on your notes as we go along. If you see a someone will be called on for the answer. If you see a raise your hand if you know the answer. When we are done with notes you can work with a partner to complete the review on the back.
  6. 6. ROOTS Roots absorb water and nutrients for the plant. Roots anchor plants in the ground, holding the soil in place-preventing erosion. Roots protect plant from harmful bacteria and fungi.
  7. 7. ROOTS There are 2 main types of roots: Taproot – central, primary and deep to reach water below Earth’s surface. Fibrous – many branched thin roots. Helps prevent topsoil from being washed away.
  8. 8. ROOTS Roots have tiny hair-like projects called root hairs. Root hairs penetrate the spaces between soil particles and produce a large surface area. More surface area = more water and nutrient absorption.
  9. 9. ROOTS A root cap is at the end of a root. A root cap protects the root as it forces its way through the soil. As the root grows it secretes a slippery substance to lubricate the soil.
  10. 10. CHECKPOINT – RANDOM CALL Fibrous roots help prevent soil erosion by? A. – not branching B. – growing deep within the soil C. – extensive branching to which soil particles can cling
  11. 11. STEMS Stems are a transport system that carries nutrients from roots to leaves. Stems are a defense system to protect from predators and disease. Stems can be millimeters or as tall as 100 meters.
  12. 12. TRANSPORT IN PLANTS These 3 process help water move through a plant:1. Root pressure – roots actively transport molecules2. Capillary action – water sticks to the sides of the plant and helps it move from bottom to top3. Transpiration – evaporation of water from leaves pulls the water through the plant
  13. 13. CHECKPOINT What do a barrel cactus, a tree trunk, a dandelion stem, and a potato have in common? They are all stems!
  14. 14. STEMS Nodes are where leaves are attached to stems. Internodes are the spaces between the nodes. Buds can become new stems or leaves.
  15. 15. STEMS Primary growth in stems is when the plant grows up. Secondary growth in stems is when the plant grows out. Secondary growth results in wood.
  16. 16. STEMS PRIMARY GROWTH SECONDARY GROWTH You can count leaf  You can determine scars to determine the age of a tree by years of primary counting its growth growth. rings.
  17. 17. MODIFIED STEMSWhat are these stems used for? FOOD!
  18. 18. LEAVES Leaves are photosynthetic systems. Broad, flat surfaces increase the amount of sunlight absorbed. Adjustable pores called stomata in the leaves help conserve water while letting oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf.
  19. 19. LEAVES To collect sunlight, most leaves have thin, flattened sections called blades. The blade is attached to the stem by a thin stalk called a petiole. The blade of a simple leaf (left) can be different shapes. In a compound leaf (right), the blade is divided into many separate leaflets.
  20. 20. LEAVES Recall these leaf parts: Cuticle – waxy coating Guard cell – gas exchange regulated with water pressure Stoma – pores on bottom of leaf Mesophyll – photosynthesis
  21. 21. CHECKPOINT – RANDOM CALL The opening and closing of stomata is regulated by changes in A. – water pressure in guard cells B. – air temperature C. – the sun’s brightness
  22. 22. PLANT TISSUE SYSTEMS Plants have 3 main tissue systems1. Dermal tissue – “skin” of the plant outmost layer of cells2. Vascular tissue – “bloodstream” transports water and nutrients in the plant3. Ground tissue – every other tissue besides dermal and vascular.
  23. 23. CHECKPOINT – RANDOM CALL Which tissue is found in the center of a plant stem? A. – Dermal B. – Vascular C. - Ground
  24. 24. 1. DERMAL TISSUE Outer covering of plant is dermal tissue One layer of epidermal cells. Thick and waxy layer to protect from water loss known as the cuticle.
  25. 25. 1. DERMAL TISSUE Trichomes are tiny hair-like projections that give the plant a fuzzy appearance. In roots, root hairs, a type of dermal tissue increases surface area to increase absorption. On the underside of leaves, the dermal tissue contains guard cells, which regulate water loss and gas exchange.
  26. 26. 2. VASCULAR TISSUE Vascular tissue moves water and nutrients throughout the plant. Xylem – water conducting tissue Phloem – food conduction tissue
  27. 27. 2. VASCULAR TISSUE - XYLEM Xylem zips up water Xylem moves water up through specialized cells called:1. Tracheids – long narrow tube-like cells2. Vessel elements – larger than tracheids and long like tubes.
  28. 28. 2. VASCULAR TISSUE - PHLOEM Phloem – flows down food Phloem – cells that move the products of Phloem flows food photosynthesis down. 2 types of cells: down….what does1. Sieve tube elements – pipe to transport food xylem do?2. Companion cells – surround sieve tubes to help in transport
  29. 29. CHECKPOINT Which of the following is NOT one of the main tissues systems? A. – Ground B. – Epidermal C. - Vascular
  30. 30. 3. GROUND TISSUE Cells between dermal and vascular tissue are called ground tissue. There are 3 types pictured below.
  31. 31. 3. GROUND TISSUE - PARENCHYMA Parenchyma (puh-RENG-kih-muh) have thin cell walls and large central vacuoles. Leaves have parenchyma cells packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis. Parenchymas have large central vacuoles meaning they are good for storage.
  32. 32. 3. GROUND TISSUE - COLLENCHYMA Collenchyma (kuh-LENG-kih-muh) cell walls are thick. Collenchyma cells help support larger plants. Collenchyma cells make up the familiar “strings” of a stalk of celery.
  33. 33. 3. GROUND TISSUE - SCLERENCHYMA Sclerenchyma (sklih-RENG-kih-muh) cell walls are extremely thick. Sclerenchyma cells make ground tissue strong and tough. Sclerenchyma cells are best for supporting the plant.
  34. 34. CHECKPOINT Which of the 3 kinds of ground tissue serve mainly for storage? A. – Parenchyma B. – Collenchyma C. - Sclerenchyma
  35. 35. PLANT GROWTH How do plants grow? Plants grow because cells at the tips of their roots and stems divide through the process of mitosis. Clusters of tissue where cells that divide are produced in meristems. Meristematic tissue is undifferentiated – meaning cells do not yet have a specific function.
  36. 36. PLANT GROWTH - MERISTEMS At the end of a stem or root there is an apical meristem. Apical meristems divide cells to increase stem and root length. Meristematic tissue is the only plant tissue that produces new cells by mitosis.
  37. 37. PLANT GROWTH How do plants grow? A. They eat and then their cells get bigger. B. The cells divide into new cells by mitosis. More cells = bigger plants. C. Plants add chemicals to make them biggerBONUS: Where does the plantget most of its atoms to makenew cells? SOIL AIRWATER LIGHT
  38. 38. PLANT GROWTH - MERISTEMS New cells have thin cell walls over time they develop and mature When a cell is matured it has specific cell parts (organelles) that do specific cell jobs The process of developing into a cell with a specific function is called differentiation. Example: leaf cells have many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
  39. 39. PLANT GROWTH - MERISTEMS How differentiation works: A new cell is made in the stem apical meristem. Certain genes in the DNA are turned on. The genes code for the cell to have a bright pink color. FLOWER The example cell has differentiated into a ___________ cell.
  40. 40. REVIEW Take3 minutes and answer these questions at the end of your notes:22. What are roots adapted for?23. What are stems adapted for?24. What are leaves adapted for? Plant Part Game!